Bridgend is a town in Bridgend County Borough in Wales, 20 miles west of the capital Cardiff and 20 miles east of Swansea. The river crossed by the original bridge, which gave the town its name, is the River Ogmore, but the River Ewenny passes to the south of the town. A part of Glamorgan, Bridgend has expanded in size since the early 1980s – the 2001 census recorded a population of 39,429 for the town and the 2011 census reported that the Bridgend Local Authority had a population of 139,200 — up from 128,700 in 2001; this 8.2% increase was the largest increase in Wales except for Cardiff. The town is undergoing a redevelopment project, with the town centre pedestrianised and ongoing works including Brackla Street Centre redevelopment to Bridgend Shopping Centre, Rhiw Car Park redevelopment, ongoing public realm improvements and the upgrade of the Bridgend Life Centre and demolition of Sunnyside offices to accommodate a large retirement complex. Several prehistoric burial mounds have been found in the vicinity of Bridgend, suggesting that the area was settled before Roman times.
The A48 between Bridgend and Cowbridge has a portion, known locally as "Crack Hill", a Roman road and the'Golden Mile' where it is believed Roman soldiers were lined up to be paid. The Vale of Glamorgan would have been a natural low-level route west to the Roman fort and harbour at Neath from settlements in the east like Cardiff and Caerleon. In the decades after the Norman conquest of Anglo-Saxon England in 1066, the Normans looked westwards to create new seats for lords loyal to William the Conqueror. Groups of Norman barons arrived in Wales, in the south and east created what would become the Welsh Marches, while the north and west remained unconquered due to the harsh terrain. At Coity, the local Welsh chieftain Morgan Gam had a stronghold. Sometime in the 11th century, Norman Lord Payn de Turberville approached Morgan to turn over control of Coity Castle to Turberville. Morgan Gam agreed, on condition that Turberville either fought Morgan for the land, or took Gam's daughter Sybil's hand in marriage.
Turberville married Sybil and became Lord of Coity, rebuilt the castle. Newcastle Castle and Ogmore Castle were built by Robert Fitzhamon and William de Londres, respectively. About 2 miles north-east of Ogmore Castle, Maurice de Londres founded the fortified Benedictine Ewenny Priory in 1141; these three castles provided a "defensive triangle" for the area — a quadrilateral if Ewenny Priory is included. Bridgend developed at a ford on the River Ogmore, on the main route between east and west Wales. Just north of the town is the confluence of three rivers, the Ogmore, the Llynfi, the Garw. South of Bridgend, the River Ewenny flows into the Bristol Channel. In the 15th century, a stone bridge was built as a permanent connection between the two sides of the Ogmore; this bridge had four arches, but in the 18th century, a massive flood washed two of them away. The rest of the bridge still stands and remains a focal point of the town: aesthetic restoration took place in 2006. Bridgend grew into an agricultural town.
It became a status it retained until the late 20th century. The discovery of coal in the South Wales Valleys north of Bridgend had a massive impact on the town; the first coal mining operations opened north of Bridgend in the 17th century. Bridgend itself never had coal deposits and remained a market town for some time, but the valleys of the three rivers grew into an important part of the South Wales coalfields. Ironworks and brickworks were established in the same period by John Bedford, although the ironworks faltered after his death and ceased operating in 1836; the Great Western Railway arrived and Bridgend was at the junction between the main London to Fishguard line and the branch to the three valleys. Frequent coal trains took coal down the valleys. Several quarries opened around Bridgend town centre. An engine works was opened in the town and a larger farmers' market opened in the town centre, where it remained until the 1970s. In 1801, the population of what is now Bridgend County was around 6000.
