South Sudan known as the Republic of South Sudan, is a landlocked country in East-Central Africa. The country gained its independence from the Republic of the Sudan in 2011, making it the newest country with widespread recognition, its capital and largest city is Juba. South Sudan is bordered by Sudan to the north, Ethiopia to the east, Kenya to the southeast, Uganda to the south, the Democratic Republic of the Congo to the southwest and the Central African Republic to the west, it includes the vast swamp region of the Sudd, formed by the White Nile and known locally as the Bahr al Jabal, meaning "Mountain Sea". Sudan was occupied by Egypt under the Muhammad Ali dynasty and was governed as an Anglo-Egyptian condominium until Sudanese independence in 1956. Following the First Sudanese Civil War, the Southern Sudan Autonomous Region was formed in 1972 and lasted until 1983. A second Sudanese civil war soon broke out; that year, southern autonomy was restored when an Autonomous Government of Southern Sudan was formed.
South Sudan became an independent state on 9 July 2011, following 98.83% support for independence in a January 2011 referendum. South Sudan has a population of 12 million of the Nilotic peoples. Christianity is the majority religion. In September 2017 the UN Special Representative for Children and Armed Conflict said that half of South Sudan's inhabitants are under 18 years old, it is a member of the United Nations, the African Union, the East African Community and the Intergovernmental Authority on Development. In July 2012, South Sudan signed the Geneva Conventions. South Sudan has suffered ethnic violence and has been in a civil war since 2013; as of 2018, South Sudan ranks third lowest in the latest UN World Happiness Report, has the highest score on the American Fund for Peace's Fragile States Index. The Nilotic people of South Sudan—the Acholi, Bari, Nuer, Shilluk and others—first entered South Sudan sometime before the 10th century coinciding with the fall of medieval nubia. During the period from the 15th to the 19th centuries, tribal migrations from the area of Bahr el Ghazal, brought the Anyuak, Dinka and Shilluk to their modern locations of both Bahr El Ghazal and Upper Nile Regions, while the Acholi and Bari settled in Equatoria.
The Azande, Mundu and Baka, who entered South Sudan in the 16th century, established the region's largest state of Equatoria Region. The Dinka are the largest, Nuer the second largest, the Azande the third-largest and the Bari are the fourth-largest ethnic group in the country, they are found in the Maridi and Tombura districts in the tropical rainforest belt of Western Equatoria, the Adio of Azande client in Yei, Central Equatoria and Western Bahr el Ghazal. In the 18th century, the Avungara sib rose to power over the rest of Azande society and this domination continued into the 20th century. Geographical barriers, including the swamplands along the White Nile and the British preference for sending Christian missionaries to the southern regions, including its Closed District Ordinance of 1922, helped to prevent the spread of Islam to the southerners, thus enabling them to retain their social and cultural heritage, as well as their political and religious institutions; the major reasons include the long history of British policy preference toward developing the Arab north and its ignoring the Black south.
After Sudan's first independent elections in 1958, the continued ignoring of the south by Khartoum led to uprisings and the longest civil war on the continent. As of 2012, peoples include Acholi, Azande, Balanda Bviri, Boya, Dinka, Kaligi, Lotuka, Murie, Nuer, Shilluk and Zande. Slavery had been an institution of Sudanese life throughout history; the slave trade in the south intensified in the 19th century, continued after the British had suppressed slavery in much of sub-Saharan Africa. Annual Sudanese slave raids into non-Muslim territories resulted in the capture of countless thousands of southern Sudanese, the destruction of the region's stability and economy; the Azande have had good relations with the neighbors, namely the Moru, Mundu, Pöjulu, Avukaya and the small groups in Bahr el Ghazal, due to the expansionist policy of their king Gbudwe, in the 18th century. In the 19th century, the Azande fought the French, the Belgians and the Mahdists to maintain their independence. Egypt, under the rule of Khedive Ismail Pasha, first attempted to control the region in the 1870s, establishing the province of Equatoria in the southern portion.
