St. Paul's Church, Copenhagen
St. Pauls Church is a Lutheran church in central Copenhagen, colloquially known as Nyboders Church due to its location in the middle of the Nyboder area. It was designed by Johannes Emil Gnudtzmann and constructed from 1872 to 1877, the church is part of a wave of church constructions which took place in Copenhagen in the 1870s to provide capacity for the citys growing population. Stephens and St. James in Østerbro and St. Mathews in Vesterbro—St, the church is built in red brick and the masonry is decorated with blinds, arches and pinnacles on all corners. The churchs first altarpiece was a painting by Hendrick Krock entitled The Eucharist, in 1887 it was replaced by a gilded crucifix created by the sculptor Jens Adolf Jerichau, a donation from pastor Christian Møller. The space surrounding the church is called Sankt Pauls Plads, on the southeast side of the church are some of the socalled Grey Tows of the Nyboder development. They were designed by Olaf Schmidth and are younger than the more well-known terraces of the neighbourhood, on the other side of the church street are a row of apartment buildings from the 1870s.
To the rear of the church is the former Gernersgade Barracks, two of Nyboders Yellow Rows flank Adelgade in front of the church
Brumleby is an enclave of terraced houses in Copenhagen, located between Østre Allé and Østerbrogade, just south of Parken Stadium and St. James Church. Built for indigent workers by the Danish Medical Association from 1854 to 1872, it is one of the earliest examples of housing in Denmark. The development was designed by Michael Gottlieb Bindesbøll and Vilhelm Klein in Neoclassical style, a major reason for the outbreak was the dismal conditions in the poorest parts of the city which suffered from overpopulation and lack of proper sanitary services. Copenhagens population had almost doubled since 1800 but the city had not been allowed to expand beyond its old fortification ring. Construction began in 1854 and the first stage of the development, due to the intervention of the Second Schleswig War, a planned extension did not begin until 1866. After Bindesbølls death in 1856, he was replaced by Vilhelm Klein, by the time the second stage was completed in 1872, Brumleby had 550 apartments which housed approximately 2,500 inhabitants.
Over the years there were numerous proposals to demolish Brumleby and replace it with more dense housing. The area was not originally known as Brumleby, but simply as Lægeforeningens Boliger, the prefix Brumle-, in the beginning seen as Brumme-, most likely was a reference to the sound from the grazing cattle on the surrounding commons. The suffix -by simply means town or area, as in the English by-law, Brumleby consists of four rows of two-storey houses with bicoloured facades, ochre coloured ground floors and white first floors, and slate roofs. The inspiration for the design came from Italian agricultural workers housing which Bindesbøll had seen during his years in Italy, Brumleby still serves as social housing, part of Københavns Almindelige Boligselskab. Today, after mergers during a renovation in the 1990s. The renovation fitted the apartments with private bathrooms and toilets, ilia Fibiger and Denmarks first professional nurse, lived there with six orphans in the 1860s. The writer Martin Andersen Nexø lived in the area as a child, from 1872 to 1877, mille Dinesen a Danish actress best known for starring in the film Nynne, as well as the title role in the television series Rita.
Danish Workers Building Society Architecture of Denmark Danish Culture Canon Official website
Lutheranism is a major branch of Protestant Christianity which identifies with the theology of Martin Luther, a German friar, ecclesiastical reformer and theologian. Luthers efforts to reform the theology and practice of the Catholic Church launched the Protestant Reformation in the German-speaking territories of the Holy Roman Empire. Lutheranism advocates a doctrine of justification by grace alone through faith alone on the basis of Scripture alone and this is in contrast to the belief of the Catholic Church, defined at the Council of Trent, concerning authority coming from both the Scriptures and Tradition. In addition, Lutheranism accepts the teachings of the first seven ecumenical councils of the undivided Christian Church, unlike Calvinism, Lutherans retain many of the liturgical practices and sacramental teachings of the pre-Reformation Church, with a particular emphasis on the Eucharist, or Lords Supper. Lutheran theology differs from Reformed theology in Christology, the purpose of Gods Law, the grace, the concept of perseverance of the saints.
