A skateboard is a type of sports equipment used for the sport of skateboarding. It consists of a specially designed maplewood board combined with a polyurethane coating used for making smoother slides and stronger durability. Most skateboards are made with 7 plies of this wood. A skateboard is moved by pushing with one foot while the other remains on the board, or by pumping one's legs in structures such as a bowl or half pipe. A skateboard can be used by standing on the deck while on a downward slope and allowing gravity to propel the board and rider. If the rider's leading foot is their right foot, they are said to ride "goofy. If the rider is regular but chooses to ride goofy, they are said to be riding in "switch," and vice versa. A skater is more comfortable pushing with their back foot. Electric skateboards have appeared; these no longer require the propelling of the skateboard by means of the feet. There is no governing body that declares any regulations on what constitutes a skateboard or the parts from which it is assembled.
The skateboard has conformed both to contemporary trends and to the ever-evolving array of stunts performed by riders/users, who require a certain functionality from the board. The board shape depends upon its desired function. Longboards are a type of skateboard with larger, softer wheels; the two main types of skateboards are the shortboard. The shape of the board is important: the skateboard must be concaved to perform tricks. Longboards are faster and are used for cruising and racing, while shortboards are used for doing tricks and riding in skateparks. Main: SkateboardingSkateboarding started in California in the 1950s; the first skateboards were made from roller skates. Skateboarding gained in popularity because of surfing. Skateboards were handmade from wooden boxes and planks by individuals. Companies started manufacturing skateboards in 1959. During this time, postwar America, was carefree with children playing in the streets. Boards are continuing to evolve as companies try to make them lighter and stronger or improve their performance.
Skateboarding is a individual activity. There is no wrong way to skate. Skateboarding still hasn't stopped evolving, skaters are coming up with new tricks all the time. Skateboarding has gone through its downs over the years. However, since 2000, due to attention in the media and products like skateboarding video games, children's skateboards and commercialization, skateboarding has been pulled into the mainstream; as more interest and money has been invested into skateboarding, more skate parks, better skateboards have become available. In addition, the continuing interest has motivated skateboarding companies have to keep innovating and inventing new things. In 2020 Skateboarding will appear for the first-time in the Olympics in Japan; the following descriptions cover skateboard parts that are most prevalent in popular and modern forms of skateboarding. Many parts exist with alternative constructions. A traditional complete skateboard consists of the deck, wheels, bushings and bolts to fasten the truck and wheel assembly to the bottom of the deck.
Older decks included plastic parts such as side and nose guards. Modern decks vary in size. Wider decks can be used for greater stability. Standard skateboard decks are between 28 and 33 inches long; the underside of the deck can be printed with a design by the manufacturer, blank, or decorated by any other means. "Long" boards are over 36 inches long. Plastic "penny" boards are about 22 inches long; some larger penny boards over 27 inches long are called "nickel" boards. The longboard, a common variant of the skateboard, is used for higher speed and rough surface boarding, they are much more expensive. "Old school" boards are wider and have only one kicktail. Variants of the 1970s have little or no concavity, whereas 1980s models have deeper concavities and steeper kicktails. Grip tape is a sheet of paper or fabric with adhesive on one side and a surface similar to fine sandpaper on the other. Grip tape is applied to the top surface of a board to allow the rider's feet to grip the surface and help the skater stay on the board while doing tricks.
Grip tape is black, but is available in many different colors such as pink, yellow, checkered and clear. They have designs die-cut to show the color of the board, or to display the board's company logo. Grip tape accumulates dirt and other substances that will inhibit grip, so use of a grip eraser or rubber eraser is necessary after riding through mud or with dirty shoes. Attached to the deck are two metal trucks, which connect the wheels and bearings to the deck; the trucks are further composed of two parts. The top part of the truck is screwed to the deck and is called the baseplate, beneath it is the hanger; the axle runs through the hange
Skateboarding is an action sport which involves riding and performing tricks using a skateboard, as well as a recreational activity, an art form, an entertainment industry job, a method of transportation. Skateboarding has been influenced by many skateboarders throughout the years. A 2009 report found that the skateboarding market is worth an estimated $4.8 billion in annual revenue with 11.08 million active skateboarders in the world. In 2016, it was announced that skateboarding will be represented at the 2020 Summer Olympics in Tokyo. Since the 1970s, skateparks have been constructed for use by skateboarders, Freestyle BMXers, aggressive skaters, recently, scooters. However, skateboarding has become controversial in areas in which the activity, although illegal, has damaged curbs, steps, benches and parks; the first skateboards started with wooden boxes, or boards, with roller skate wheels attached to the bottom. Crate scooters preceded skateboards, having a wooden crate attached to the nose, which formed rudimentary handlebars.
