The Guardian is a British daily newspaper. It was founded in 1821 as The Manchester Guardian, changed its name in 1959. Along with its sister papers The Observer and The Guardian Weekly, the Guardian is part of the Guardian Media Group, owned by the Scott Trust; the trust was created in 1936 to "secure the financial and editorial independence of the Guardian in perpetuity and to safeguard the journalistic freedom and liberal values of the Guardian free from commercial or political interference". The trust was converted into a limited company in 2008, with a constitution written so as to maintain for The Guardian the same protections as were built into the structure of the Scott Trust by its creators. Profits are reinvested in journalism rather than distributed to shareholders; the current editor is Katharine Viner: she succeeded Alan Rusbridger in 2015. Since 2018, the paper's main newsprint sections have been published in tabloid format; as of November that year, its print edition had a daily circulation of 136,834.
The newspaper has an online edition, TheGuardian.com, as well as two international websites, Guardian Australia and Guardian US. The paper's readership is on the mainstream left of British political opinion, its reputation as a platform for liberal and left-wing editorial has led to the use of the "Guardian reader" and "Guardianista" as often-pejorative epithets for those of left-leaning or "politically correct" tendencies. Frequent typographical errors in the paper led Private Eye magazine to dub it the "Grauniad" in the 1960s, a nickname still used today. In an Ipsos MORI research poll in September 2018 designed to interrogate the public's trust of specific titles online, The Guardian scored highest for digital-content news, with 84% of readers agreeing that they "trust what see in it". A December 2018 report of a poll by the Publishers Audience Measurement Company stated that the paper's print edition was found to be the most trusted in the UK in the period from October 2017 to September 2018.
It was reported to be the most-read of the UK's "quality newsbrands", including digital editions. While The Guardian's print circulation is in decline, the report indicated that news from The Guardian, including that reported online, reaches more than 23 million UK adults each month. Chief among the notable "scoops" obtained by the paper was the 2011 News International phone-hacking scandal—and in particular the hacking of the murdered English teenager Milly Dowler's phone; the investigation led to the closure of the News of the World, the UK's best-selling Sunday newspaper and one of the highest-circulation newspapers in history. In June 2013, The Guardian broke news of the secret collection by the Obama administration of Verizon telephone records, subsequently revealed the existence of the surveillance program PRISM after knowledge of it was leaked to the paper by the whistleblower and former NSA contractor Edward Snowden. In 2016, The Guardian led an investigation into the Panama Papers, exposing then-Prime Minister David Cameron's links to offshore bank accounts.
It has been named "newspaper of the year" four times at the annual British Press Awards: most in 2014, for its reporting on government surveillance. The Manchester Guardian was founded in Manchester in 1821 by cotton merchant John Edward Taylor with backing from the Little Circle, a group of non-conformist businessmen, they launched their paper after the police closure of the more radical Manchester Observer, a paper that had championed the cause of the Peterloo Massacre protesters. Taylor had been hostile to the radical reformers, writing: "They have appealed not to the reason but the passions and the suffering of their abused and credulous fellow-countrymen, from whose ill-requited industry they extort for themselves the means of a plentiful and comfortable existence, they do not toil, neither do they spin, but they live better than those that do." When the government closed down the Manchester Observer, the mill-owners' champions had the upper hand. The influential journalist Jeremiah Garnett joined Taylor during the establishment of the paper, all of the Little Circle wrote articles for the new paper.
The prospectus announcing the new publication proclaimed that it would "zealously enforce the principles of civil and religious Liberty warmly advocate the cause of Reform endeavour to assist in the diffusion of just principles of Political Economy and support, without reference to the party from which they emanate, all serviceable measures". In 1825 the paper merged with the British Volunteer and was known as The Manchester Guardian and British Volunteer until 1828; the working-class Manchester and Salford Advertiser called the Manchester Guardian "the foul prostitute and dirty parasite of the worst portion of the mill-owners". The Manchester Guardian was hostile to labour's claims. Of the 1832 Ten Hours Bill, the paper doubted whether in view of the foreign competition "the passing of a law positively enacting a gradual destruction of the cotton manufacture in this kingdom would be a much less rational procedure." The Manchester Guardian dismissed strikes as the work of outside agitators: " if an accommodation can be effected, the occupation of the agents of the Union is gone.