Today, Lutheranism is one of the largest denominations of Protestantism, with approximately 80 million adherents, it constitutes the third most common Protestant denomination after historically Pentecostal denominations and Anglicanism. The Lutheran World Federation, the largest communion of Lutheran churches, Other Lutheran organizations include the International Lutheran Council and the Confessional Evangelical Lutheran Conference, as well as independent churches. The name Lutheran originated as a term used against Luther by German Scholastic theologian Dr. Johann Maier von Eck during the Leipzig Debate in July 1519. Eck and other Catholics followed the practice of naming a heresy after its leader. Martin Luther always disliked the term Lutheran, preferring the term Evangelical, which was derived from euangelion, the followers of John Calvin, Huldrych Zwingli, and other theologians linked to the Reformed tradition began to use that term. To distinguish the two groups, others began to refer to the two groups as Evangelical Lutheran and Evangelical Reformed.
As time passed by, the word Evangelical was dropped, Lutherans themselves began to use the term Lutheran in the middle of the 16th century, in order to distinguish themselves from other groups such as the Philippists and Calvinists. In 1597, theologians in Wittenberg defined the title Lutheran as referring to the true church, Lutheranism has its roots in the work of Martin Luther, who sought to reform the Western Church to what he considered a more biblical foundation. Lutheranism spread through all of Scandinavia during the 16th century, as the monarch of Denmark–Norway, through Baltic-German and Swedish rule, Lutheranism spread into Estonia and Latvia. Since 1520, regular Lutheran services have been held in Copenhagen, under the reign of Frederick I, Denmark-Norway remained officially Catholic. Although Frederick initially pledged to persecute Lutherans, he adopted a policy of protecting Lutheran preachers and reformers. During Fredericks reign, Lutheranism made significant inroads in Denmark, at an open meeting in Copenhagen attended by the king in 1536, the people shouted, We will stand by the holy Gospel, and do not want such bishops anymore.
Fredericks son Christian was openly Lutheran, which prevented his election to the throne upon his fathers death, following his victory in the civil war that followed, in 1537 he became Christian III and advanced the Reformation in Denmark-Norway
Randersgade is a street in the Østerbro district of Copenhagen9, linking Nordre Frihavnsgade in the south to Strandboulevarden in the north. The small square Bopas Plads is located on the corner of Randersgade with Viborggade, Randersgade was originally called Kalkbrænderivej which linked Trianglen with the two lime plants. The name Randersgade was introduced for the section from Nøjsomhedsvej to Århusgade in 1886, the new name was in accordance with a naming scheme introduced by Thorvald Krak which would name streets in the area after Danish market towns. In 1904, the name was adopted for the section north of Vordingborggade. The two parts were not connected until 1928 when the factory had been demolished and the section from Nordre Frihavnsgade to Nøjsomhedsvej was included in the street. The Luther Church was built in 1914-18 to design by Martin Nyrop, the name commemorates the 400-year anniversary of the beginning of the Lutheran reformation in 1918. Outside the church stands a statue of Martin Luther, No.10 was from 1880 home to the Royal Orphanage.
It is now home to Heibergskolen, a primary school. Another public primary school, Randersgade School, is located at No.38 and it opened in the 1880s and was originally called Nøjsomhedsvejens Friskole. A third primary school, Vibenhus School, is located at the end of the street. No.66 is the former Technical Societys School, the building is from 1919 and was designed by Jesper Tvede. Århusgade Media related to Randersgade at Wikimedia Commons
Langelinie is a pier and park in central Copenhagen and home of the statue of The Little Mermaid. The area has for centuries been a destination for excursions. Most cruise ships arriving in Copenhagen berth at Langelinie Pier, for a long time, the stretch was a military area where civilians were not granted unrestricted access. Under a general order from 1819, soldiers were required to throw water in the head and on the breast, eventually a beach promenade and a park for the Bourgeoisie were made but with access only on the payment of a toll to keep the more common people out. Not until an uprising in 1848 did the area become open to everybody. The expansion of the city and the increasing industrialization soon made it clear that the harbour was becoming too small. In a plan from 1862 it was decided to dig out the area to access for the largest ocean-going vessels. A suggestion to make all of Amager into a zone was abolished. The beginning of the work was prompted by Germanys construction of the Kiel Canal that was begun in 1887, in 1894 the work was completed and Copenhagen had got an entirely new harbourfront.