By the beginning of the 20th century this had risen to 61,000. By this time Bridgend was a bustling market town with prosperous valleys to the north, a thriving community and good links to other towns and cities. In the Second World War, Bridgend had a prisoner of war camp at Island Farm and a large munitions factory at Waterton, as well as a large underground munitions storage base at Brackla; this was an overspill of the Royal Woolwich. At its peak, the arsenal had many of them women. Large numbers of them were transported by bus from the valleys; the factory complex had three sites in Bridgend, all linked together by a large network of railways. Many reminders of the factory sites remain to this day - Brackla Ordnance Site. In March 1945, 87 POWs from Island Farm escaped through a tunnel. While Bridgend was as important during the war as any other part of Wales, although it was photographed by the Luftwaffe, it was never blitzed, although the area around Bridgend did suffer bombing ra
Swansea, is a coastal city and county known as the City and County of Swansea in Wales. Swansea lies within the historic county boundaries of Glamorgan and the ancient Welsh commote of Gŵyr on the southwest coast; the county area includes the Gower Peninsula. Swansea is the twenty-fifth largest city in the United Kingdom. According to its local council, the City and County of Swansea had a population of 241,300 in 2014; the last official census stated that the city and urban areas combined concluded to be a total of 462,000 in 2011. During the 19th-century industrial heyday, Swansea was the key centre of the copper-smelting industry, earning the nickname Copperopolis. Archaeological finds in the Swansea area come from the Gower Peninsula, include items from the Stone Age, Bronze Age, Iron Age; the Romans occupied the area. The two largest rivers in the region are the Tawe which passes through the city centre and the Loughor which marks the northern border with Carmarthenshire; the Welsh name, translates to Mouth of the Tawe.
It first appears c.1150 as Aper Tyui. Swansea is thought to have developed as a Viking trading post, its English name may derive from Sveinn's island – Old Norse: Sveinsey – the reference to an island may refer either to a bank at the mouth of the River Tawe or to an area of raised ground in marshes. An alternative explanation derives the place name from the Norse personal name Sweyn and ey, which can mean "inlet"; this explanation supports the tradition. The name is pronounced Swans-y /ˈswɒnzi/), not Swan-sea; the earliest known form of the modern name, appears in the first charter, granted sometime between 1158 and 1184 by William de Newburgh, 3rd Earl of Warwick. The charter gave Swansea the status of a borough, granting the townsmen certain rights to develop the area. In 1215 King John granted a second charter. A town seal, believed to date from this period names the town as Sweyse. Following the Norman conquest, a marcher lordship was established under the title of Gower, it included land around Swansea Bay as far as the River Tawe, the manor of Kilvey beyond the Tawe, the peninsula itself.
Swansea was designated chief town of the lordship and received a borough charter at some point between 1158 and 1184. From the early 1700s to the late 1800s, Swansea was the world's leading copper-smelting area. Numerous smelters along the River Tawe received copper and other metal ores shipped from Cornwall and Devon, as well as from North and South America and Australia; the industry declined in the late 1800s, none of the smelters are now active. The port of Swansea traded in wine, wool, cloth and in coal. After the invention of the reverbatory furnace in the late 1600s, copper smelting was able to use coal rather than more-expensive charcoal. At the same time, the mines of Cornwall were increasing copper production. Swansea became the ideal place to smelt the Cornish copper ores, being close to the coalfields of South Wales and having an excellent port to receive ships carrying Cornish copper ore; because each ton of copper ore smelted used about three tons of coal, it was more economical to ship the copper ore to Wales rather than send the coal to Cornwall.
The first copper smelter at Swansea was established followed by many more. Once smelting was established, the smelters began receiving high-grade ore and ore concentrates from around the world. More coal mines opened to meet demand from northeast Gower to Llangyfelach. In the 1850s Swansea had more than 600 furnaces, a fleet of 500 oceangoing ships carrying out Welsh coal and bringing back metal ore from around the world. At that time most of the copper matte produced in the United States was sent to Swansea for refining.. Smelters processed arsenic, zinc and other metals. Nearby factories produced pottery; the Swansea smelters became so adept at recovering gold and silver from complex ores that in the 1800s they received ore concentrates from the United States, for example from Arizona in the 1850s, Colorado in the 1860s. The city expanded in the 18th and 19th centuries, was termed "Copperopolis". From the late 17th century to 1801, Swansea's population grew by 500%—the first official census indicated that, with 6,099 inhabitants, Swansea had become larger than Glamorgan's county town and was the second most populous town in Wales behind Merthyr Tydfil.