The boxes turned into planks, similar to the skateboard decks of today. Skateboarding, as we know it, was born sometime in the late 1940s, or early 1950s, when surfers in California wanted something to do when the waves were flat; this was called "sidewalk surfing" – a new wave of surfing on the sidewalk as the sport of surfing became popular. No one knows; the first manufactured skateboards were ordered by a Los Angeles, California surf shop, meant to be used by surfers in their downtime. The shop owner, Bill Richard, made a deal with the Chicago Roller Skate Company to produce sets of skate wheels, which they attached to square wooden boards. Accordingly, skateboarding was denoted "sidewalk surfing" and early skaters emulated surfing style and maneuvers, performed barefoot. By the 1960s a small number of surfing manufacturers in Southern California such as Jack's, Kips', Bing's and Makaha started building skateboards that resembled small surfboards, assembled teams to promote their products.
One of the earliest Skateboard exhibitions was sponsored by Makaha's founder, Larry Stevenson, in 1963 and held at the Pier Avenue Junior High School in Hermosa Beach, California. Some of these same teams of skateboarders were featured on a television show called "Surf's Up" in 1964, hosted by Stan Richards, that helped promote skateboarding as something new and fun to do; as the popularity of skateboarding began expanding, the first skateboarding magazine, The Quarterly Skateboarder was published in 1964. John Severson, who published the magazine, wrote in his first editorial: Today's skateboarders are founders in this sport—they're pioneers—they are the first. There is no history in Skateboarding—its being made now—by you; the sport is being molded and we believe that doing the right thing now will lead to a bright future for the sport. There are storm clouds on the horizon with opponents of the sport talking about ban and restriction; the magazine only lasted four issues, but resumed publication as Skateboarder in 1975.
The first broadcast of an actual skateboarding competition was the 1965 National Skateboarding Championships, which were held in Anaheim and aired on ABC's Wide World of Sports. Because skateboarding was a new sport during this time, there were only two original disciplines during competitions: flatland freestyle and slalom downhill racing. One of the earliest sponsored skateboarders, Patti McGee, was paid by Hobie and Vita Pak to travel around the country to do skateboarding exhibitions and to demonstrate skateboarding safety tips. McGee made the cover of Life magazine in 1965 and was featured on several popular television programs—The Mike Douglas Show, What's My Line? and The Tonight Show Starring Johnny Carson—which helped make skateboarding more popular at the time. Some other well known surfer-style skateboarders of the time were Danny Bearer, Torger Johnson, Bruce Logan and Mark Richards, Woody Woodward, & Jim Fitzpatrick; the growth of the sport during this period can be seen in sales figures for Makaha, which quoted $10 million worth of board sales between 1963 and 1965.
By 1966 a variety of sources began to claim that skateboarding was dangerous, resulting in shops being reluctant to sell them, parents being reluctant to buy them. In 1966 sales had dropped and Skateboarder Magazine had stopped publication; the popularity of skateboarding remained low until the early 1970s. In the early 1970s, Frank Nasworthy started to develop a skateboard wheel made of polyurethane, calling his company Cadillac Wheels. Prior to this new material, skateboards wheels were "clay" wheels; the improvement in traction and performance was so immense that from the wheel's release in 1972 the popularity of skateboarding started to rise again, causing companies to invest more in product development. Nasworthy commissioned artist Jim Evans to do a series of paintings promoting Cadillac Wheels, they were featured as ads and posters in the resurrected Skateboarder magazine, proved immensely popular in promoting the new style of skateboarding. In the early 1970s skateparks hadn't been invented yet, so skateboarders would flock and skateboard in such urban places as The Escondido reservoir in San Diego, California.