Egypt's first governor was Samuel Baker, commissioned in 1869, followed by Charles George Gordon in 1874 and by Emin Pasha in 1878. The Mahdist Revolt of the 1880s destabilized the nascent province, Equatoria ceased to exist as an Egyptian outpost in 1889. Important settlements in Equatoria included Lado, Gondokoro and Wadelai. European colonial maneuverings in the region came to a head in 1898, when the Fashoda Incident occurred at present-day Kodok. In 1947, British hopes to join South Sudan with Uganda, as well as leaving Western Equatoria as part of the Democratic Republic of the Congo, were dashed by the Rajaf Conference to unify North and South Sudan. South Sudan has an estimated population of 8 million, given the lack of a census in several decades, this estimate may be distorted; the economy relies chiefly on subsistence farming. Around 2005, the economy began a transition from this rural dominance, urban areas within South Suda
Laterite is a soil and rock type rich in iron and aluminium and is considered to have formed in hot and wet tropical areas. Nearly all laterites are of rusty-red coloration, they develop by prolonged weathering of the underlying parent rock. Tropical weathering is a prolonged process of chemical weathering which produces a wide variety in the thickness, grade and ore mineralogy of the resulting soils; the majority of the land area containing laterites is between the tropics of Capricorn. Laterite has been referred to as a soil type as well as being a rock type; this and further variation in the modes of conceptualizing about laterite has led to calls for the term to be abandoned altogether. At least a few researchers specializing in regolith development have considered that hopeless confusion has evolved around the name. There is no likelihood, that the name will be abandoned. Laterite was cut into brick-like shapes and used in monument-building. After 1000 CE, construction at Angkor Wat and other southeast Asian sites changed to rectangular temple enclosures made of laterite and stone.
Since the mid-1970s, some trial sections of bituminous-surfaced, low-volume roads have used laterite in place of stone as a base course. Thick laterite layers are porous and permeable, so the layers can function as aquifers in rural areas. Locally available laterites have been used in an acid solution, followed by precipitation to remove phosphorus and heavy metals at sewage-treatment facilities. Laterites are a source of aluminium ore. In Northern Ireland they once provided a major source of aluminium ores. Laterite ores were the early major source of nickel. Francis Buchanan-Hamilton first described and named a laterite formation in southern India in 1807, he named it laterite from the Latin word which means a brick. The word laterite has been used for sesquioxide-rich soil horizons. A sesquioxide is an oxide with three atoms of two metal atoms, it has been used for any reddish soil at or near the Earth's surface. Laterite covers are thick in the stable areas of the Western Ethiopian Shield, on cratons of the South American Plate, on the Australian Shield.
In Madhya Pradesh, the laterite which caps the plateau is 30 m thick. Laterites can be either soft and broken into smaller pieces, or firm and physically resistant. Basement rocks are buried under the thick weathered layer and exposed. Lateritic soils form the uppermost part of the laterite cover. Good water holding capacity: - Because the particles are so small, the water is trapped between them. - After rain, the water moves into the soil slowly. - Palms are less to suffer from drought because the rain water is held in the soil. - However, flooding after heavy rains is more likely. - Nutrient leaching is not because the water moves down slowly. - Nutrients can be washed away from the soil surface because the water stays on top of the soil and doesn’t move inside. Large surface of soil particles: - Small clay particles have a large surface area compared to sand particles. - Nutrients stick to clay soils more strongly. - Most clay soils are quite fertile and oil palms need small amounts of fertiliser.
Heavy structure: - Because of the tiny particles, the soil sticks together easily. - Digging holes or other soil management activities are difficult and should be carried out only on dry soils. - Soil compaction happens especially when the soil is wet. Once compacted, the soil becomes hard and the oil palm roots cannot grow well. Therefore, it is important to be careful with cattle grazing and with allowing machines such as trucks and excavators into the plantation after rain. Tropical weathering is a prolonged process of chemical weathering which produces a wide variety in the thickness, grade and ore mineralogy of the resulting soils; the initial products of weathering are kaolinized rocks called saprolites. A period of active laterization extended from about the mid-Tertiary to the mid-Quaternary periods. Statistical analyses show that the transition in the mean and variance levels of 18O during the middle of the Pleistocene was abrupt, it seems this abrupt change was global and represents an increase in ice mass.