Langelinie became now a pier on the side of that harbour basin. The Langelinie Park stretches from Esplanaden in the south to Langelinie Marina, formally, it includes Kastellet although this site is generally referred to under its own name. The park contains numerous monuments, buildings, a marina, among these are the Gefion Fountain, the Ivar Huitfeldt Column and The Little Mermaid. Langelinie Marina was established in the 1890s in connection with the foundation of the Free Port, Copenhagen rowing clubs have for many years had their base at the marina. Today only B&Ws and DFDS are left after ØKs passed their premises to Langelinie Marinas Boat Huild, the Langelinie Pier has a water depth allowing big ocean-going vessels to tie up. The area has a number of statues and memorials and these include a cast bronze sculpture polar bear with cubs and memorials for MS Jutlandia, Ludvig Mylius-Erichsen. The polar bear has some bullet holes at the head and they were made by a German soldier under the Occupation of Denmark
Nyboder is a historic row house district of former Naval barracks in Copenhagen, Denmark. It was planned and first built by Christian IV to accommodate a need for housing for the personnel of the rapidly growing Royal Danish Navy and their families during that time. Nyboder is today very much associated with their colour and Nyboder yellow is in Danish often used as a generic term to refer to their exact hue of yellow. However, the colour of the development was red and white. Under Christian IV the Royal Danish Navy grew rapidly and there was an urgent need for accommodation for its personnel. The new development was planned on land outside Copenhagen previously acquired by the king with the intention to expand the city northwards. This had still not happened but Saint Annes Post, to develop into Kastellet, had already constructed a little further north. Construction of Nyboder was commenced in 1631, the area was laid out around two main streets radiating from a planned square which was never established.
The rows were oriented perpendicularly to these streets. The architects assisting the King were Hans van Steenwinckel the Younger and Leonhard Blasius, Christian IVs Nyboder was completed around 1641. In 1647, one year before Christian IVs death, Nyboder was definitively absorbed by the city when the Eastern City Gate is moved. Just north of Nyboder lay a piece of undevelopped land known as Greenland, on 16 December 1658 a gunpowder magazine just north of Nyboder exploded, damaging or demolishing many houses and causing numerous casualties. In 1668 Copenhagens gallows were moved from its previous location, at the site where Kongens Nytorv would be out a few years later. In 1677, Nyboder saw another bleak neighbour when the Stocks House was built a little to the south, from its early days, the Nyboder area included a guardhouse which was replaced by a new building in the 1780s. It had a bell which was used to gather people in the event of a military attack or fire. The building houses the Nyboder barracks own guard and contained a jail, when the Frederiksholm islet is created by a series of Land reclamation, the intention is to use it for new naval barracks but again the plans are not carried out.
In the end it was decided to build new houses at Nyboder, in 175624 two-storey houses designed by Philip de Lange were built and while extensions would be directed by other architects, it continued to be to his initial design. In 1771 some of Christian IVs original rows were extended with an extra storey by Anthon, from 1781-96 another app.150 houses were built. A guard house and five houses were added to the area during the same period
Midtermolen is a pier which extends north from India Quay in the Southern Free Port of Copenhagen, dividing the dock into an east and west basin. The wharf was constructed as part of the free port which was constructed in 1894. The Silo Warehouse which was completed at its tip that same year was the new port areas most imposing building until it was demolished after a fire in 1969, the building was designed by Vilhelm Dahlerup with inspiration from Christian IVs Renaissance buildings. Its core was an 11 storeys high grain silo while the sides served as regular warehouses, the official time signal was from 1909 until World War II located on the roof of the building. It consisted of a ball which was raised every morning and dropped at 13,00, in 1994, a new headquarters for East Asiatic Company was inaugurated at the tip of the pier. The company had originally based in Asia House at present day Indiakaj. The new 19,000 square metre headquarters at Midtermolen, known as Company House, was designed by PLH Arkitekter, Company House now serve as headquarters for the insurance company Alm
The word diocese is derived from the Greek term διοίκησις meaning administration. When now used in a sense, it refers to a territorial unit of administration. This structure of governance is known as episcopal polity. The word diocesan means relating or pertaining to a diocese and it can be used as a noun meaning the bishop who has the principal supervision of a diocese. An archdiocese is more significant than a diocese, an archdiocese is presided over by an archbishop whose see may have or have had importance due to size or historical significance. The archbishop may have authority over any other suffragan bishops. In the Latter Day Saint movement, the bishopric is used to describe the bishop himself. Especially in the Middle Ages, some bishops held political as well as religious authority within their dioceses, in the organization of the Roman Empire, the increasingly subdivided provinces were administratively associated in a larger unit, the diocese. With the adoption of Christianity as the Empires official religion in the 4th century, a formal church hierarchy was set up, parallel to the civil administration, whose areas of responsibility often coincided.