They live on strife "The Manchester Guardian was critical of US President Abraham Lincoln's conduct during the US Civil War, writing on the news that Abraham Lincoln had been assassinated: "Of his rule, we can never speak except as a series of acts abhorrent to every true notion of constitutional right and human liberty " C. P. Scott ma
Greater Manchester is a metropolitan county in North West England, with a population of 2.8 million. It encompasses one of the largest metropolitan areas in the United Kingdom and comprises ten metropolitan boroughs: Bolton, Oldham, Stockport, Trafford and the cities of Manchester and Salford. Greater Manchester was created on 1 April 1974 as a result of the Local Government Act 1972. Greater Manchester spans 493 square miles, which covers the territory of the Greater Manchester Built-up Area, the second most populous urban area in the UK, it is landlocked and borders Cheshire, West Yorkshire and Merseyside. There is a mix of high-density urban areas, semi-rural and rural locations in Greater Manchester, but land use is urban—the product of concentric urbanisation and industrialisation which occurred during the 19th century when the region flourished as the global centre of the cotton industry, it has a focused central business district, formed by Manchester city centre and the adjoining parts of Salford and Trafford, but Greater Manchester is a polycentric county with ten metropolitan districts, each of which has at least one major town centre and outlying suburbs.
Greater Manchester is governed by the Greater Manchester Combined Authority, which consists of political leaders from each of the ten metropolitan borough councils, plus a directly elected mayor, with responsibility for economic development and transport. Andy Burnham is the inaugural Mayor of Greater Manchester, elected in 2017. For the 12 years following 1974 the county had a two-tier system of local government; the county council was abolished in 1986, so its districts became unitary authority areas. However, the metropolitan county continued to exist in law and as a geographic frame of reference, as a ceremonial county, with a Lord Lieutenant and a High Sheriff. Several county-wide services were co-ordinated through the Association of Greater Manchester Authorities between 1985 and 2011. Before the creation of the metropolitan county, the name SELNEC was used for the area, from the initials of "South East Lancashire North East Cheshire". Greater Manchester is an amalgamation of 70 former local government districts from the former administrative counties of Lancashire, the West Riding of Yorkshire and eight independent county boroughs.
Since deindustrialisation in the mid-20th century, Greater Manchester has emerged as an exporter of media and digital content and dance music, association football. Although the modern county of Greater Manchester was not created until 1974, the history of its constituent settlements goes back centuries. There is evidence of Iron Age habitation at Mellor, Celtic activity in a settlement named Chochion, believed to have been an area of Wigan settled by the Brigantes. Stretford was part of the land believed to have been occupied by the Celtic Brigantes tribe, lay on their border with the Cornovii on the southern side of the River Mersey; the remains of 1st-century forts at Castlefield in Manchester, Castleshaw Roman fort in Saddleworth, are evidence of Roman occupation. Much of the region was omitted from the Domesday Book of 1086. During the Middle Ages, much of what became Greater Manchester lay within the hundred of Salfordshire – an ancient division of the county of Lancashire. Salfordshire encompassed several parishes and townships, some of which, like Rochdale, were important market towns and centres of England's woollen trade.
The development of what became Greater Manchester is attributed to a shared tradition of domestic flannel and fustian cloth production, which encouraged a system of cross-regional trade. In the late-18th century, the Industrial Revolution transformed the local domestic system. Infrastructure such as rows of terraced housing and roads were constructed to house labour, transport goods, produce cotton goods on an industrial scale for a global market; the townships in and around Manchester began expanding "at an astonishing rate" around the turn of the 19th century as part of a process of unplanned urbanisation brought on by a boom in industrial textile production and processing. This population increase resulted in the "vigorous concentric growth" of a conurbation between Manchester and an arc of surrounding mill towns, formed from a steady accretion of houses and transport infrastructure. Places such as Bury and Bolton played a central economic role nationally, by the end of the 19th century had become some of the most important and productive cotton-producing towns in the world.
