A corporation is an organization a group of people or a company, authorized to act as a single entity and recognized as such in law. Early incorporated entities were established by charter. Most jurisdictions now allow the creation of new corporations through registration. Corporations come in many different types but are divided by the law of the jurisdiction where they are chartered into two kinds: by whether they can issue stock or not, or by whether they are formed to make a profit or not. Corporations can be divided by the number of owners: corporation corporation sole; the subject of this article is a corporation aggregate. A corporation sole is a legal entity consisting of a single incorporated office, occupied by a single natural person. Where local law distinguishes corporations by the ability to issue stock, corporations allowed to do so are referred to as "stock corporations", ownership of the corporation is through stock, owners of stock are referred to as "stockholders" or "shareholders".
Corporations not allowed to issue stock are referred to as "non-stock" corporations. Corporations chartered in regions where they are distinguished by whether they are allowed to be for profit or not are referred to as "for profit" and "not-for-profit" corporations, respectively. There is some overlap between stock/non-stock and for-profit/not-for-profit in that not-for-profit corporations are always non-stock as well. A for-profit corporation is always a stock corporation, but some for-profit corporations may choose to be non-stock. To simplify the explanation, whenever "Stockholder" or "shareholder" is used in the rest of this article to refer to a stock corporation, it is presumed to mean the same as "member" for a non-profit corporation or for a profit, non-stock corporation. Registered corporations have legal personality and their shares are owned by shareholders whose liability is limited to their investment. Shareholders do not actively manage a corporation. In most circumstances, a shareholder may serve as a director or officer of a corporation.
In American English, the word corporation is most used to describe large business corporations. In British English and in the Commonwealth countries, the term company is more used to describe the same sort of entity while the word corporation encompasses all incorporated entities. In American English, the word company can include entities such as partnerships that would not be referred to as companies in British English as they are not a separate legal entity. Late in the 19th century, a new form of company having the limited liability protections of a corporation, the more favorable tax treatment of either a sole proprietorship or partnership was developed. While not a corporation, this new type of entity became attractive as an alternative for corporations not needing to issue stock. In Germany, the organization was referred to as Gesellschaft mit beschränkter Haftung or GmbH. In the last quarter of the 20th Century this new form of non-corporate organization became available in the United States and other countries, was known as the limited liability company or LLC.
Since the GmbH and LLC forms of organization are technically not corporations, they will not be discussed in this article. The word "corporation" derives from corpus, the Latin word for body, or a "body of people". By the time of Justinian, Roman law recognized a range of corporate entities under the names universitas, corpus or collegium; these included the state itself and such private associations as sponsors of a religious cult, burial clubs, political groups, guilds of craftsmen or traders. Such bodies had the right to own property and make contracts, to receive gifts and legacies, to sue and be sued, and, in general, to perform legal acts through representatives. Private associations were granted designated liberties by the emperor. Entities which carried on business and were the subjects of legal rights were found in ancient Rome, the Maurya Empire in ancient India. In medieval Europe, churches became incorporated, as did local governments, such as the Pope and the City of London Corporation.
The point was that the incorporation would survive longer than the lives of any particular member, existing in perpetuity. The alleged oldest commercial corporation in the world, the Stora Kopparberg mining community in Falun, obtained a charter from King Magnus Eriksson in 1347. In medieval times, traders would do business through common law constructs, such as partnerships. Whenever people acted together with a view to profit, the law deemed. Early guilds and livery companies were often involved in the regulation of competition between traders. Dutch and English chartered companies, such as the Dutch East India Company and the Hudson's Bay Company, were created to lead the colonial ventures of European nations in the 17th century. Acting under a charter sanctioned by the Dutch government, the Dutch East India Company defeated Portuguese forces and established itself in the Moluccan Islands in order to profit from the European demand for spices. Investors in the VOC were issued paper certificates as proof of share ownership, were able to trade their shares on the original Amsterdam
Alexis Gilbert "Lexie" Stewart is an American television host and radio personality. She is the only child of her ex-husband Andrew, she was the co-host of Whatever with Alexis and Jennifer on Sirius Satellite Radio, Whatever with Alexis and Jennifer on the Hallmark Channel alongside co-host Jennifer Hutt. Stewart was born in Manhattan, she graduated from Putney School in Putney, Vermont in 1983. She earned a bachelor's degree in English at Barnard College at Columbia University in 1987, her mother, Martha Stewart, had attended Barnard. In 1997, Stewart married John Robert Cuti, a lawyer, former lead guitarist for The Inflatables. Cuti served as a trial lawyer during Martha Stewart's ImClone stock trading case, alongside her lead attorney Robert Morvillo. Stewart and Cuti separated before Martha Stewart was indicted in June 2003 but were not divorced until mid-2004, after the trial was over. Stewart is a vegan. On October 9, 2007, Stewart appeared on The Oprah Winfrey Show to discuss her struggle to conceive a child.