With the collapse of the Western Empire in the 5th century, a similar, though less pronounced, development occurred in the East, where the Roman administrative apparatus was largely retained by the Byzantine Empire. In modern times, many dioceses, though subdivided, have preserved the boundaries of a long-vanished Roman administrative division, modern usage of diocese tends to refer to the sphere of a bishops jurisdiction. As of January 2015, in the Catholic Church there are 2,851 regular dioceses,1 papal see,641 archdioceses and 2,209 dioceses in the world, in the Eastern rites in communion with the Pope, the equivalent unit is called an eparchy. Eastern Orthodoxy calls dioceses metropoleis in the Greek tradition or eparchies in the Slavic tradition, after the Reformation, the Church of England retained the existing diocesan structure which remains throughout the Anglican Communion. The one change is that the areas administered under the Archbishop of Canterbury and Archbishop of York are properly referred to as provinces and this usage is relatively common in the Anglican Communion.
Certain Lutheran denominations such as the Church of Sweden do have individual dioceses similar to Roman Catholics and these dioceses and archdioceses are under the government of a bishop. Other Lutheran bodies and synods that have dioceses and bishops include the Church of Denmark, the Evangelical Lutheran Church of Finland, the Evangelical Church in Germany, rather, it is divided into a middle judicatory. The Lutheran Church-International, based in Springfield, presently uses a traditional diocesan structure and its current president is Archbishop Robert W. Hotes. The Church of God in Christ has dioceses throughout the United States, in the COGIC, each state is divided up into at least three dioceses that are all led by a bishop, but some states as many as seven dioceses
A brick is building material used to make walls and other elements in masonry construction. Traditionally, the term referred to a unit composed of clay. A brick can be composed of clay-bearing soil and lime, Bricks are produced in numerous classes, types and sizes which vary with region and time period, and are produced in bulk quantities. Two basic categories of bricks are fired and non-fired bricks, block is a similar term referring to a rectangular building unit composed of similar materials, but is usually larger than a brick. Lightweight bricks are made from expanded clay aggregate, fired bricks are one of the longest-lasting and strongest building materials, sometimes referred to as artificial stone, and have been used since circa 5000 BC. Air-dried bricks, known as mudbricks, have an older than fired bricks. Bricks are laid in courses and numerous patterns known as bonds, collectively known as brickwork, the earliest bricks were dried brick, meaning that they were formed from clay-bearing earth or mud and dried until they were strong enough for use.
The oldest discovered bricks, originally made from shaped mud and dating before 7500 BC, were found at Tell Aswad, in the upper Tigris region, ceramic, or fired brick was used as early as 3000 BC in early Indus Valley cities. In pre-modern China, bricks were being used from the 2nd millennium BCE at a site near Xian, the carpenters manual Yingzao Fashi, published in 1103 at the time of the Song dynasty described the brick making process and glazing techniques in use. He had to know when to quench the kiln with water so as to produce the surface glaze, Early civilisations around the Mediterranean adopted the use of fired bricks, including the Ancient Greeks and Romans. The Roman legions operated mobile kilns, and built large brick structures throughout the Roman Empire, during the Early Middle Ages the use of bricks in construction became popular in Northern Europe, after being introduced there from Northern-Western Italy. An independent style of architecture, known as brick Gothic flourished in places that lacked indigenous sources of rocks.