However, it was Manchester, the most populous settlement, a major city, the world's largest marketplace for cotton goods, the natural centre of its region. By 1835 "Manchester was without challenge the first and greatest industrial city in the world". In the 1910s, local government reforms to administer this conurbation as a single entity were proposed. In the 18th century, German traders had coined the name Manchesterthum to cover the region in and around Manchester. However, the English term "Greater Mancheste
The Cooper Temple Clause
The Cooper Temple Clause were an English alternative rock band, formed in Wokingham, Berkshire in 1998. The band released three albums before announcing their split on 24 April 2007, following the departure of Daniel Fisher. After signing a record deal with the RCA label in 2000 and putting out several singles and EPs, their debut album See This Through and Leave was released in 2002 to great critical acclaim. 2003's follow-up, Kick Up the Fire, Let the Flames Break Loose, achieved the band international recognition on the strength of the singles "Promises, Promises" and "Blind Pilots". The Cooper Temple Clause left RCA in 2006, signing to Sanctuary Records for the release of their third album Make This Your Own; the band were named after the Cowper-Temple clause, the first part of the name of, pronounced as in the band's name. The clause was inserted into the Elementary Education Act 1870, which established compulsory primary education in England and Wales; the clause, a compromise on the matter of funding for denominational schools, was named after its proposer, Liberal MP William Cowper-Temple.
During many of their early interviews, the band would make up various stories related to the origin of their name. An example of this can be seen in a video interview by Supersweet TV; the band's debut album, See This Through and Leave was released on 11 February 2002. Three singles were released from the album; the album was released on CD, limited edition double CD, international CD and a 7" boxed set, along with 2 promo CDs. The Limited edition double CD contained 3 extra songs and live versions of Panzer Attack and Let's Kill Music, it was well reached number 27 in the UK Albums Chart. Fisher wrote the lyrics for this first album Following only 19 months after See This Through And Leave, The Cooper Temple Clause released their second album Kick Up the Fire, Let the Flames Break Loose on 8 September 2003; the album, which saw the band record for the first time at their own studios Bleak House, had a different style to it and incorporated electronic sounds into tracks. Its two singles, "Promises, Promises" and "Blind Pilots" achieved the band international recognition, with "Promises, Promises" reaching number 19 on the UK Singles Chart.
The album was hailed by fans and critics alike and reached number 5 in the UK Albums Chart, the highest position the band would achieve. In September 2005, bassist Didz Hammond left the band to join ex-Libertine Carl Barât in the band Dirty Pretty Things; the Cooper Temple Clause issued a statement on their official website confirming Didz's departure. However Hammond is credited as playing bass on two of Make This Your Own's eleven tracks. After many setbacks including a change in record label, the loss of Didz Hammond, the band's third album was delayed, it was released on 22 January 2007 and entitled Make This Your Own. It included the singles "Damage", "Homo Sapiens", "Waiting Game" and "Head"; the album saw Fisher and Bellamy having a greater role in vocals, featured fewer electronic influences than the previous album. The band announced; the band had been due to headline the AKG Unsigned Heroes gig at London's KOKO in Camden in the same week. During the week prior to the official split, the band had been scheduled to perform at Underworld and Dingwalls as part of the Camden Crawl.
These two appearances were cancelled, with the band citing exhaustion as the reason. It is not clear whether the split was a factor in the cancellations. A post was made on the band's website. Tom Bellamy is a member of Losers and the live drummer for White Belt Yellow Tag. Daniel Fisher is the lead singer and guitarist in Red Kite. Ben Gautrey is lead singer and guitarist in Type Two Error with Kieran Mahon playing bass and synths. Mahon completed an undergraduate degree in at Queen Mary, University of London, is completing an architectural history MA at University College London. Jon Harper became a session drummer in the Brazilian band Cansei de Ser Sexy when Adriano Cintra took the place of Iracema Trevisan as bassist, after she left in March 2008. In November 2009 Harper joined the Chris Corner project IAMX as a member of the live band for a session that lasted until July 2010. Harper is a tutor and lecturer at the Bristol Institute of Modern Music. Tom Bellamy - Guitar, Synthesizer, Trumpet, Samples, Harmonica, Toy Piano, Decks, FX/Beats and Lyrics.