The rate of laterization would have decreased with the abrupt cooling of the earth. Weathering in tropical climates continues to this day, at a reduced rate. Laterites are formed from the leaching of parent sedimentary rocks; the mechanism of leaching involves acid dissolving the host mineral lattice, followed by hydrolysis and precipitation of insoluble oxides and sulfates of iron and silica under the high temperature conditions of a humid sub-tropical monsoon climate. An essential feature for the formation of laterite is the re
Apollo Milton Obote was a Ugandan political leader who led Uganda to independence in 1962 from British colonial administration. Following the nation's independence, he served as Prime Minister of Uganda from 1962 to 1966 and President of Uganda from 1966 to 1971 again from 1980 to 1985, he regained power after Amin's 1979 overthrow. His second period of rule was marred by repression and the deaths of many civilians as a result of a civil war known as the Ugandan Bush War. Milton Obote was born at Akokoro village in Apac district in northern Uganda, he was the son of a tribal chief of the Lango ethnic group. He began his education in 1940 at the Protestant Missionary School in Lira, attended Gulu Junior Secondary School, Busoga College and university at Makerere University. Having intended to study law, a subject not taught at the university, Obote took a general arts course, including English and geography. At Makerere, Obote honed his natural oratorical skills, he worked in Buganda in southern Uganda before moving to Kenya, where he worked as a construction worker at an engineering firm.
While in Kenya, Obote became involved in the national independence movement. Upon returning to Uganda in 1956, he joined the political party Uganda National Congress, was elected to the colonial Legislative Council in 1957. In 1959, the UNC split into two factions, with one faction under the leadership of Obote merging with Uganda People's Union to form the Uganda People's Congress. In the runup to independence elections, Obote formed a coalition with the Buganda royalist party, Kabaka Yekka; the two parties controlled a Parliamentary majority and Obote became Prime Minister in 1962. He assumed the post on 25 April 1962, appointed by Sir Walter Coutts Governor-General of Uganda; the following year the position of Governor-General was replaced by a ceremonial presidency to be elected by the parliament. Mutesa, the Kabaka of Buganda, became the ceremonial President, with Obote as executive prime minister. In January 1964, a mutiny occurred at the military barracks at Jinja, Uganda's second city and home to the 1st Battalion of the Uganda Army.
There were similar mutinies in two other eastern African states. Before they arrived, Obote sent his defence minister Felix Onama to negotiate with the mutineers. Onama was held hostage, agreed to many demands, including significant pay increases for the army, the rapid promotion of many officers, including the future president Idi Amin. In 1965, Kenyans had been barred from leadership positions within the government, this was followed by the removal of Kenyans en masse from Uganda in 1969, under Obote's guidance; as prime minister, Obote was implicated in a gold smuggling plot, together with Idi Amin deputy commander of the Ugandan armed forces. When the Parliament demanded an investigation of Obote and the ousting of Amin, he suspended the constitution and declared himself President in March 1966, allocating to himself unlimited power under state of emergency rulings. Several members of his cabinet, who were leaders of rival factions in the party, were arrested and detained without charge.
Obote responded with an armed attack upon Mutesa's palace. In 1967, Obote's power was cemented when the parliament passed a new constitution that abolished the federal structure of the independence constitution and created an executive presidency. In 1969, there was an attempt on Obote's life. In the aftermath of the attempt, all opposition political parties were banned, leaving Obote as an absolute ruler. A state of emergency was in force for much of the time and many political opponents were jailed without trial for life. Obote's regime terrorised and tortured people, his secret police, the General Service Unit, led by Obote's cousin, was responsible for many cruelties. In 1969–70, Obote published a series of pamphlets that were supposed to outline his political and economic policy; the Common Man's Charter was a summary of his approach to socialism, which became known as the Move to the Left. The government took over a 60% share in major private corporations and banks in the country in 1970.
