Republic of Ireland
Ireland known as the Republic of Ireland, is a country in north-western Europe occupying 26 of 32 counties of the island of Ireland. The capital and largest city is Dublin, located on the eastern part of the island, whose metropolitan area is home to around a third of the country's over 4.8 million inhabitants. The sovereign state shares its only land border with a part of the United Kingdom, it is otherwise surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean, with the Celtic Sea to the south, St George's Channel to the south-east, the Irish Sea to the east. It is a parliamentary republic; the legislature, the Oireachtas, consists of a lower house, Dáil Éireann, an upper house, Seanad Éireann, an elected President who serves as the ceremonial head of state, but with some important powers and duties. The head of government is the Taoiseach, elected by the Dáil and appointed by the President; the state was created as the Irish Free State in 1922 as a result of the Anglo-Irish Treaty. It had the status of Dominion until 1937 when a new constitution was adopted, in which the state was named "Ireland" and became a republic, with an elected non-executive president as head of state.
It was declared a republic in 1949, following the Republic of Ireland Act 1948. Ireland became a member of the United Nations in December 1955, it joined the European Economic Community, the predecessor of the European Union, in 1973. The state had no formal relations with Northern Ireland for most of the twentieth century, but during the 1980s and 1990s the British and Irish governments worked with the Northern Ireland parties towards a resolution to "the Troubles". Since the signing of the Good Friday Agreement in 1998, the Irish government and Northern Ireland Executive have co-operated on a number of policy areas under the North-South Ministerial Council created by the Agreement. Ireland ranks among the top twenty-five wealthiest countries in the world in terms of GDP per capita, as the tenth most prosperous country in the world according to The Legatum Prosperity Index 2015. After joining the EEC, Ireland enacted a series of liberal economic policies that resulted in rapid economic growth.
The country achieved considerable prosperity between the years of 1995 and 2007, which became known as the Celtic Tiger period. This was halted by an unprecedented financial crisis that began in 2008, in conjunction with the concurrent global economic crash. However, as the Irish economy was the fastest growing in the EU in 2015, Ireland is again ascending league tables comparing wealth and prosperity internationally. For example, in 2015, Ireland was ranked as the joint sixth most developed country in the world by the United Nations Human Development Index, it performs well in several national performance metrics, including freedom of the press, economic freedom and civil liberties. Ireland is a member of the European Union and is a founding member of the Council of Europe and the OECD; the Irish government has followed a policy of military neutrality through non-alignment since prior to World War II and the country is not a member of NATO, although it is a member of Partnership for Peace. The 1922 state, comprising 26 of the 32 counties of Ireland, was "styled and known as the Irish Free State".
The Constitution of Ireland, adopted in 1937, provides that "the name of the State is Éire, or, in the English language, Ireland". Section 2 of the Republic of Ireland Act 1948 states, "It is hereby declared that the description of the State shall be the Republic of Ireland." The 1948 Act does not name the state as "Republic of Ireland", because to have done so would have put it in conflict with the Constitution. The government of the United Kingdom used the name "Eire" and, from 1949, "Republic of Ireland", for the state; as well as "Ireland", "Éire" or "the Republic of Ireland", the state is referred to as "the Republic", "Southern Ireland" or "the South". In an Irish republican context it is referred to as "the Free State" or "the 26 Counties". From the Act of Union on 1 January 1801, until 6 December 1922, the island of Ireland was part of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. During the Great Famine, from 1845 to 1849, the island's population of over 8 million fell by 30%. One million Irish died of starvation and/or disease and another 1.5 million emigrated to the United States.
This set the pattern of emigration for the century to come, resulting in constant population decline up to the 1960s. From 1874, under Charles Stewart Parnell from 1880, the Irish Parliamentary Party gained prominence; this was firstly through widespread agrarian agitation via the Irish Land League, that won land reforms for tenants in the form of the Irish Land Acts, secondly through its attempts to achieve Home Rule, via two unsuccessful bills which would have granted Ireland limited national autonomy. These led to "grass-roots" control of national affairs, under the Local Government Act 1898, in the hands of landlord-dominated grand juries of the Protestant Ascendancy. Home Rule seemed certain when the Parliament Act 1911 abolished the veto of the House of Lords, John Redmond secured the Third Home Rule Act in 1914. However, the Unionist movement had been growing since 1886 among Irish Protestants after the introduction of the first home rule bill, fearing discrimination and loss of economic and social privileges if Irish Catholics achieved real political power
Classic Malts of Scotland
The Classic Malts of Scotland is a selection of six single malt whiskies and marketed together in 1988 by United Distillers and Vintners, now owned by Diageo. They are displayed together in bars and liquor stores. Diageo has since marketed other single malt expressions with the Classic Malts labeling; the six original malts are: UDV's regions differ from the more conventional categorisations of Highland, Speyside and Islay. The region of West Highland was created to separate between Dalwhinnie. Talisker is the only distillery on the Isle of Skye, which has never been a whisky region unto itself, but would be in the Island subregion. Campbeltown, a prominent whisky-making region, is not featured in the range. All six of the original "Classic Malts" have been released as limited edition "Distiller's editions", which are finished with additional maturation in special casks selected by the master distiller at each distillery. Dalwhinnie is finished in Oloroso casks, Glenkinchie in Amontillado, Cragganmore in Port, Oban in Fino sherry from Montilla, Talisker in amoroso sherry, Lagavulin in Pedro Ximénez sherry
Alcohol by volume
Alcohol by volume is a standard measure of how much alcohol is contained in a given volume of an alcoholic beverage. It is defined as the number of millilitres of pure ethanol present in 100 mL of solution at 20 °C; the number of millilitres of pure ethanol is the mass of the ethanol divided by its density at 20 °C, 0.78924 g/mL. The ABV standard is used worldwide; the International Organization of Legal Metrology has tables of density of water–ethanol mixtures at different concentrations and temperatures. In some countries, e.g. France, alcohol by volume is referred to as degrees Gay-Lussac, although there is a slight difference since the Gay-Lussac convention uses the International Standard Atmosphere value for temperature, 15 °C. Mixing two solutions of alcohol of different strengths causes a change in volume. Mixing pure water with a solution less than 24% by mass causes a slight increase in total volume, whereas the mixing of two solutions above 24% causes a decrease in volume; the phenomenon of volume changes due to mixing dissimilar solutions is called "partial molar volume".