However, the census understated Swansea's true size, as much of the built-up area lay outside the contemporary boundaries of the borough. Swansea's population was overtaken by Merthyr in 1821 and by Cardiff in 1881, although in the latter year Swansea once again surpassed Merthyr. Much of Swansea's growth was due to migration from within and beyond Wales—in 1881 more than a third of the borough's population had been born outside Swansea and Glamorgan, just under a quarter outside Wales. Copper smelting at Swansea declined in the late 1800s for a number of reasons. Copper mining in Cornwall declined; the price of copper dropped from £112 in 1860 to £35 in the 1890s. In the early 1900s, mining shifted to lower-grade copper deposits in North and South America, the lower-grade ore could not support transportation to Swansea; the Swansea and Mumbles Railway was built in 1804 to move limestone from
Sir Stirling Craufurd Moss, is a British former Formula One racing driver. An inductee into the International Motorsports Hall of Fame, he won 212 of the 529 races he entered across several categories of competition and has been described as "the greatest driver never to win the World Championship". In a seven-year span between 1955 and 1961 Moss finished as championship runner-up four times and third the other three. Moss was born in London, son of Alfred Moss, a dentist of Bray and Aileen, he was brought up at Long White Cloud house on the right bank of the River Thames. His father was an amateur racing driver who had placed 16th at the 1924 Indianapolis 500. Aileen Moss had been involved in motorsport, entering prewar hillclimbs at the wheel of a Singer Nine. Stirling was a gifted horse rider as was his younger sister, Pat Moss, who became a successful rally driver and married Erik Carlsson. Moss was educated at several independent schools: Shrewsbury House School in Surbiton, Clewer Manor Junior School, the linked senior school and Imperial Service College, located at Hertford Heath, near Hertford.
Moss raced from 1948 to 1962, winning 212 of the 529 races he entered, including 16 Formula One Grands Prix. He would compete in as many as 62 races in a single year and drove 84 different makes of car over the course of his racing career, including Cooper 500, ERA, Lister Cars, Maserati, Mercedes-Benz and Vanwall single-seaters, Aston Martin, Ferrari and Mercedes-Benz sports cars, Jaguar saloons. Like many drivers of the era, he competed in several formulae on the same day, he preferred to race British cars, stating, "Better to lose honourably in a British car than win in a foreign one". At Vanwall, he was instrumental in breaking the German/Italian stranglehold on F1 racing, he remained the English driver with the most Formula One victories until 1991 when Nigel Mansell overtook him after competing in more races. Moss began his career at the wheel of his father Alfred's 328 Frazer Nash, DPX 653. Moss was one of the Cooper Car Company's first customers, using winnings from competing in horse-riding events to pay the deposit on a Cooper 500 racing car in 1948.
He persuaded his father, who opposed his racing and wanted him to be a dentist, to let him buy it. He soon demonstrated his ability with numerous wins at national and international levels, continued to compete in Formula Three, with Coopers and Kiefts, after he had progressed to more senior categories, his first major international race victory came on the eve of his 21st birthday at the wheel of a borrowed Jaguar XK120 in the 1950 RAC Tourist Trophy on the Dundrod circuit in Northern Ireland. He went on to win the race six more times, in 1951, 1955, 1958 and 1959, 1960 and 1961. A competent rally driver, he is one of three people to have won a Coupe d'Or for three consecutive penalty-free runs on the Alpine Rally, he finished second in the 1952 Monte Carlo Rally driving a Sunbeam-Talbot 90 with Desmond Scannell and Autocar magazine editor John Cooper as co-drivers. In 1954, he became the first non-American to win the 12 Hours of Sebring, sharing the Cunningham team's 1.5-liter O. S. C. A. MT4 with American Bill Lloyd.