Daniel Fisher - Guitar, Bass and Lyrics. Ben Gautrey - Lead vocals, Guitar and Keyboard. Jon Harper - Drums and Backing vocals. Kieran Mahon - Keyboard, Synthesizer, Hammond Organ, Guitar and Backing vocals. Didz Hammond - Bass, Samples, Vocoder and Vocals. See This Through and Leave No. 28 UK Kick Up the Fire, Let the Flames Break Loose No. 5 UK Make This Your Own No. 33 UK Audiojunkies Interview with The Cooper Temple Clause TheMusicZine interview MusicEmissions Interview I Like Music interview The Cooper Temple Clause video interview - January 2007 Foxholski - TCTC Interviews SUPERSWEET interview SUPERSWEET interview with Jon Harper
The British Broadcasting Corporation is a British public service broadcaster. Its headquarters are at Broadcasting House in Westminster, it is the world's oldest national broadcasting organisation and the largest broadcaster in the world by number of employees, it employs over 20,950 staff in total. The total number of staff is 35,402 when part-time and fixed-contract staff are included; the BBC is established under a Royal Charter and operates under its Agreement with the Secretary of State for Digital, Culture and Sport. Its work is funded principally by an annual television licence fee, charged to all British households and organisations using any type of equipment to receive or record live television broadcasts and iPlayer catch-up; the fee is set by the British Government, agreed by Parliament, used to fund the BBC's radio, TV, online services covering the nations and regions of the UK. Since 1 April 2014, it has funded the BBC World Service, which broadcasts in 28 languages and provides comprehensive TV, online services in Arabic and Persian.
Around a quarter of BBC revenues come from its commercial arm BBC Studios Ltd, which sells BBC programmes and services internationally and distributes the BBC's international 24-hour English-language news services BBC World News, from BBC.com, provided by BBC Global News Ltd. From its inception, through the Second World War, to the 21st century, the BBC has played a prominent role in British culture, it is known colloquially as "The Beeb", "Auntie", or a combination of both. Britain's first live public broadcast from the Marconi factory in Chelmsford took place in June 1920, it was sponsored by the Daily Mail's Lord Northcliffe and featured the famous Australian soprano Dame Nellie Melba. The Melba broadcast caught the people's imagination and marked a turning point in the British public's attitude to radio. However, this public enthusiasm was not shared in official circles where such broadcasts were held to interfere with important military and civil communications. By late 1920, pressure from these quarters and uneasiness among the staff of the licensing authority, the General Post Office, was sufficient to lead to a ban on further Chelmsford broadcasts.
But by 1922, the GPO had received nearly 100 broadcast licence requests and moved to rescind its ban in the wake of a petition by 63 wireless societies with over 3,000 members. Anxious to avoid the same chaotic expansion experienced in the United States, the GPO proposed that it would issue a single broadcasting licence to a company jointly owned by a consortium of leading wireless receiver manufactures, to be known as the British Broadcasting Company Ltd. John Reith, a Scottish Calvinist, was appointed its General Manager in December 1922 a few weeks after the company made its first official broadcast; the company was to be financed by a royalty on the sale of BBC wireless receiving sets from approved domestic manufacturers. To this day, the BBC aims to follow the Reithian directive to "inform and entertain"; the financial arrangements soon proved inadequate. Set sales were disappointing as amateurs made their own receivers and listeners bought rival unlicensed sets. By mid-1923, discussions between the GPO and the BBC had become deadlocked and the Postmaster-General commissioned a review of broadcasting by the Sykes Committee.
The Committee recommended a short term reorganisation of licence fees with improved enforcement in order to address the BBC's immediate financial distress, an increased share of the licence revenue split between it and the GPO. This was to be followed by a simple 10 shillings licence fee with no royalty once the wireless manufactures protection expired; the BBC's broadcasting monopoly was made explicit for the duration of its current broadcast licence, as was the prohibition on advertising. The BBC was banned from presenting news bulletins before 19.00 and was required to source all news from external wire services. Mid-1925 found the future of broadcasting under further consideration, this time by the Crawford committee. By now, the BBC, under Reith's leadership, had forged a consensus favouring a continuation of the unified broadcasting service, but more money was still required to finance rapid expansion. Wireless manufacturers were anxious to exit the loss making consortium with Reith keen that the BBC be seen as a public service rather than a commercial enterprise.
