The akaname is a Japanese yōkai depicted in Toriyama Sekiens Gazu Hyakki Yagyō. Meaning filth licker, they are stated to lick the filth that collects in bathtubs, in classical yōkai depictions, children with clawed feet and cropped heads are depicted by the bath place sticking out a long tongue. According to the Kokon Hyakumonogatari Hyōban, the akaneburi is a monster lives in old bathhouses and are said to lurk in dilapidated estates. In literature about yōkai from the periods of Shōwa, there were none who saw what the akaname truly were, but since aka can remind people of the color red, they are said to have red faces or be entirely red. A Gaijins Guide to Japan, an Alternative Look at Japanese Life and Culture
A banyan, spelled banian, is a fig that begins its life as an epiphyte, i. e. A plant that grows on plant, when its seed germinates in a crack or crevice of a host tree or human edifice. Like other fig species, including the edible fig Ficus carica. The syncarp of Ficus species supplies shelter and food for fig wasps and, in turn, frugivore birds disperse the seeds of banyans. The seeds are small, and because most banyans grow in woodlands, for this reason banyans bear the colloquial name strangler fig. A number of tropical species that compete for sunlight, especially of the genus Ficus. The leaves of the tree are large, glossy, green. Like most figs, the bud is covered by two large scales. As the leaf develops the scales abscise, young leaves have an attractive reddish tinge. Older banyan trees are characterized by aerial roots that mature into thick, woody trunks. Old trees can spread laterally by using these prop roots to grow over a wide area, in some species, the prop roots develop over a considerable area that resembles a grove of trees, with every trunk connected directly or indirectly to the primary trunk.
The topology of this root system inspired the name of the hierarchical computer network operating system Banyan VINES. In a banyan that envelops its host tree, the mesh of roots growing around the latter eventually applies considerable pressure to, such an enveloped, dead tree eventually decomposes, so that the banyan becomes a columnar tree with a hollow, central core. In jungles, such hollows are very desirable shelters to many animals, the name was originally given to F. benghalensis and comes from India, where early travellers observed that the shade of the tree was frequented by banias or Indian traders. In the Gujarati language, banya means grocer or merchant, not tree, the Portuguese picked up the word to refer specifically to Hindu merchants, and passed it along to the English as early as 1599 with the same meaning. By 1634, English writers began to tell of the banyan tree, the tree provided a shaded place for a village meeting or for merchants to sell their goods. Eventually, banyan became the name of the tree itself, the original banyan, F. benghalensis, can grow into a giant tree covering several hectares.
Over time, the name became generalized to all strangler figs of the Urostigma subgenus, the many banyan species include, Ficus microcarpa, which is native from Sri Lanka through New Caledonia, is a significant invasive species elsewhere
A fish is any member of a group of animals that consist of all gill-bearing aquatic craniate animals that lack limbs with digits. They form a group to the tunicates, together forming the olfactores. Included in this definition are the living hagfish and cartilaginous, tetrapods emerged within lobe-finned fishes, so cladistically they are fish as well. However, traditionally fish are rendered obsolete or paraphyletic by excluding the tetrapods, because in this manner the term fish is defined negatively as a paraphyletic group, it is not considered a formal taxonomic grouping in systematic biology. The traditional term pisces is considered a typological, but not a phylogenetic classification, the earliest organisms that can be classified as fish were soft-bodied chordates that first appeared during the Cambrian period. Although they lacked a true spine, they possessed notochords which allowed them to be more agile than their invertebrate counterparts, fish would continue to evolve through the Paleozoic era, diversifying into a wide variety of forms.
Many fish of the Paleozoic developed external armor that protected them from predators, the first fish with jaws appeared in the Silurian period, after which many became formidable marine predators rather than just the prey of arthropods. Fish are abundant in most bodies of water and they can be found in nearly all aquatic environments, from high mountain streams to the abyssal and even hadal depths of the deepest oceans. With 33,100 described species, fish exhibit greater species diversity than any group of vertebrates. Fish are an important resource for humans worldwide, especially as food and subsistence fishers hunt fish in wild fisheries or farm them in ponds or in cages in the ocean. They are caught by fishers, kept as pets, raised by fishkeepers. Fish have had a role in culture through the ages, serving as deities, religious symbols, fish do not represent a monophyletic group, and therefore the evolution of fish is not studied as a single event. Early fish from the record are represented by a group of small, jawless.