Examples of this style can be found in modern-day Denmark, Poland. A clear distinction between the two styles developed at the transition to Baroque architecture. In Lübeck, for example, Brick Renaissance is clearly recognisable in buildings equipped with terracotta reliefs by the artist Statius von Düren, production of bricks increased massively with the onset of the Industrial Revolution and the rise in factory building in England. For reasons of speed and economy, bricks were increasingly preferred as building material to stone and it was at this time in London, that bright red brick was chosen for construction to make the buildings more visible in the heavy fog and to help prevent traffic accidents. The transition from the method of production known as hand-moulding to a mechanised form of mass-production slowly took place during the first half of the nineteenth century. His mechanical apparatus soon achieved widespread attention after it was adopted for use by the South Eastern Railway Company for brick-making at their factory near Folkestone, the Bradley & Craven Ltd ‘Stiff-Plastic Brickmaking Machine’ was patented in 1853, apparently predating Clayton
Zion's Church, Copenhagen
Zions Church is a Lutheran church on Østerbrogade, just south of Svanemøllen station, in the Østerbro district of Copenhagen, Denmark. It was completed in 1896 to a design by Valdemar Koch, in the early 1890s, St. James Church was still the only church in the rapidly growing Østerbro district. In April 1893, its pastor, Pastor Krag, proposed that a church in St. James Parish be built in the area near the new Freeport of Copenhagen. The plans were expanded to include a third church in the neighbourhood. The site was donated by the City, at that time, the address was on Strandvejen but the section between Jagtvej and Svanemøllen station was included in Østerbrogade in 1943. The architect Valdemar Koch was charged with designing the church, the foundation stones, there were three, representing the Father, the Son and the Holy Ghost—were set on 9 July 1895 and it was consecrated on 27 September 1896. The church was built without a tower but one was added in 1921 to a design byK. Varming in 1921. The church is designed in a Neo-Romanesque style and it is built in red brick on a granite plinth with detailing in chalk.
Savonnère stone, Öland chalk and Norwegian marble has been employed, the western gable has a round arched portal with a Tympanum framed by a triangular gable below a window group unified by a large arch. The west gables arch frieze is a copy of the one at Hammlev Church near on Djursland, Koch had previously surveyed the chalk churches of the area around Grenå and published a book about them in 1896. The sides of the building have friezes, executed in chalk by Th, bærentsen, and are segmented by lesenes. The barrel vaulted church room has wooden galleries supported by pillars on both sides. The chancel is raised three steps and behind the table is a painting by P. Steffensen depicting Den Vantro Thomas. The mural on the walls of the choir was painted by Johannes Kragh in 1899, Krag painted the mural on the west wall, surrounding the organ. The baptismal font is in granite and has reliefs by Anders Bundgaard which are inspired by those on Romanesque granite fonts and they depict deer surrounding the Tree of Life, the Fall of man and, on its base, an animal biting a snake.
Church of Christ, Copenhagen Official website
Amerika Plads is a public square and surrounding neighbourhood in the Østerbro district of Copenhagen, Denmark. The former Free Port Station building was put in storage during the redevelopment and is now located in the middle of the square where it serves as a café. The name of the area, like that of the quay, is a reference to the passenger ships which used to transport Danish emigrants to New York City during the first half of the 20th century. Dating from circa 1903, the name Dampfærgevej refers to the ferries to Malmö which used to berth on the north side of the area. The Copenhagen-Malmö link was founded as a venture between the Swedish and Danish state railways in 1895 in connection with the opening of the new free port in Copenhagen. The Amerika Plads neighbourhood is located in the steam ferry terrain. The route was discontinued in 1974, in 1986, the premises were taken over by DanLink which operated a cargo line on the route Copenhagen-Helsingborg until 30 June 2000 when it closed due to the opening of the Øresund Bridge.
It happened as a joint venture between Port of Copenhagen and private development companies TK Development and Sjælsø Gruppen, in 2000, Port of Copenhagen commissioned Dutch architects West 8 to draw up a masterplan for the transformation of the area. The aim of the plan is to create a dense and active urban environment with multiple functions and diverse architecture. The neighbourhood comprises about 50,000 em2 of renovated buildings and 95,000 em2 of new buildings distributed on 53,000 em2 of offices and buildings and about 42,000 em2 of dwellings. The square is dominated by the former Free Port Railway Station which was dismantled in 2002, among the older buildings in the area is the former headquarters of Nordisk Fjer which was built in 1901. It now serves as headquarters for Banedanmark, the Twin Warehouses, known as Warehouse D and E, were built in the 1920s. Other historic buildings are found along Dampfærgevej, the most prominent modern buildings in the area are the Copper Tower on the north side of the area, next to the Ferry Terminal, and Fyrtårnet on its south side.
The Copper Tower is a 16-storey, copper-clad office building which was designed by Arkitema and it houses the law firm Plesner as well as an Italian supermarket in its ground floor. The Lighthouse is a tower block designed by Lundgaard & Tranberg and was completed in 2007. Other modern buildings in the area have been designed by C. F. Møller Architects, Amerika Plads is located between Østerport station and Nordhavn station on the S-train main railway line through Copenhagen. Amerika Plads Amerika Plads on Copenhagen X