The recommendations of the Crawford Committee were published in March the following year and were still under consideration by the GPO when the 1926 general strike broke out in May. The strike temporarily interrupted newspaper production, with restrictions on news bulletins waived, the BBC became the primary source of news for the duration of the crisis; the crisis placed the BBC in a delicate position. On one hand Reith was acutely aware that the Government might exercise its right to commandeer the BBC at any time as a mouthpiece of the Government if the BBC were to step out of line, but on the other he was anxious to maintain public trust by appearing to be acting independently; the Government was divided on how to handle the BBC but ended up trusting Reith, whose opposition to the strike mirrored the PM's own. Thus the BBC was granted sufficient leeway to pursue the Government's objectives in a manner of its own choosing; the resulting coverage of both striker and government viewpoints impressed millions of listeners who were unaware that the PM had broadcast to the nation from Reith's home, using one of Reith's sound bites inserted at the last moment
HolbyBlue is a British police procedural drama series. The show revolves around the daily lives of a number of police officers working at Holby South police station; the cast for series one included Jimmy Akingbola as PC Neil Parker, Joe Jacobs as PC William "Billy" Jackson, David Sterne as Sergeant Edward'Mac' McFadden, Cal Macaninch as DI John Keenan, James Hillier as Sergeant Christian Young, Kacey Ainsworth as Inspector Jenny Black, Richard Harrington as DS Luke French, Zöe Lucker as Kate Keenan, Chloe Howman as PC Kelly Cooper, Kieran O'Brien as PC Robert Clifton, Tim Pigott-Smith as DCI Harry Hutchinson, Sara Powell as Rachel Barker and Elaine Glover as PC Lucy Slater. Velibor Topić and Julie Cox joined the cast in a recurring capacity as drug baron Neculai Stenga and Mandy French, Luke French's wife. By the end of series one, Pigott-Smith and Topic both departed the show. Series two saw the introductions of Oliver Milburn as DCI Scott Vaughan and James Thornton as Constable Jake Loughton.
Stephanie Langton took over from Julie Cox in series two to continue playing the role of Mandy. The series was announced on 27 April 2006, was created by Tony Jordan as a spin-off from the established medical drama Holby City; the show premiered on 8 May 2007. HolbyBlue ran for two series and was cancelled by the BBC on 6 August 2008, after ratings fell from an initial 5.64 million viewers to a low of 2.5 million viewers. Tony Jordan and Karen Wilson served as the show's executive producers, while Claire Phillips was the producer. Jordan spent time with first serving officers and believed that the key to a successful police drama was its ability to reflect a society "in which it existed". Jordan made the decision to emulate two American police dramas: NYPD Blue; the BBC suggested that Jordan used the "Holby" brand to "create a third arm of the successful Casualty and Holby City format". Jordan questioned whether the series would be "held in disdain" by "soap snobs", but made the ultimate decision to name the drama HolbyBlue after remembering the "joy" he took from "surprising the audience by subverting expectation".
HolbyBlue received mixed reception. Rachel Cooke from The Observer criticised the show's unoriginal characterisation, while The Times' Andrew Billen stated that the most that could be said for the show was that it had a healthy pace, well-written dialogue. On the contrary, David Chater from the same newspaper praised the show's "high energy level" and casting. Chater suggested the show would serve to be strong competition for ITV's police drama The Bill. Jod Mitchell of The Daily Telegraph expressed that the series injected "pace and verve" into the BBC One schedule. Mark Wright from The Stage branded the opening episode of HolbyBlue "boring", with some "duff casting". Wright criticised the decision to launch the show under the Holby moniker, opining that it is not a true brand as Casualty and Holby City both possess "distinct personalities". During its lifespan, HolbyBlue was nominated for six awards: Best Drama at the Inside Soap Awards in 2007 and 2008. In series one, DI John Keenan learns that Kate Keenan, is dating a new man.
John has sex with senior crown prosecutor Rachel Barker, but regrets his decision to have sex with her. Kate is employed as a receptionist at the police station, but attacks Rachel after she is provoked. Kate tenders her resignation; the pair reconcile. DS Luke French works with John to take down drugs baron Neculai Stenga. DCI Harry Hutchinson acts as Neculai's informant, but John is convinced that PC Billy Jackson is the informant. John learns that Harry is Neculai's informant after catching him leaving Neculai's warehouse, which leads to a hostage situation involving Kate and her children. John and Luke rescue the children. Newly appointed PC Lucy Slater is stabbed while out on duty, she recovers, begins dating a drug dealer. Her former partner, PC Robert Clifton, learns of Lucy's boyfriend's criminal reputation and forces the pair to separate. DS Luke French and his wife, Mandy French, fail their second attempt at IVF. Luke and Mandy argue over Luke's divided priorities between his terminally ill mother.