Skateboarding magazine would publish the location and Skateboarders made up nicknames for each location such as the Tea Bowl, the Fruit Bowl, the Rabbit Hole, Bird Bath, the Egg Bowl, Upland Pool and the Sewer Slide. Some of the development concepts in the terrain of skateparks were taken from the Escondido re
The ollie is a skateboarding trick where the rider and board leap into the air without the use of the rider's hands. It is the combination of popping and jumping on the skateboard all at the same time. Originated in vertical skateboarding, on flat ground, it is not intuitively obvious how the liftoff is achieved, making the movement visually striking; the ollie is a fundamental skill in skateboarding and is used to leap onto, over, or off obstacles, or over gaps of unfriendly terrain such as grass or stairs. As so many tricks depend on it - for example the kickflip and heelflip - the ollie is the first skill to be learned by a new skateboarder; the ollie takes considerable practice to learn. In 1978, Alan Gelfand, given his nickname "Ollie" by Scott Goodman, learned to perform no-handed aerials in bowls and pools using a gentle raising of the nose and scooping motion to keep the board with the feet. There are numerous references to Alan Gelfand's Ollie with most notably pictures in the 1970s skateboarding magazine "Skateboarder".
In 1982, while competing in the Rusty Harris contest in Whittier, Rodney Mullen debuted an ollie on flat ground, which he had adapted from Gelfand's vertical version by combining the motions of some of his existing tricks. Mullen used a "see-saw" motion, striking the tail of the board on the ground to lift the nose, using the front foot to level the board in mid-air. While Mullen was not impressed with his flat ground ollie, did not formally name it, he realized it opened up a second, elevated plane on which to perform tricks. Mullen's flat ground ollie is now considered to have transformed the practice of skateboarding. Rodney won the Rusty Harris contest, was afterwards asked by many riders to demonstrate the trick, in the year it would appear with the name "Ollie-pop" as a "trick tip" in the skateboarding magazine Thrasher; the flat ground ollie technique is associated with street skateboarding. The rider begins the ollie by jumping directly upward; as the rider begins to leap, instead of lifting the feet from the board, he/she "pops" the tail by striking it against the ground, which raises the board nose-first.
Maintaining contact with the board, the rider lifts the front leg and bends the front ankle so that the outer or top side of the shoe slides towards the nose of the board. The friction between the shoe and the board's grip tape helps to guide and pull the board upward, while the rear foot only maintains slight contact with board to help guide it; when nearing the peak of the jump, the rider lifts the rear leg and pushes the front foot forward, which levels the board and keeps it in contact with the back foot. The skater can gain greater clearance from the ground by jumping higher, popping faster, sliding the front foot farther forwards, pulling the legs higher into the chest to raise the feet higher. Skaters attempting record-setting ollies contort the legs so that board and feet are not directly below them, allowing the board to rise at or just below the level of the pelvis. Low ollies can be achieved using the same technique, but without the tail making contact with the ground. Basic flip tricks can be achieved without the "pop" of the tail.
The highest official flat ground ollies are performed in ollie contests. The highest preferred stance ollie was 45.00 inches from the ground, performed by Aldrin Garcia. The highest switch stance ollie was 40.125 inches, performed by Gavin Caperton. The world record for the greatest number of consecutive ollies is held by Rob Dyrdek, who performed 215 ollies on the television show Rob and Big; the most common variation of the ollie is the nollie, where the rider reverses the roles of the two legs so that the front foot pops the nose to the ground, the rear foot lifts and guides the tail. The switch stance ollie uses a similar body motion, but the nollie is subtly distinct: For one, the rider is always moving forward, with the body positioned in a nollie stance--closer to the nose and with the front foot on the nose. Secondly the rider postures the body differently so as to compensate for this stance with respect to the forward motion; the rider presses the nose down using their front foot to engage the "pop" motion in order for the board to rise.