During Obote's regime and widespread corruption emerged in the name of his version of "socialism". Food shortages sent prices through the ceiling. Obote's persecution of Indian traders contributed to this rise in prices. In January 1971, Obote was overthrown by the army while on a visit to Singapore to attend a Commonwealth conference, Amin became President. In the two years before the coup Obote's relations with the West had become strained; some have suggested that Western Governments were at least aware of, may have aided, the coup. Obote fled to Tanzania; the fall of Obote's regime was celebrated by many Ugandans. In 1979, Idi Amin was ousted by Tanzanian forces aided by Ugandan exiles. By 1980, Uganda was governed by an interim Presidential Commission. At the time of the 1980 elections, the chairman of the commission was a close associate of Obote, Paulo Muwanga. Muwanga had been the de facto President of Uganda from 12–20 May 1980, as one of three presidents who served for short periods of time between Amin's ousting and the setting up of the Presidential Commission.
The other two presidents were Godfrey Binaisa. The elections in 1980 were won by Obote's Uganda People's Congress party. However, the UPC's opposition believed that the elections were rigged a
The African leopard is the leopard nominate subspecies native to many countries in Africa. It is distributed in most of sub-Saharan Africa, but the historical range has been fragmented in the course of habitat conversion. Leopards have been recorded in North Africa as well. Felis pardus was the scientific name used by Carl Linnaeus in the 10th edition of Systema Naturae, his description was based on earlier descriptions by earlier naturalists such as Conrad Gessner. He assumed. In the 18th and 19th centuries, several naturalists described leopard skins and skulls from Africa, including: Felis leopardus var. melanotica by Albert Günther, 1885 from the Cape of Good Hope, Southern Africa Felis leopardus suahelicus by Oscar Neumann, 1900 from Tanganyika territory Felis leopardus nanopardus by Oldfield Thomas, 1904 from Italian Somaliland Felis pardus ruwenzori by Lorenzo Camerano, 1906 from Ruwenzori and Virunga Mountains Felis pardus chui by Edmund Heller, 1913 from Uganda Felis pardus iturensis by Joel Asaph Allen, 1924 from Belgian Congo Felis pardus reichenovi by Ángel Cabrera, 1927 from Cameroon Panthera pardus adusta by Reginald Innes Pocock, 1927 from the Ethiopian Highlands Panthera pardus adersi by Pocock, 1932 from Unguja Island, Zanzibar Panthera pardus brockmani by Pocock, 1932 from SomalilandResults of genetic analysis indicate that all African leopard populations are related and represent only one subspecies.
The African leopard exhibits great variation in coat color, depending on habitat. Coat colour varies from pale yellow to deep gold or tawny, sometimes black, is patterned with black rosettes while the head, lower limbs and belly are spotted with solid black. Male leopards are larger. Females weigh about 35 to 40 kg on average; the African leopard is sexually dimorphic. Between 1996 and 2000, 11 adult leopards were radio-collared on Namibian farmlands. Males weighed 37.5 to 52.3 kg only, females 24 to 33.5 kg. The heaviest known leopard weighed about 96 kg, was recorded in South West Africa. According to Alfred Edward Pease, black leopards in North Africa were similar in size to lions. An Algerian leopard killed in 1913 was reported to have measured 8 ft 10 in, before being skinned. Leopards inhabiting the mountains of the Cape Provinces appear physically different from leopards further north, their average weight may be only half that of the more northerly populations, apart from that of Somalia in East Africa.