Luke agrees to put his terminally ill mother in a care home, but is heartbroken when she dies following a fall. PC Kelly Cooper struggles with her financial difficulties and considers stealing money she finds while out on duty. Inspector Jenny Black ends her marriage with her husband, Alex Black, when she learns he is having an affair. PC Neil Parker is offered a promotion, but he is dismayed upon learning it is political as opposed to merit-based. In series two, well-established Holby City character Jac Naylor is arrested on suspicion of the murder of Alan Clooney, a well-known sex offender who tried to rape her, she is released when a mystery witness comes forward. Luke becomes a father for the first time with wife Mandy. Kate flirts with a man she finds at a police event, only to learn she has been flirting with new boss, DCI Scott Vaughan. Robert is encouraged by Lucy to ask an ex-girlfriend of his to see their son. Robert's ex agrees to allowing him to see their son at the end of his shift.
However, while Robert and Lucy are out on duty, gang violence results in the death of one of the gang members. Robert and Lucy visit the relatives of Connor in the aftermath o
When used in a sexual context, groping or fondling is touching another person in an unwelcome sexual way. The term has a negative connotation in many societies, the activity may be considered sexual assault. Toucherism, considered a paraphilia, describes the practice of a person touching another non-consenting person with their hands in crowds, for their own sexual pleasure. Touching a consenting person's body during sexual activity, massage, or medical examination is not considered groping, though the term is sometimes used to include clumsy, selfish, or inappropriate sexual touching. Areas of the body most groped include the buttocks, breasts and thighs on a woman, the penis and buttocks on a man. Gropers might use their hands, but pressing any part of their body against another person can be considered groping; the incidence of groping varies around the world, some countries have acquired a reputation for it. In some countries, it slapped in a crowded area. In many countries, non-consensual sexual touching of any part of another person's body is considered to be sexual assault and is illegal, but in all countries it is considered unacceptable behaviour.
Italy used to have a reputation for men pinching women's bottoms, the term groping could be applied, but it was not a common term at that time. Japan has a reputation for females being groped on trains and buses to the extent that the authorities have implemented anti-groping campaigns, which has received considerable media attention and been the subject of serious study in recent years. In parts of South Asia, including India and Bangladesh, public sexual harassment or molestation of women by men is referred to as Eve teasing. In Japan, one gender groping another gender in public is called chikan. Crowded trains are a favorite location for groping and a 2001 survey conducted in two Tokyo high schools revealed that more than 2/3rds of female students had been groped while traveling on them; as part of the effort to combat the problem, some railway companies designate women-only passenger cars during rush hours. While the term is not defined in the Japanese legal system, vernacular usage of the word describes acts that violate several laws.
Although crowded trains are the most frequent targets, another common setting is bicycle parking areas, where people bending over unlocking locks are targets. Chikan is featured in Japanese pornography; this issue affects men in a different way. Since Japan has a high conviction rate, innocent men may have difficulty proving their innocence in court; the film I Just Didn't Do It by Japanese film director Masayuki Suo, based on a true story, focuses on a male office worker acquitted of groping after a five-year legal battle. The criminal courts have traditionally been lenient in cases of groping and have only made efforts to combat the social problem with tougher sentences. Groping is illegal; the charge can vary from state to state but is considered to be sexual battery, sexual groping, or unlawful touching. In some jurisdictions, groping is considered "Criminal Sexual Conduct", in the second to fourth degree, if there is no penetration. Florida: U. S. Customs and Border Protection Officer Paulo Morales, 47, of Miami, pleaded guilty to sexually groping three women in his custody.
Assistant Attorney General for the Civil Rights Division stated, “The Justice Department will continue to investigate and prosecute criminal civil rights violations committed by law enforcement officials”, U. S. Attorney for the Southern District of Florida Wifredo A. Ferrer stated, “My office and the Department of Justice are committed to protecting the civil rights of our citizens from all types of abuses.” Louisiana: Title 14, criminal law RS 14:43.1. Sexual battery: A. Sexual battery is the intentional touching of the anus or genitals of the victim by the offender using any instrumentality or any part of the body of the offender, or the touching of the anus or genitals of the offender by the victim using any instrumentality or any part of the body of the victim, when any of the following occur: The offender acts without the consent of the victim. Michigan: THE MICHIGAN PENAL CODE, Act 328 of 1931, 750.520e Criminal sexual conduct in the fourth degree. Groping is considered Criminal Sexual Conduct specifically.