This is In contrast to a "Fakie Ollie" where the pop motion is performed by the rear foot on the tail to a normal Ollie, however the rider is traveling backwards when performing a Fakie Ollie. Where in a Nollie the rider is traveling forward with their front foot on the nose to apply the initial force "pop". Switch Ollie: an Ollie performed in the stance opposite of a rider's normal stance.. Nollie: an Ollie performed using the front foot to snap the nose down. Fakie Ollie: an ollie done while riding backwards The Chinese Ollie: executed without hitting the tail of the skateboard to the ground, instead the skateboarder uses cracks in the sidewalk, by "bouncing" off them, to get air-time. Ollie 180: an Ollie where the skateboarder and the skateboard spins 180 degrees after leaving the ground. Both the skateboarder and the skateboard rotate in the same direction with the skateboarder's feet sticking to the skateboard; this trick is referred to as a frontside or backside 180, or less and more popular with older skateboarders and/or when performed on a bank/quarterpipe, a frontside / backside ollie
Street skateboarding is a skateboarding discipline which focuses on flat land tricks, grinds and aerials within urban environments and public spaces. Street skateboarders meet and hang out, in and around urban areas referred to as "spots", which are streets, plazas or industrial areas. To add variety and complexity to street skateboarding. Clever and artistic uses of video and printed media have propelled Street Skateboarding to become the most accepted and participated form of Skateboarding in the modern world. At the tail end of the 1980's and around the beginning of the 90's. Instead of drained swimming pools and riding purpose-built skateparks, Skateboarders began to utilise urban areas and public spaces. For example in the 1980's, Philadelphia's LOVE Park transformed from a place where business people would eat their lunch, into a well known place to expect to see skateboarders practising tricks and engaging in skate culture. A new style of skateboard deck became popular. Professional skateboarding became hyper commercialised and Skate Shops specialising in the retail of professional grade skateboarding equipment appeared in many cities across the world.
Skate Shops in turn helped support a culture of Street Skateboarding by offering Skateboarders a refuge where they could check out and buy copies of the latest Skate Videos, one of the few popular monthly magazine publications or other skateboard products. The movement through urban areas evolved to where Skateboarders began riding within them exclusively; as a result. Competition level street skateboarding events are held within purpose-built skatepark arenas or cordoned off urban areas. Within a street skateboarding competition obstacle course, plastic or metal reproductions of obstacles found within the urban environment are placed within adequate distance of each other utilising a natural style of positioning within the course. A course is complimented by adding transitions which permit greater travelling speed and an increased amount of "Air." Other forms of ramp such as funboxes which are designed with optimal space utilisation in mind are found within a park's layout. Modern Street Skateboarding competitions employ a format where each participant has two timed attempts or "runs" to attack the course and "shred" The entrants attempts are scored by a panel of judges to decide an overall winner.
Competition entrants who perform exceptionally well are traditionally vocally congratulated and encouraged by the crowd during and at the end of their run. Spectating Skateboarders show their appreciation for well performed tricks or smooth runs by slapping their skateboard on a hard surface or obstacle in a complimentary respectful but audibly enthusiastic way. A number of major international competitions include a street skateboarding component; some examples: The X Games Street League Skateboarding Maloof Money Cup Tampa Pro The 2020 Summer Olympic Games The plan to run a Skateboarding event at the 2020 Summer Olympics in Japan has caused controversy within Skateboarding. The held argument is based upon the ideology of what Skateboarding has evolved into and what Skateboarding means to the people who are responsible for shaping it into what it has become today. Game of SKATEThe game of SKATE is a form of competition which requires no street obstacles and a smooth and sufficiently large skating surface for skateboarders to use to take it in turns to attempt to land flat land tricks.
Street Skateboards are built using individual professional grade component parts which are sold by specialist Skateboard retailers. A part of the revolution of Street Skateboarding was the transition of the Skate industry into the hands of Skateboarders, who would design and retail the products themselves; this removed the skate industry from the hands of venture capitalists who had created a monopoly in the 1980s. The industry has since gone full circle, with many grass root companies founded in the 90's now sold to venture capitalist groups and enterprises. However, there are still a number of Skateboarder owned companies manufacturing skateboard products today; the most common specifications of a modern professional grade skateboard suitable for street competition and practice are as follows: A single set of 4 wheels, 52mm wide and 99A in durometer A pair of low in height 7.6" wide trucks A 7.75" wide professional grade 7 ply Canadian maple deck 8 bearings 8 nuts and bolts A sheet of GriptapeThere is no specific standard which should be followed when constructing a skateboard from parts.
The consensus is. Built setups are available to buy at Skate Shops and provide excellent value for riders new to skateboarding; the technical specifications of specific component parts of a skateboard designed for street skateboarding vary from rider to rider and depend upon the following factors: Rider height Rider weight Shoe size Skill level Comfort Budget Preferred terrain and style of skatingFor example: A rider is small in stature and