In 1953 Mercedes-Benz racing boss Alfred Neubauer had spoken to Moss's manager, Ken Gregory, about the possibility of Moss's joining the Mercedes Grand Prix team. Having seen him do well in a uncompetitive car, wanting to see how he would perform in a better one, Neubauer suggested Moss buy a Maserati for the 1954 season, he bought a Maserati 250F, although the car's unreliability prevented his scoring high points in the 1954 Drivers' Championship he qualified alongside the Mercedes front runners several times and performed well in the races. He achieved his first Formula 1 victory when he won the non-Championship International Gold Cup in the Maserati. In the Italian Grand Prix at Monza he passed both drivers who were regarded as the best in Formula One at the time—Juan Manuel Fangio in a Mercedes and Alberto Ascari in a Ferrari—and took the lead. Ascari retired with engine problems, Moss led until lap 68 when his engine failed. Fangio took the victory, Moss pushed his Maserati to the finish line.
Neubauer impressed when Moss had tested a Mercedes-Benz W196 at Hockenheim, promptly signed him for 1955. Moss's first World Championship victory was in the 1955 British Grand Prix at Aintree, a race he was the first British driver to win. Leading a 1–2–3–4 finish for Mercedes, it was the first time he beat Fangio, his teammate and arch rival, his friend and mentor, it has been suggested. Moss himself asked Fangio and Fangio always replied: "No. You were just better than me that day." The same year, Moss won the RAC Tourist Trophy, the Targa Florio, the Mille Miglia. In 1955 Moss won Italy's thousand-mile Mille Miglia road race, an achievement Doug Nye described as the "most iconic single day's drive in motor racing history." Motor Trend headlined it as "The Most Epic Drive. Ever."Moss 25 years old, drove one of four factory-entered Mercedes-Benz 300 SLR sports-racing cars. Based on the W196 Grand Prix car, they had spaceframe chassis and magnesium-alloy bodies, their modified W196 engines ran on a mixture of petrol and alcohol.
The team's main race rivals were the factory-entered Ferraris of Piero Taruffi, Eugenio Castellotti, Umberto Maglioli, Paolo Marzotto. Journalist Denis Jenkinson was Moss's navigator, he had intended to go with John Fitch
Goodwood Circuit is a historic venue for both two- and four-wheeled motorsport in the United Kingdom. The 3.8 kilometres circuit is situated near Chichester, West Sussex, close to the south coast of England, on the estate of Goodwood House, encircles Chichester/Goodwood Airport. This is the racing circuit dating from 1948, not to be confused with the separate hillclimb course located at Goodwood House and first used in 1936; the racing circuit began life as the perimeter track of RAF Westhampnett airfield, constructed during World War II as a relief airfield for RAF Tangmere. The first race meeting took place on 18 September 1948, organised by the Junior Car Club and sanctioned by the Duke of Richmond and Gordon; the winner of the first race was P. de F. C. Pycroft, in his 2,664 c.c. Pycroft-Jaguar, at 66.42 m.p.h. Stirling Moss won the 500cc race, followed by Eric Brandon and "Curly" Dryden, all in Coopers. Goodwood became famous for its Glover Trophy non-championship Formula One race, Goodwood Nine Hours sports car endurance races run in 1952, 1953 and 1955, the Tourist Trophy sports car race, run here 1958-1964.
The cars that raced in those events can be seen recreating the endurance races at the Goodwood Revival each year in the Sussex trophy and the Royal Automobile Club Tourist Trophy. Goodwood has, over the years, played host to many famous drivers: Mike Hawthorn and Graham Hill had their first single seat races there, Roger Penske visited in 1963, Jim Clark and Jack Sears competed in 1964; the accident that ended Stirling Moss's International career happened at St. Mary's Corner in 1962. Donald Campbell demonstrated his Bluebird CN7 Land Speed Record car at Goodwood in July 1960 at its initial public launch, again in July 1962, before being shipped to Australia—where it broke the record in 1964; the car was a 30-foot-long Bristol Siddeley turbine-powered 4,500 hp streamliner, with a theoretical top speed of 450 to 500 miles per hour. The laps of Goodwood were at "tick-over" speed, because the car had only four degrees of steering lock, with a maximum of 100 mph on the straight on one lap. Goodwood saw its last race meeting for over 30 years in 1966, because the owners did not want to modify the track with chicanes to control the increased speeds of modern racing cars.