On November 29, 2010, it was announced that Stewart had hired a gestational surrogate and was expecting her first child in early March. Stewart explained. On March 9, 2012, it was announced that Stewart had a second child by gestational surrogacy, a son named Truman. Stewart co-hosted Whatever with Alexis and Jennifer on Sirius Satellite Radio and as of September 13, 2010 on television on the Hallmark Channel. Stewart and former radio partner Jennifer Hutt talked about topics ranging from pop culture to personal relationships; the show was billed as reading, or hearing. Stewart and Hutt's TV show, Martha, premiered on the Fine Living Network on September 16, 2008; the second season premiered on September 23, 2009. On Whatever, Martha and Hutt made fun of old Martha Stewart Living episodes and attempt to cook or create one of Martha Stewart's projects to see how difficult the projects are to complete. In one episode, Martha makes fun of herself and her guests; the third season of Whatever with Alexis and Jennifer, which ran as Whatever, You're Wrong!, premiered on the Hallmark Channel on April 8, 2011.
Whatever, Martha premiered on the Hallmark Channel on April 8, 2011. On June 7, 2011, Stewart posted on her Whatever blog that her last day on Whatever would be that Friday, June 10. Alexis Stewart on IMDb
Photography is the art and practice of creating durable images by recording light or other electromagnetic radiation, either electronically by means of an image sensor, or chemically by means of a light-sensitive material such as photographic film. It is employed in many fields of science and business, as well as its more direct uses for art and video production, recreational purposes and mass communication. A lens is used to focus the light reflected or emitted from objects into a real image on the light-sensitive surface inside a camera during a timed exposure. With an electronic image sensor, this produces an electrical charge at each pixel, electronically processed and stored in a digital image file for subsequent display or processing; the result with photographic emulsion is an invisible latent image, chemically "developed" into a visible image, either negative or positive depending on the purpose of the photographic material and the method of processing. A negative image on film is traditionally used to photographically create a positive image on a paper base, known as a print, either by using an enlarger or by contact printing.
The word "photography" was created from the Greek roots φωτός, genitive of φῶς, "light" and γραφή "representation by means of lines" or "drawing", together meaning "drawing with light". Several people may have coined the same new term from these roots independently. Hercules Florence, a French painter and inventor living in Campinas, used the French form of the word, photographie, in private notes which a Brazilian historian believes were written in 1834; this claim is reported but has never been independently confirmed as beyond reasonable doubt. The German newspaper Vossische Zeitung of 25 February 1839 contained an article entitled Photographie, discussing several priority claims – Henry Fox Talbot's – regarding Daguerre's claim of invention; the article is the earliest known occurrence of the word in public print. It was signed "J. M.", believed to have been Berlin astronomer Johann von Maedler. The inventors Nicéphore Niépce, Henry Fox Talbot and Louis Daguerre seem not to have known or used the word "photography", but referred to their processes as "Heliography", "Photogenic Drawing"/"Talbotype"/"Calotype" and "Daguerreotype".
Photography is the result of combining several technical discoveries, relating to seeing an image and capturing the image. The discovery of the camera obscura that provides an image of a scene dates back to ancient China. Greek mathematicians Aristotle and Euclid independently described a pinhole camera in the 5th and 4th centuries BCE. In the 6th century CE, Byzantine mathematician Anthemius of Tralles used a type of camera obscura in his experiments; the Arab physicist Ibn al-Haytham invented a camera obscura and pinhole camera. Leonardo da Vinci mentions natural camera obscura that are formed by dark caves on the edge of a sunlit valley. A hole in the cave wall will act as a pinhole camera and project a laterally reversed, upside down image on a piece of paper. Renaissance painters used the camera obscura which, in fact, gives the optical rendering in color that dominates Western Art, it is a box with a hole in it which allows light to go through and create an image onto the piece of paper.