The African leopards inhabited a wide range of habitats within Africa, from mountainous forests to grasslands and savannahs, excluding only sandy desert. It is most at risk in areas of semi-desert, where scarce resources result in conflict with nomadic farmers and their livestock, it used occupying both rainforest and arid desert habitats. It lived in all habitats with annual rainfall above 50 mm, can penetrate areas with less than this amount of rainfall along river courses, it ranges up to 5,700 m, has been sighted on high slopes of the Ruwenzori and Virunga volcanoes, observed when drinking thermal water 37 °C in the Virunga National Park. It appears to be successful at adapting to altered natural habitat and settled environments in the absence of intense persecution, it has been recorded close to major cities. But in the 1980s, it has become rare throughout much of West Africa. Now, it remains patchily distributed within historical limits. During surveys in 2013, it was recorded in Gbarpolu County and Bong County in Upper Guinean forests of Liberia.
Leopards are rare in northern Africa. A relict population persists in the Atlas Mountains of Morocco, in forest and mountain steppe in elevations of 300 to 2,500 m, where the climate is temperate to cold. In 2014, a leopard was killed in the Elba Protected Area in southeastern Egypt; this was the first sighting of a leopard in the country since the 1950s. In 2016, a leopard was recorded for the first time in a semi-arid area of Yechilay in northern Ethiopia. Leopards are most active between sunset and sunrise, kill more prey at this time. In Kruger National Park, male leopards and female leopards with cubs were more active at night than solitary females; the highest rates of daytime activity were recorded for leopards using thorn thickets during the wet season, when impala used them. The leopard has an exceptional ability to adapt to changes in prey availability, has a broad diet. Small prey are taken; the known prey of leopards ranges from dung beetles to adult elands. In sub-Saharan Africa, at least 92 prey species have been documented in leopard scat including rodents, birds and large antelopes and hares, arthropods.
They focus their hunting activity on locally abundant medium-sized ungulates in the 20 to 80 kg range, while opportunistically taking other prey. Average intervals between ungulate kills range from seven to 12–13 days. Leopards hide large kills in trees, a behavior for which great strength is required. There have been several observations of leopards hauling carcasses of young giraffe, estimated to weigh up to 125 kg, i.e. 2–3 times the weight of the leopard, up to 5.7 m into trees. In the Serengeti National Park, leopards were radio-collared for the first time in the early 1970s, their hunting at night was difficult to watch. Of their 64 daytime hunts only three were
The African buffalo or Cape buffalo is a large Sub-Saharan African bovine. Syncerus caffer caffer, the Cape buffalo, is the typical subspecies, the largest one, found in Southern and East Africa. S. c. nanus is the smallest subspecies, common in forest areas of Central and West Africa, while S. c. brachyceros is in West Africa and S. c. aequinoctialis is in the savannas of East Africa. The adult buffalo's horns are its characteristic feature: they have fused bases, forming a continuous bone shield across the top of the head referred to as a "boss", they are regarded as among the most dangerous animals on the African continent, according to some estimates they gore and kill over 200 people every year. The African buffalo is not an ancestor of domestic cattle and is only distantly related to other larger bovines, its unpredictable temperament means that the African buffalo has never been domesticated, unlike its Asian counterpart, the water buffalo. African Cape buffaloes have few predators aside from large crocodiles.
As a member of the big five game, the Cape buffalo is a sought-after trophy in hunting. The African buffalo is a robust species, its shoulder height can range from 1.0 to 1.7 m and its head-and-body length can range from 1.7 to 3.4 m. Compared with other large bovids, it has a long but stocky body and short but thickset legs, resulting in a short standing height; the tail can range from 70 to 110 cm long. Savannah-type buffaloes weigh 500 to 1,000 kg, with males larger than females, reaching the upper weight range. In comparison, forest-type buffaloes, at 250 to 450 kg, are only half that size, its head is carried low. The front hooves of the buffalo are wider than the rear, associated with the need to support the weight of the front part of the body, heavier and more powerful than the back. Savannah-type buffaloes have dark brown coats with age. Old bulls have whitish circles around their eyes and on their face. Females tend to have more-reddish coats. Forest-type buffaloes are 30-40% smaller, reddish brown in colour, with much more hair growth around the ears and with horns that curve back and up.