Jawless fish lineages are mostly extinct, an extant clade, the lampreys may approximate ancient pre-jawed fish. The first jaws are found in Placodermi fossils, the diversity of jawed vertebrates may indicate the evolutionary advantage of a jawed mouth. It is unclear if the advantage of a hinged jaw is greater biting force, improved respiration, fish may have evolved from a creature similar to a coral-like sea squirt, whose larvae resemble primitive fish in important ways. The first ancestors of fish may have kept the form into adulthood. Fish are a group, that is, any clade containing all fish contains the tetrapods
Bunbuku Chagama is a Japanese folktale about a raccoon dog, or tanuki, that uses its shapeshifting powers to reward its rescuer for his kindness. Bunbuku Chagama roughly translates to happiness bubbling over like a tea pot, the story tells of a poor man who finds a tanuki caught in a trap. Feeling sorry for the animal, he sets it free and that night, the tanuki comes to the poor mans house to thank him for his kindness. The tanuki transforms itself into a chagama and tells the man to him for money. The man sells the tanuki-teapot to a monk, who takes it home and, after scrubbing it harshly, unable to stand the heat, the tanuki teapot sprouts legs and, in its half-transformed state, makes a run for it. The tanuki returns to the man with another idea. The man would set up a roadside attraction and charge admission for people to see a teapot walking a tightrope. The plan works, and each gains something good from the man is no longer poor. In a variant of the story, the tanuki-teapot does not run, the shocked monk decides to leave the teapot as an offering to the poor temple where he lives, choosing not to use it for making tea again.
The temple eventually becomes famous for its supposed dancing teapot, an animated movie based on the tale was produced in 1928 by Yokohama Cinema Shoukai. There is a reference to this story in Studio Ghiblis 1994 animated film Pom Poko, a character in the manga To Love-Ru is seen holding the book and commenting that she is taking an interest in Japanese folklore. In the Naruto series, Shukaku the One-Tail, who is modeled after a tanuki, is mentioned to have originally been sealed into a teapot and it is revealed that his former jinchūriki was an old man named Bunbuku. In Ichiro by Ryan Inzana, the legend of the teapot is woven into the story of an American teenager who is the son of a Japanese immigrant mother. The Accomplished and Lucky Tea-Kettle, translation by Algernon Bertram Freeman-Mitford in Tales of Old Japan The Magic Kettle adaptation by Andrew Lang in The Crimson Fairy Book
Awa Tanuki Gassen
The Awa Tanuki Gassen is a Japanese legend that takes place in the Awa Province. The legend is about a war between two tanuki powers. There are several tales about tanuki in Shikkoku, and this one is said to be the most famous among all of the ones in Tokushima. This story was first seen to appear near the end of the Edo Period and it took place around the tenpō period near Higaino in Komatsushima. A dyer named Moemon running the shop called Yamatoya saved a tanuki who was being bullied by people. Eventually, the tanuki came to serve as the angel of Mankichi, who worked at the shop. This tanuki was called Kinchō and was a chief around 206 years in age. While around Mankichi, Kinchō performed great services such as cure customers diseases perform divinations, after much training, Kinchō displayed great accomplishedments and almost achieved the rank of Senior First Rank. Rokuemon, loathe to let go of Kinchō, tried to make him stay as a son in law by marrying his daughter, Kinchō felt obliged to return to Moemon, and furthermore disliked Rokuemons cruel personality, so he refused.
Unsatisfied with this, Rokuemon thought that Kinchō would eventually become his enemy, Kinchō, together with a tanuki that came from Higaino named Fuji no Kidera no Taka, counterattacked. However, Taka died in battle, and only Kinchō was able to escape to Higaino, Kinchō attempted to recruit followers in order to take revenge for Taka, and started a battle with Rokuemon and his followers. In this battle, Kinchōs army won and Rokuemon was bitten to death, around the time of this battle, it was rumored that Kinchōs army was gathering at the Chinju Forest in prepration for battle against Rokuemon. The exact story varies depending on the source, which is seen to be the result of being influenced by a certain kōdan. She was greatly in love with Kinchō, and criticized Rokuemon for trying to attack Kinchō, Koyasuhimes death only increased Rokuemons hatred. Also, Kinchō, upon hearing the death of Koyasu who loved him, the battle took place around Katsuura River, Kinchōs and Rokuemons army were both more than 600 tanuki, and the battle lasted for 3 days and nights.
Shibaemon-tanuki from Awaji Island took part in the battle, despite receiving a mortal wound, Kinchō desperatly returned to Higaino and told thanks to Moemon before losing his final strength. Moemon, moved by seeing this and how he lived, deified Kinchō as a daimyōjin. On the verge of death, Kinchō became a spirit and served as Mankichis guardian spirit, moved by this, deified Kinchō as a daimyōjin
Yamata no Orochi
Yamata no Orochi or Orochi, translated as the Eight-Forked Serpent in English, is a legendary 8-headed and 8-tailed Japanese dragon. Yamata no Orochi legends are originally recorded in two ancient texts about Japanese mythology and history, the ca.680 AD Kojiki transcribes this dragon name as 八岐遠呂智 and ca.720 AD Nihongi writes it as 八岐大蛇. In both versions of the Orochi myth, the Shinto storm god Susanoo or Susa-no-Ō is expelled from Heaven for tricking his sister Amaterasu the sun-goddess. After expulsion from Heaven, Susanoo encounters two Earthly Deities near the head of the Hi River, now called the Hii River, in Izumo Province. They are weeping because they were forced to give the Orochi one of their daughters every year for seven years, the Kojiki tells the following version. So, having been expelled, descended to a place Tori-kami at the head-waters of the River Hi in the Land of Idzumo, at this time some chopsticks came floating down the stream. Then he deigned to ask, Who are ye, so the old man replied, saying, I am an Earthly Deity, child of the Deity Great-Mountain-Possessor.