The birth of photography was concerned with inventing means to capture and keep the image produced by the camera obscura. Albertus Magnus discovered silver nitrate, Georg Fabricius discovered silver chloride, the techniques described in Ibn al-Haytham's Book of Optics are capable of producing primitive photographs using medieval materials. Daniele Barbaro described a diaphragm in 1566. Wilhelm Homberg described how light darkened some chemicals in 1694; the fiction book Giphantie, published in 1760, by French author Tiphaigne de la Roche, described what can be interpreted as photography. Around the year 1800, British inventor Thomas Wedgwood made the first known attempt to capture the image in a camera obscura by means of a light-sensitive substance, he used paper or white leather treated with silver nitrate. Although he succeeded in capturing the shadows of objects placed on the surface in direct sunlight, made shadow copies of paintings on glass, it was reported in 1802 that "the images formed by means of a camera obscura have been found too faint to produce, in any moderate time, an effect upon the nitrate of silver."
The shadow images darkened all over. The first permanent photoetching was an image produced in 1822 by the French inventor Nicéphore Niépce, but it was destroyed in a attempt to make prints from it. Niépce was successful again in 1825. In 1826 or 1827, he made the View from the Window at Le Gras, the earliest surviving photograph from nature; because Niépce's camera photographs required an long exposure, he sought to improve his bitumen process or replace it with one, more practical. In partnership with Louis Daguerre, he worked out post-exposure processing methods that produced visually superior results and replaced the bitumen with a more light-sensitive resin, but hours of exposure in the camera were still required. With an eye to eventual commercial exploitation, the partners opted for total secrecy. Niépce died in 1833 and Daguerre redirected the experiments toward the light-sensitive silver halides, which Niépce had abandoned many years earlier because of his inability to make the images he captured with them light-fast and permanent.
Board of directors
A board of directors is a group of people who jointly supervise the activities of an organization, which can be either a for-profit business, nonprofit organization, or a government agency. Such a board's powers and responsibilities are determined by government regulations and the organization's own constitution and bylaws; these authorities may specify the number of members of the board, how they are to be chosen, how they are to meet. In an organization with voting members, the board is accountable to, might be subordinate to, the organization's full membership, which vote for the members of the board. In a stock corporation, non-executive directors are voted for by the shareholders, with the board having ultimate responsibility for the management of the corporation; the board of directors appoints the chief executive officer of the corporation and sets out the overall strategic direction. In corporations with dispersed ownership, the identification and nomination of directors are done by the board itself, leading to a high degree of self-perpetuation.
In a non-stock corporation with no general voting membership, the board is the supreme governing body of the institution, its members are sometimes chosen by the board itself. Other names include board of directors and advisors, board of governors, board of managers, board of regents, board of trustees, or board of visitors, it may be called "the executive board" and is simply referred to as "the board". Typical duties of boards of directors include: governing the organization by establishing broad policies and setting out strategic objectives. For companies with publicly trading stock, these responsibilities are much more rigorous and complex than for those of other types; the board chooses one of its members to be the chairman, who holds whatever title is specified in the by-laws or articles of association. However, in membership organizations, the members elect the president of the organization and the president becomes the board chair, unless the by-laws say otherwise; the directors of an organization are the persons.
Several specific terms categorize directors by the presence or absence of their other relationships to the organization. An inside director is a director, an employee, chief executive, major shareholder, or someone connected to the organization. Inside directors represent the interests of the entity's stakeholders, have special knowledge of its inner workings, its financial or market position, so on. Typical inside directors are: A chief executive officer who may be chairman of the board Other executives of the organization, such as its chief financial officer or executive vice president Large shareholders Representatives of other stakeholders such as labor unions, major lenders, or members of the community in which the organization is locatedAn inside director, employed as a manager or executive of the organization is sometimes referred to as an executive director. Executive directors have a specified area of responsibility in the organization, such as finance, human resources, or production.