The last event was a club meeting organised by the British Automobile Racing Club on 2 July 1966. The circuit claimed the life of McLaren-founder Bruce McLaren in a testing accident on 2 June 1970; the accident happened on Lavant Straight, when a rear bodywork failure on McLaren's M8D car caused it to spin and leave the track, hitting a structure on the infield at over 100 mph while travelling sideways. Goodwood is noted for its annual Festival of Speed and Goodwood Revival events; the Goodwood Festival of Speed is an annual hill climb, held in late June or early July not on the circuit, but in the nearby grounds of Goodwood House. It features modern motor-racing vehicles. In 2010, the event had over 176,000 visitors over four days. Following the success of the Festival of Speed hill climb, racing returned to the Goodwood circuit in 1998; the Goodwood Revival is a three-day festival held each September for the types of cars and motorcycles that would have competed during the circuit's original period, 1948–1966.
Historic aircraft help to complete the vintage feel. In 2008, a crowd of 68,000 people attended the event on the main Sunday - 9,000 more than in 2007; the track is now used for classic races, track days, try-out days. Nearly everyone dresses up in vintage outfit from mods and rockers to racing drivers and just smart period clothes. In 2009, the Mongol Rally, a charity fundraising car rally to Mongolia, moved its starting point from Hyde Park, London to Goodwood. Entrants are on show to the public in the paddock before beginning the rally with a parade lap of the circuit; the National Finals of the Greenpower schools electric car racing challenge takes place at Goodwood each year. The Greenpower challenge is a nationwide series of electric vehicle endurance races for schools, who build their own 24 volt single-seater racing cars. There is a corporate version of the race, featuring teams like Lola, Jaguar Land Rover, Bentley Motors and Prodrive. The'Breakfast Club' was introduced in March 2006; this is a semi regular free to enter, open-to-all monthly gathering of drivers and riders who come to view each other's cars, bikes etc.
Each meeting is themed with striking examples of the days theme paraded on the start finish straight. The circuit hosted the 1982 UCI Road World Championships for cycle racing, notable for the men's professional race, which saw a late breakaway by the American rider Jacques Boyer being closed down by a pack led by Boyer's teammate Greg LeMond; the circuit was used as a filming location in the series Downton Abbey. Brighton Speed Trials British Automobile Racing Club Firle Hill Climb Gurston Down Motorsport Hillclimb Lewes Speed Trials Thruxton Circuit in Thruxton, Hampshire Brooklands circuit in Weybridge, Surrey Goodwood 500 Owners Association Greenpower
Autodrome de Linas-Montlhéry
Autodrome de Montlhéry is a motor racing circuit called L’autodrome de Linas-Montlhéry, located south-west of the small town of Montlhéry about thirty kilometres south of Paris. Industrialist Alexandre Lamblin hired René Jamin to design the 2,548.24 metres oval shaped track for up to 1,000 kg vehicles at 220 km/h. It was called Autodrome parisien, had high banking. A road circuit was added in 1925; the first race there, the 1925 French Grand Prix, was held on 26 July 1925 and organised by The Automobile Club de France Grand Prix. It was a race; the Grand Prix revisited the track in 1927 and each year between 1931 and 1937. In 1939 the track was sold to the government, deprived of maintenance, again sold to Union technique de l’automobile et du cycle in December 1946; the "Coupe du Salon", "Grand Prix de l'Age d'Or" and the "1000 km" were arranged irregularly since as the track has had several high-speed problems. Fatal accidents at Autodrome de Montlhéry include Benoît Nicolas Musy, the one in which Peter Lindner, Franco Patria and three flag marshals died in 1964.