Calves of both types have red coats. A characteristic feature of the horns of adult male African buffalo is that the bases come close together, forming a shield referred to as a "boss". From the base, the horns diverge downwards smoothly curve upwards and outwards and in some cases inwards and or backwards. In large bulls, the distance between the ends of the horns can reach upwards of one metre; the horns form when the animal reaches the age of five or six years but the bosses do not become "hard" till 8 to 9 years old. In cows, the horns are, on average, 10–20% smaller, they do not have a boss. Forest buffalo horns are smaller than those of the savanna buffalo from Southern and Eastern Africa measuring less than 40 centimetres, are never fused. Syncerus caffer caffer is the nominate subspecies and the largest one, with large males weighing up to 910 kg; the average weight of bulls from South Africa was 753 kg. In Serengeti National Park, eight bulls averaged 751 kg. Mature cows from Kruger National Park averaged 513 kg.
In both Kenya and Botswana, the average adult weight of this race was estimated as 631 kg. It is peculiar to East Africa. Buffaloes of this subspecies living in the south of the continent, notably tall in size and ferocity, are the so-called Cape buffalo. Color of this subspecies is the darkest black. S. c. nanus is the smallest of the subspecies. The color is red, with darker patches on the head and shoulders, in the ears, forming a brush; the dwarf buffalo is common in forest areas of West Africa. This subspecies is so different from the nominate subspecies that some researchers still consider it to be a separate species, S. nanus. Hybrids between the nominate and dwarf subspecies are not uncommon. S. c. brachyceros is, in morphological terms, intermediate between the first two subspecies. It occurs in West Africa, its dimensions are small compared to other buffalo found in Cameroon, which weigh half as much as the Cape subspecies. Adults average in weight up to 400 kg. S. c. aequinoctialis is confined to the savannas of Central Africa.
It is similar to the Cape buffalo, but somewhat smaller, its color is lighter. This subspecies is sometimes considered to be the same as the Sudanese buffalo. S. c. mathewsi is not universally recognized by all authorities. It lives in mountainous areas of the Democratic Republic of the Congo and Uganda; the African buffalo is one of the most successful grazers in Africa. It lives in swamps and floodplains, as well as mopane grasslands, the forests of the major mountains of Africa; this buffalo prefers a habitat with dense cover, such as reeds and thickets, but can be found in open woodland. While not demanding in regards to their habitat, they require water daily, so they depend on perenn
The plains zebra known as the common zebra or Burchell's zebra, or locally as the "quagga", is the most common and geographically widespread species of zebra, wild perissodactyl. It ranges from the south of Ethiopia through East Africa to as far south as Botswana and eastern South Africa; the plains zebra remains common in game reserves, but is threatened by human activities such as hunting for its meat and hide, as well as competition with livestock and encroachment by farming on much of its habitat. Subspecies include the extinct quagga and six recognised extant subspecies, though great variation in coat patterns exists between individuals; the striping pattern is unique among ungulates in the region, its functions are disputed. Suggested functions include crypsis, forms of motion camouflage, social signaling and recognition, discouraging biting flies; as of 2016, the plains zebra is classified as near threatened by IUCN. The plains zebra's range is fragmented, but spans much of southern and eastern Africa south of the Sahara.
Its habitat is but not treeless grasslands and savanna woodlands, both tropical and temperate. They avoid desert, dense rainforest, permanent wetlands, stray more than 30 km from a water source. Zebras of all ages are preyed upon by lions, spotted hyenas, cheetahs and African wild dogs; the plains zebra is a social species, forming harems with a single stallion, several mares, their recent offspring. Groups may come together to form herds; the animals keep watch for predators rather than attempting to hide. The species population is stable and not endangered, though some populations such as in Tanzania have declined sharply. A dispute exists among biologists as to; the plains zebra and mountain zebra are thought to belong to the subgenus Hippotigris and that Grévy's zebra is the sole species of subgenus Dolichohippus. This is on account of Grévy's zebra resembling an ass, while the plains zebra and mountain zebra are more horse-like. All three animals belong to the genus Equus along with other living equids.