I am called by the name of Foot-Stroking-Elder, my wife is called by the name of Hand-Stroking Elder, again he asked, What is the cause of your crying. Saying, I had originally eight young girls as daughters, but the eight-forked serpent of Koshi has come every year and devoured, and it is now its time to come, wherefore we weep. Then he asked him, What is its form like, saying, Its eyes are like akakagachi, it has one body with eight heads and eight tails. Moreover on its body grows moss, and chamaecyparis and cryptomerias and its length extends over eight valleys and eight hills, and if one look at its belly, it is all constantly bloody and inflamed. Then His-Swift-Impetuous-Male-Augustness said to the old man, If this be thy daughter and he replied, With reverence, but I know not thine august name. Then he replied, saying, I am elder brother to the Heaven-Shining-Great-August-Deity, so I have now descended from Heaven. Then the Deities Foot-Stroker-Elder and Hand-Stroking-Elder said, If that be so, with reverence will we offer.
Also make a round about, in that fence make eight gates, at each gate tie eight platforms, on each platform put a liquor-vat, and into each vat pour the eight-fold refined liquor. Thereupon it was intoxicated with drinking, and all lay down, His-Swift-Impetuous-Male-Augustness drew the ten-grasp sabre, that was augustly girded on him, and cut the serpent in pieces, so that the River Hi flowed on changed into a river of blood. So when he cut the tail, the edge of his august sword broke. Then, thinking it strange, he thrust into and split with the point of his august sword and looked, so he took this great sword, thinking it a strange thing, he respectfully informed the Heaven-Shining-Great-August-Deity
Ashinaga-tenaga are a pair of yōkai in Japanese folklore. One, Ashinaga-jin, has long legs, while the other. They were first described in the Japanese encyclopedia Wakan Sansai Zue and they are said to be found in Kyūshū. The pair is described as people from two countries, the Long-legged Country, and the Long-armed Country. As the names suggest, the inhabitants of two countries possess unusually lengthy arms and legs. The two work together as a team to catch fish by the seashore, in order to do this, the long-armed man, climbs onto the back of the long-legged man, ashinaga. The ashinaga wades out into the shorewaters, staying above water with his long legs, according to the Wakan Sansai Zue, the tenaga is known as chōhi, and his arms can reach three jō in length, or a bit over nine meters. The ashinagas legs stretch to two jō, or just slightly over six meters, an essay from the Kasshiyawa by Matsura Seizan describes the ashinaga. The essay documents a mans anecdotal account of an encounter with a strange being.
The man was fishing by the seashore on a clear, moonlit night, shortly after, the weather turns bad and begins to rain heavily. The mans servant informs him that they had just seen an ashinaga, and that sightings of this yōkai always brought bad changes in weather
My Lord Bag of Rice
My Lord Bag of Rice is a fairy tale about a hero who kills the giant centipede Seta to help a Japanese dragon princess, and is rewarded in her underwater Ryūgū-jō 龍宮城 dragon palace castle. The 1711 Honchō kwaidan koji 本朝怪談故事 contains the version of this Japanese myth about the warrior Fujiwara no Hidesato. There is a Shinto shrine near the Seta Bridge at Lake Biwa where people worship Tawara Tōda 俵藤太 Rice-bag Tōda, in olden times, when Fujiwara no Hidesato crossed the bridge, a big serpent lay across it. The hero, was not at all afraid, and calmly stepped over the monster which at once disappeared into the water, two thousand years, she said, she had lived under this bridge, but never had she seen such a brave man as he. For this reason she requested him to destroy her enemy, a giant centipede, Hidesato promised her to do so and, armed with a bow and arrows, awaited the centipede on the bridge. There came from the top of Mt. Mikami two enormous lights, as big as the light of two hundred torches and these were the centipedes eyes, and Hidesato sent three arrows in that direction, whereupon the lights were extinguished and the monster died.
She said, that there would always be left as long as he lived, however much he might cut from it. Hidesato subsequently donated this bell to Mii-dera temple at Mount Hiei and he threw it into a valley after it spoke to him, and when the cracked bell was returned to Mii-dera, a small snake used its tail to repair the damage. According to Azuma Kagami, he was claimed as an ancestor by Ashikaga Tadatsuna, under the name of Tawara Toda Hidesato and this Lord Bag of Rice fable is included in Japanese Fairy Tales by Yei Theodora Ozaki and A Book of Dragons by Ruth Manning-Sanders. English Wikisource has original text related to this article, My Lord Bag of Rice