Personal space Sexual harassment Non-penetrative sex Eve teasing Frotteurism Debagging
The United Kingdom the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, sometimes referred to as Britain, is a sovereign country located off the north-western coast of the European mainland. The United Kingdom includes the island of Great Britain, the north-eastern part of the island of Ireland, many smaller islands. Northern Ireland is the only part of the United Kingdom that shares a land border with another sovereign state, the Republic of Ireland. Apart from this land border, the United Kingdom is surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean, with the North Sea to the east, the English Channel to the south and the Celtic Sea to the south-west, giving it the 12th-longest coastline in the world; the Irish Sea lies between Great Ireland. With an area of 242,500 square kilometres, the United Kingdom is the 78th-largest sovereign state in the world, it is the 22nd-most populous country, with an estimated 66.0 million inhabitants in 2017. The UK is constitutional monarchy; the current monarch is Queen Elizabeth II, who has reigned since 1952, making her the longest-serving current head of state.
The United Kingdom's capital and largest city is London, a global city and financial centre with an urban area population of 10.3 million. Other major urban areas in the UK include Greater Manchester, the West Midlands and West Yorkshire conurbations, Greater Glasgow and the Liverpool Built-up Area; the United Kingdom consists of four constituent countries: England, Scotland and Northern Ireland. Their capitals are London, Edinburgh and Belfast, respectively. Apart from England, the countries have their own devolved governments, each with varying powers, but such power is delegated by the Parliament of the United Kingdom, which may enact laws unilaterally altering or abolishing devolution; the nearby Isle of Man, Bailiwick of Guernsey and Bailiwick of Jersey are not part of the UK, being Crown dependencies with the British Government responsible for defence and international representation. The medieval conquest and subsequent annexation of Wales by the Kingdom of England, followed by the union between England and Scotland in 1707 to form the Kingdom of Great Britain, the union in 1801 of Great Britain with the Kingdom of Ireland created the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
Five-sixths of Ireland seceded from the UK in 1922, leaving the present formulation of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. There are fourteen British Overseas Territories, the remnants of the British Empire which, at its height in the 1920s, encompassed a quarter of the world's land mass and was the largest empire in history. British influence can be observed in the language and political systems of many of its former colonies; the United Kingdom is a developed country and has the world's fifth-largest economy by nominal GDP and ninth-largest economy by purchasing power parity. It has a high-income economy and has a high Human Development Index rating, ranking 14th in the world, it was the world's first industrialised country and the world's foremost power during the 19th and early 20th centuries. The UK remains a great power, with considerable economic, military and political influence internationally, it is sixth in military expenditure in the world. It has been a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council since its first session in 1946.
It has been a leading member state of the European Union and its predecessor, the European Economic Community, since 1973. The United Kingdom is a member of the Commonwealth of Nations, the Council of Europe, the G7, the G20, NATO, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development and the World Trade Organization; the 1707 Acts of Union declared that the kingdoms of England and Scotland were "United into One Kingdom by the Name of Great Britain". The term "United Kingdom" has been used as a description for the former kingdom of Great Britain, although its official name from 1707 to 1800 was "Great Britain"; the Acts of Union 1800 united the kingdom of Great Britain and the kingdom of Ireland in 1801, forming the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. Following the partition of Ireland and the independence of the Irish Free State in 1922, which left Northern Ireland as the only part of the island of Ireland within the United Kingdom, the name was changed to the "United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland".
Although the United Kingdom is a sovereign country, Scotland and Northern Ireland are widely referred to as countries. The UK Prime Minister's website has used the phrase "countries within a country" to describe the United Kingdom; some statistical summaries, such as those for the twelve NUTS 1 regions of the United Kingdom refer to Scotland and Northern Ireland as "regions". Northern Ireland is referred to as a "province". With regard to Northern Ireland, the descriptive name used "can be controversial, with the choice revealing one's political preferences"; the term "Great Britain" conventionally refers to the island of Great Britain, or politically to England and Wales in combination. However, it is sometimes used as a loose synonym for the United Kingdom as a whole; the term "Britain" is used both as a synonym for Great Britain, as a synonym for the United Kingdom. Usage is mixed, with the BBC preferring to use Britain as shorthand only for Great Britain and the UK Government, while accepting that both terms refer to the United K