The last certification for racing was gained in 2001. The first race, the 1925 French Grand Prix, was held on 26 July 1925 and organised by the Automobile Club de France. Robert Benoist in a Delage won. In July 1926 Violette Cordery lead a team that averaged 113.8 km/h for 8,047 km driving an Invicta, became the first woman to be awarded the Dewar Trophy by the Royal Automobile Club. The Grand Prix revisited the track in 1927. In 1929, Hellé Nice drove an Oméga-Six to victory in the all-female Grand Prix of the third Journée Feminine at the Autodrome de Linas-Montlhéry and set a new world land speed record for women; the Grand Prix revisited the track each year between 1931 and 1937. The "Coupe du Salon", "Grand Prix de l'Age d'Or" and the "1000 km" were arranged irregularly since as the track has had several high-speed problems; the Grand Prix de France was organized in Linas-Montlhéry in 1925, 1931, 1935 and 1937 with the best worldwide racers. A competitor Grand Prix de France was organized from 1924 to 1937 with the best French and British racers.
The Bol d'or, the well-known French motorcycle endurance race of 24 hours, was held in Linas-Montlhéry before the Second War from 1937 to 1939, after the Second War in 1949, in 1950, from 1952 to 1960, in 1969 and in 1970. British motorcycles were victorious from 1931 to 1959,. A legendary French racer, Gustave Lefèvre is always the record holder with 7 victories despite riding alone during 24 hours: his average speed was 107 kilometres per hour in 1953; the year after, two riders were allowed. In 1969, a Japanese bike, Honda Four, wins for the first time. In 1970, a British one, Triumph Trident, wins for the last time. Another race open the year in France, the Côte Lapize, climbing around the hill of Saint-Eutrope: the new engines confidentially prepared during the winter months were shown. In early 1950s, Pierre Monneret riding the famous Gilera Four, 500 cc, sent by the official Italian team, was one of them; some races were open to production motorcycles like the Coupes Eugène Mauve. In 1933 the circuit hosted the UCI Road World Championships for cycling.
In 2010 the Speed Ring played host to Ken Block's Gymkhana Three video, an advertisement for his company, DC Shoes. William Boddy, Montlhéry, the story of the Paris autodrome ISBN 1-84584-052-6 Montlhery.com Website about Autodrome de Linas-Montlhéry Autodrome de Linas-Montlhéry on Stades Mythiques Paris Autodrome News Association pour le soutien de l'autodrome de Linas-Montlhéry Historic Purpose Built Grand Prix Circuits on Google Maps
Formula Three called Formula 3 or F3, is a class of open-wheel formula racing. The various championships held in Europe, South America and Asia form an important step for many prospective Formula One drivers. Formula Three has traditionally been regarded as the first major stepping stone for F1 hopefuls – it is the first point in a driver's career at which most drivers in the series are aiming at professional careers in racing rather than being amateurs and enthusiasts. F3 is regarded as a key investment in a young driver's future career. Success in F3 can lead directly to a Formula 2 seat or a Formula One test or race seat. Formula Three evolved from postwar auto racing, with lightweight tube-frame chassis powered by 500 cc motorcycle engines; the 500 cc formula evolved in 1946 from low-cost "special" racing organised by enthusiasts in Bristol, just before the Second World War. The second post-war motor race in Britain was organised by the VSCC in July 1947 at RAF Gransden Lodge, 500cc cars being the only post-war class to run that day.