An outside director is a member of the board, not otherwise employed by or engaged with the organization, does not represent any of its stakeholders. A typical example is a director, president of a firm in a different industry. Outside directors are not affiliated with it in any other way. Outside directors bring outside experience and perspectives to the board. For example, for a company that only serves a domestic market, the presence of CEOs from global multinational corporations as outside directors can help to provide insights on export and import opportunities and international trade options. One of the arguments for having outside directors is that they can keep a watchful eye on the inside directors and on the way the organization is run. Outside directors are unlikely to tolerate "insider dealing" between insider directors, as outside directors do not benefit from the company or organization. Outside directors are useful in handling disputes between inside directors, or between shareholders and the board.
They are thought to be advantageous because they can be objective and present little risk of conflict of interest. On the other hand, they might lack familiarity with the specific issues connected to the organization's governance and they might not know about the industry or sector in which the organization is operating. Director – a person appointed to serve on the board of an organization, such as an institution or business. Inside director – a director who, in addition to serving on the board, has a meaningful connection to the organization Outside director – a director who, other than serving on the board, has no meaningful connections to the organization Executive director – an insi
Whole Living was a health and lifestyle magazine geared towards "natural health, personal growth, well-being," a concept the publishers refer to as "whole living." The magazine became a part of Martha Stewart Living Omnimedia in August 2004. The magazine was launched as the New Age Journal in 1974; the magazine was first rebranded as Body+Soul beginning with an edition in early 2002. In 2004, Martha Stewart Living Omnimedia acquired the magazine and other publishing assets from Thorne Communications; the magazine became Whole Living in May 2010. Martha Stewart Living Omnimedia has announced; the final installment will be the January/February 2013 issue. A $2.5 million offer to buy the title from private equity firm OpenGate Capital fell through and no other buyers have appeared. The content from Whole Living will be included in Martha Stewart Living. New Age Journal, or New Age: The Journal for Holistic Living was an American periodical prominent in the late 20th century, defining itself as covering topics related to the period's "New Age".
It described itself around the late 1990s as concerned with "achievement, health, creative living, holistic nutrition". It was founded in 1974 by Peggy Taylor and other editors of East/West Journal, based in the Boston metropolitan area. In 1994 it won an Alternative Press Award for General Excellence from the Utne Reader, its publishing of work by Joseph Campbell, Ram Dass, Andrew Weil, Christiane Northrup, Deepak Chopra, Cheryl Richardson is said to have come before they were widely known. Under new editorship, it was "relaunched" in 2002 as Soul or Body & Soul. In 2004, it was bought by Martha Stewart's Omnimedia, which as of 2009 publishes Body+Soul eight times per year. In 2010, the magazine was relaunched as Whole Living. In 2000, Robert Scheer created the website New Age Journal, which states that "We are not affiliated with any magazines printed on paper." David Thorne, head of owning companies from 1983 to 2004Its editors included: Marc Barasch Jennifer L. Cook Jody Kolodzey Rex Weyler New Age Journal had ISSN 0746-3618 and OCLC 9978138 for issues from 1983 to 1998.
New Age Journal had ISSN 1098-447X and OCLC 38498642 for issues from 1998 to 2002. Whole Living website
Jennifer Koppelman Hutt is an American television host, radio host and lawyer. From 2005 to 2011, Hutt co-hosted Whatever with Alexis and Jennifer, a daily radio talk show on SiriusXM with Alexis Stewart. In September 2010, Whatever with Alexis and Jennifer became an hour-long television program on Hallmark Channel. Since 2012, Hutt has hosted her own radio show on SiriusXM called Just Jenny. In 2010 she began co-hosting the Jon Hein TV Show on SiriusXM. Hutt has appeared on or hosted several television shows including HLN’s Showbiz Tonight, CNN Newsroom with Brooke Baldwin, CBS’s The Talk. For several months in 2013 and 2014, she co-hosted on HLN’s Dr. Drew on Call. In 2011, Hutt co-authored a book titled Whateverland with Alexis Stewart, daughter of Martha Stewart. Hutt, the daughter of producer and media executive Charles Koppelman and Bunny Koppelman, was born in 1970 in Roslyn Harbor. In 1997, Jennifer married Keith Hutt in New York, she holds a baccalaureate degree from Tufts University and a law degree from Hofstra University, has been a licensed lawyer in the state of New York since 2000.
Her brother is Brian Koppelman, co-writer of Ocean's Thirteen and Rounders and her sister is Stacy Fritz