However, recent phylogenetic evidence finds that plains zebras are more related to Grévy's zebras than mountain zebras. In areas where plains zebras are sympatric with Grévy's zebras, finding them in the same herds is not unusual, fertile hybrids occur. In captivity, plains zebras have been crossed with mountain zebras; the hybrid foals lacked a dewlap and resembled the plains zebra apart from their larger ears and their hindquarters pattern. In 2004, C. P. Groves and C. H. Bell investigated the taxonomy of the zebra genus, subgenus Hippotigris, they published their research in the journal Mammalian Biology. They revised the subspecies of the plains zebra Equus quagga. Six subspecies are now recognised. Quagga, †Equus quagga quagga – Boddaert, 1785 Burchell's zebra, Equus quagga burchellii – Gray, 1824 Grant's zebra, Equus quagga boehmi – Matschie, 1892 Maneless zebra Equus quagga borensis – Lönnberg, 1921 Chapman's zebra, Equus quagga chapmani – Layard, 1865 Crawshay's zebra, Equus quagga crawshayi – De Winton, 1896Sometimes another subspecies is distinguished in Eastern Zimbabwe and Western Mozambique: Selous' zebra, Equus quagga selousi – Pocock 1897The quagga was classified as a separate species, Equus quagga, in 1778.
Over the next 50 years or so, many other zebras were described by explorers. Because of the great variation in coat patterns, taxonomists were left with a great number of described "species", no easy way to tell which of these were true species, which were subspecies, which were natural variants; the quagga was the first extinct creature to have its DNA studied. Recent genetic research at the Smithsonian Institution has demonstrated that the quagga was in fact not a separate species at all, but diverged from the plains zebra, between 120,000 and 290,000 years ago, suggests that it should be named Equus burchellii quagga. However, according to the rules of biological nomenclature, where two or more alternative names are given to a single species, the name first used takes priority; as the quagga was described about 30 years earlier than Burchell's zebra, the correct terms are E. quagga quagga for the quagga and E. quagga burchellii for the plains zebra, unless "Equus burchellii" is declared to be a nomen conservandum.
Burchell's zebra was thought to have been hunted to extinction. However and Bell concluded in their 2004 publication that "the extinct true Burchell's zebra" is a phantom. Careful study of the original zebra populations in Zululand and Swaziland, of skins harvested on game farms in Zululand and Natal, has revealed that a certain small proportion shows similarity to what now is regarded as typical "burchellii"; the type localities of the subspecies Equus quagga burchellii and Equus quagga antiquorum are so close to each other that the two are in fact one, that, the older of the two names should take precedence over the younger. They say that the correct name for the southernmost subspecies must be burchellii, not antiquorum; the subspecies Equus quagga burchellii still exists in Etosha. A 2018 DNA study found no evidence for a subspecies structure, but instead observed a north-south genetic continuum, with plains zebra in Uganda the most distinct; the plains zebra is mid-sized, smaller on average than Grevy's
Zebras are several species of African equids united by their distinctive black-and-white striped coats. Their stripes come in different patterns, unique to each individual, they are social animals that live in small harems to large herds. Unlike their closest relatives and donkeys, zebras have never been domesticated. There are three species of zebras: the mountain zebra and the Grévy's zebra; the plains zebra and the mountain zebra belong to the subgenus Hippotigris, while Grévy's zebra is the sole species of subgenus Dolichohippus. The latter resembles an ass, to which zebras are related, while the former two look more horse-like. All three belong to the genus Equus, along with other living equids; the unique stripes of zebras make them one of the animals most familiar to people. They occur in a variety of habitats, such as grasslands, woodlands, thorny scrublands and coastal hills. Various anthropogenic factors have had a severe impact on zebra populations, in particular hunting for skins and habitat destruction.