The race was a complete flop, as three of the seven entrants were non-starters, and, of the four runners, all but one were out of it in the first lap, leaving Eric Brandon in his Cooper Prototype trailing round to a virtual walk-over at the unimpressive speed of 55.79 mph, though his best lap was 65.38 mph. Cooper came to dominate the formula with mass-produced cars, the income this generated enabled the company to develop into the senior categories. Other notable marques included Kieft, JBS and Emeryson in England, Effyh and Scampolo in Europe. John Cooper, along with most other 500 builders, decided to place the engine in the middle of the car, driving the rear wheels; this was due to the practical limitations imposed by chain drive but it gave these cars exceptionally good handling characteristics which led to the mid-engined revolution in single-seater racing. The 500cc formula was the usual route into motor racing through the mid-1950s. Other notable 500 cc Formula 3 drivers include Stuart Lewis-Evans, Ivor Bueb, Jim Russell, Peter Collins, Don Parker, Ken Tyrrell, Bernie Ecclestone.
From a statistical point of view, Don Parker was the most successful F3 driver. Although coming to motor racing late in life, he won a total of 126 F3 races altogether, was described by Motor Sport magazine as "the most successful Formula 3 driver in history." Although Stirling Moss was a star by 1953, Parker beat him more than any other driver, was Formula 3 Champion in 1952, again in 1953, in 1954 he only lost the title by a half-point. He took the title for a third time in 1959. In 1954, Parker took on a young man named Norman Graham Hill as his mechanic and general assistant, gave him his first taste of competitive motorsport in a 500cc car at Brands Hatch; some years now using his middle name of Graham, this young man twice became Formula 1 World Champion. Parker retired from Formula Three after the 1959 season, chose not to move to Formula 2 or Formula 1 because of his age. However, he did race for one final season, representing Jaguar in the British Saloon Car Championships, winning at Oulton Park on June 6 in his XK150.
As a retirement gift in 1961, Jaguar's Lofty England presented him with a specially-designed 3.8 litre Jaguar Mark 2. It was claimed to be the fastest Mark 2 Jaguar had built, being tested at 140 mph on the newly opened M4 motorway in 1963. 500cc Formula Three declined at an international level during the late 1950s, although it continued at a national level into the early 60s, being eclipsed by Formula Junior for 1000 or 1100 cc cars. A one-litre Formula Three category for four-cylinder carburetted cars, with tuned production engines, was reintroduced in 1964 based on the Formula Junior rules and ran to 1970; these engines tended to rev highly and were popularly known as "screamers". The "screamer" years were dominated by Brabham and Tecno, with March beginning in 1970. Early one-litre F3 chassis tended to descend from Formula Junior designs but evolved. For 1971 new regulations allowing 1600 cc engines with a restricted air intake were introduced; the 1971–73 seasons were contested with these cars, as aerodynamics started to become important.
Two-litre engine rules were introduced for 1974, still with restricted air intakes. Today engine regulations remain unchanged in F3, a remarkable case of stability in racing regulations; as the likes of Lotus and Brabham faded from F3 to concentrate on Formula One, F3 constructors of the 1970s included Alpine, March, Modus, GRD, Ensign. By the start of the 1980s however, Formula Three had evolved well beyond its humble beginnings to something resembling the modern formula, it was seen as the main training ground for future Formula One drivers, many of them bypassing Formula Two to go straight into Grand Prix racing. The chassis became sophisticated, mirroring the more senior formulae – ground effects
Coventry Climax was a British forklift truck, fire pump and other speciality engine manufacturer. The company was started in 1903 as Lee Stroyer, but two years following the departure of Stroyer, it was relocated to Paynes Lane and renamed as Coventry-Simplex by H. Pelham Lee, a former Daimler employee, who saw a need for competition in the nascent piston engine market. An early user was GWK, who produced over 1,000 light cars with Coventry-Simplex two-cylinder engines between 1911 and 1915. Just before World War I a Coventry-Simplex engine was used by Lionel Martin to power the first Aston Martin car. Ernest Shackleton selected Coventry-Simplex to power the tractors that were to be used in his Imperial Trans-Antarctic Expedition of 1914. Hundreds of Coventry-Simplex engines were manufactured during World War I to be used in generating sets for searchlights. In 1917 the company was moved to East Street, Coventry. Throughout the 1920s and 1930s they supplied engines to many companies manufacturing light cars such as Abbey, AJS, Ashton-Evans, Bayliss-Thomas, Crossley, Crouch, GWK, Morgan, Triumph and Standard.
In the 1920s the company moved to Friars Road, Coventry and in the late 1930s they acquired the former Riley premises on Widdrington Road, Coventry. In the early 1930s the company supplied engines for buses. With the closure of Swift in 1931, the company was left with a stock of engines that were converted to drive electric generators, giving the company an entry into a new field; the economic problems of the 1930s hit the business hard and Leonard Pelham Lee, who had taken over from his father, diversified into the production of water-pumping equipment and the "Godiva" was born. Going into the war, Coventry Climax used their marine diesel experience to further develop and build the Armstrong Whitworth supercharged H30 multifuel engine for military use; this has been fitted as an auxiliary engine in the British Chieftain and Challenger battle tanks and Rapier anti-aircraft missile systems. In the late 1940s, the company shifted away from automobile engines and into other markets, including marine diesels, fire pumps, forklift trucks.
In 1946, the ET199 was announced, which the company claimed was the first British-produced forklift truck. The ET199 was designed to carry a 4,000 lb load with a 24-inch load centre, with a 9 ft lift height. In 1950, Harry Mundy and Walter Hassan joined Coventry Climax, a new lightweight all-aluminium overhead camshaft engine was developed in response to the government's ambitious requisition outline asking for a portable fire pump, capable of pumping double the amount of water specified in the previous outline, with half the weight; this was designated the FW, for "Feather Weight". The engine was displayed at the Motor Show in London and attracted attention from the motor racing fraternity for its high "horsepower per pound of weight". With strong persuasions at the show including those by Cyril Kieft and a young Colin Chapman, Lee concluded that success in competition could lead to more customers for the company and so the team designed the FWA, a Feather Weight engine for Automobiles; the first Coventry Climax racing engine appeared at the 1954 24 Hours of Le Mans in the front of one of two Kieft 1100 sports racers, but both cars failed to finish the race due to problems unrelated to the engines.
The FWA became popular in sportscar racing and was followed by the Mark II and by the FWB which had a capacity of nearly 1.5-litres. The new Formula Two regulations suited the 1.5-litre engine and it became the engine to have in F2 racing. The following year, the first Climax engines began to appear in Formula One in the back of Cooper chassis; these were FWBs but the FPF engine followed. Stirling Moss scored the company's first Formula One victory, in Argentina in 1958, using a 2-litre version of the engine. In general terms, the engines were not powerful enough to compete with the 2.5-litre machinery and it was not until the 2.5-litre version of the FPF arrived in 1959 that Jack Brabham was able to win the world championship in a Cooper-Climax. At the same time, the company produced the FWE engine for Lotus Elite and this enjoyed considerable success in sports car racing, with a series of class wins at the Le Mans events in the early 1960s. In 1961, there was a new 1.5-litre formula and the FPF engine was given a new lease on life, although the company began work on a V8 engine, designated the FWMV, this began winning races in 1962 with Jim Clark.
There were a total of 22 Grand Prix victories before 1966 with crossplane, two- and four-valve versions of the FWMV. When the new, 3-litre, formula was introduced, Coventry Climax decided not to build engines for the new formula and withdrew from racing after the unsuccessful FWMW project, with the exception of the new 2-Litre version of the FWMV. In the early 1960s, Coventry Climax was approached by Rootes to mass-produce FWMAs for use in a compact family car project called Apex with an all-aluminium alloy over head cam engine combined with a full-syncromesh aluminium transaxle; this combination was considered radical at the time the syncromesh on all forward gears, declared'impossible' by Alec Issigonis of BMC Mini fame. The adoption to mass-production was successful, the project came out to the market as the 875cc Hillman Imp totaling over 400,000 units made by 1976 including the 998cc version. At Earls Court in 1962 Coventry Climax' chairman Leonard Pelham Lee announced the withdrawal from building Formula 1 e