Grévy's zebra and the mountain zebra are endangered. While plains zebras are much more plentiful, one subspecies, the quagga, became extinct in the late 19th century – though there is a plan, called the Quagga Project, that aims to breed zebras that are phenotypically similar to the quagga in a process called breeding back; the name "zebra" in English dates back to c. 1600, from Italian zebra from Portuguese, which in turn is said to be Congolese. The Encarta Dictionary says its ultimate origin is uncertain, but it may come from Latin equiferus meaning "wild horse"; the word was traditionally pronounced with a long initial vowel, but over the course of the 20th century, the pronunciation with the short initial vowel became the usual one in the UK and Commonwealth. The pronunciation with a long initial vowel remains standard in the United States. A group of zebras are referred to dazzle, or zeal. Zebras evolved among the Old World horses within the last 4 million years, it has been suggested that striped equids evolved more than once.
Extensive stripes are posited to have been of little use to equids that live in low densities in deserts or ones that live in colder climates with shaggy coats and annual shading. However, molecular evidence supports zebras as a monophyletic lineage; the zebra has between 46 chromosomes, depending on the species. There are three extant species. Collectively, two of the species have eight subspecies. Zebra populations are diverse, the relationships between, the taxonomic status of, several of the subspecies are not well known. Genus: Equus Subgenus: Hippotigris Plains zebra, Equus quagga †Quagga, Equus quagga quagga Burchell's zebra, Equus quagga burchellii Grant's zebra, Equus quagga boehmi Selous' zebra, Equus quagga selousi Maneless zebra, Equus quagga borensis Chapman's zebra, Equus quagga chapmani Crawshay's zebra, Equus quagga crawshayi Mountain zebra, Equus zebra Cape mountain zebra, Equus zebra zebra Hartmann's mountain zebra, Equus zebra hartmannae Subgenus: Dolichohippus Grévy's zebra, Equus grevyi The plains zebra is the most common, has or had about six subspecies distributed across much of southern and eastern Africa.
It, or particular subspecies of it, have been known as the common zebra, the dauw, Burchell's zebra, Chapman's zebra, Wahlberg's zebra, Selous' zebra, Grant's zebra, Boehm's zebra and the quagga. The mountain zebra of southwest Africa tends to have a sleek coat with a white belly and narrower stripes than the plains zebra, it is classified as vulnerable. Grévy's zebra is the largest type, with a narrow head, making it appear rather mule-like, it is an inhabitant of the semi-arid grasslands of northern Kenya. Grévy's zebra is the rarest species, is classified as endangered. Although zebra species may have overlapping ranges, they do not interbreed. In captivity, plains zebras have been crossed with mountain zebras; the hybrid foals lacked a dewlap and resembled the plains zebra apart from their larger ears and their hindquarters pattern. Attempts to breed a Grévy's zebra stallion to mountain zebra mares resulted in a high rate of miscarriage. In captivity, crosses between zebras and other equines have produced several distinct hybrids, including the zebroid, zeedonk and zorse.
In certain regions of Kenya, plains zebras and Grévy's zebra coexist, fertile hybrids occur. The Hagerman horse is sometimes referred to as the American zebra due to perceived similarities to the plains zebra, sometimes depicted as striped. However, consensus appears to be that it wasn't closely related to either Hippotigiris nor Dolichohippus, nor is there unambiguous evidence that it had stripes; the common plains zebra is about 1.2–1.3 m at the shoulder with a body ranging from 2–2.6 m long with a 0.5 m tail. It can weigh up to 350 kg, males being bigger than females. Grévy's zebra is larger, while the mountain zebra is somewhat smaller, it was believed that zebras were white animals with black stripes, since some zebras have white underbellies. Embryological evidence, shows that the animal's background colour is black and the white stripes and bellies are additions, it is that the stripes ar