Water and ethanol are both polar solvents. When water is added to ethanol, the smaller water molecules are attracted to the ethanol's hydroxyl group, each molecule alters the polarity field of the other; the attraction allows closer spacing between molecules than is found in non-polar mixtures. Thus, ABV is not the same. Volume fraction, used in chemistry, is defined as the volume of a particular component divided by the sum of all components in the mixture when they are measured separately. To make a 50% v/v ethanol solution, for example, you would measure 50 mL of ethanol and separately measure 50 mL of water mix the two together; the resulting volume of solution will not measure 100 mL due to the change of volume on mixing. Details about typical amounts of alcohol contained in various beverages can be found in the articles about them. Another way of specifying the amount of alcohol is alcohol proof, which in the United States is twice the alcohol-by-volume number; this may lead to confusion over similar products bought in varying regions that have different names on country specific labels.
For example, Stroh rum, 80% ABV is advertised and labeled as Stroh 80 when sold in Europe, but is named Stroh 160 when sold in the United States. In the United Kingdom proof is 1.75 times the number. For example, 40% abv is 80 proof in the US and 70 proof in the UK. However, since 1980, alcohol proof in the UK has been replaced by ABV as a measure of alcohol content. In the United States, a few states regulate and tax alcoholic beverages according to alcohol by weight, expressed as a percentage of total mass; some brewers print the ABW on beer containers on low-point versions of popular domestic beer brands. One can use the following equation to convert between ABV and ABW: A B V × 0.78924 = A B W × density of beverage at 20 C in g/mL At low ABV, the alcohol percentage by weight is about 4/5 of the ABV. However, because of the miscibility of alcohol and water, the conversion factor is not constant but rather depends upon the concentration of alcohol. 100% ABW is equivalent to 100% ABV. During the production of wine and beer, yeast is added to a sugary solution.
During fermentation, the yeasts produce alcohol. The density of sugar in water is greater than the density of alcohol in water. A hydrometer is used to measure the change in specific gravity of the solution before and after fermentation; the volume of alcohol in the solution can be estimated. There are a number of empirical formulae which brewers and winemakers use to estimate the alcohol content of the liquor made; the simplest method for wine has been described by English author C. J. J. Berry: A B V = / 7.36 The calculation for beer is: A B V = 133.62 × However, many brewers use the following formula which uses a different constant: A B V = 131.25 It is derived in this manner: A B V = ρ
Dalwhinnie Distillery, situated in the Highland village of Dalwhinnie in Scotland, produces Single Malt Scotch Whisky. Dalwhinnie refers to its own whisky as a Highland Whisky but as it is located within both the Highland and Speyside region it can be called either a Highland or Speyside whisky, it is owned by Diageo. The site for the distillery was chosen for its access to clear spring water from Lochan-Doire-Uaine and abundant peat from the surrounding bogs. Set in splendid mountain scenery, Dalwhinnie is the highest distillery in Scotland at 1,164 ft above sea level; the name Dalwhinnie is derived from Gaelic word Dail Chuinnidh, which means meeting place, referring to the meeting of ancient cattle drovers' routes through the mountains. 1897: John Grant of Grantown-on-Spey, George Sellar of Kingussie, designer Alexander Mackenzie of Kingussie and a designer of a distillery there, put up an estimated £10,000 to build the Strathspey Distillery at Dalwhinnie between the Great North Road and the Highland Railway.
1898: In February production begins but by the summer the venture was in liquidation. In October A. P. Blyth buys the distillery for his son and renames it Dalwhinnie announcing ‘considerable improvements on the building and plant’. 1905: The largest distillers in the United States and Bernheimer, buy the distillery at auction for just £1,250. Many fear the take-over of the Scotch whisky industry. A huge warehouse in Leith blends Dalwhinnie with other whiskies ‘to suit the American palate’. 1919: Prohibition hits America. Dalwhinnie returns to Scottish hands. 1926: Macdonald Greenlees is itself acquired. Dalwhinnie gains its fifth owner in under thirty years and is licensed to James Buchanan and Co.. 1934: A fire in the early hours of February 1st closes the distillery for four years. 1937: As rebuilding continues, winter snowdrifts 20 ft high hamper work. 1938: After four years Dalwhinnie re-opens in April and refreshed… 1940: …and shuts again, in common with most distilleries, as a result of wartime restrictions on their use of barley.
1961: The wash stills are converted to steam heating from a coal-fired boiler. 1968: The maltings cease production. Barley is now brought in from specialist maltsters for greater control over peatiness and alcohol yield. 1969: British Rail closes the distillery’s private siding. 1972: Oil-firing replaces coal as modernization continues. 1987: The distillery becomes part of United Distillers. United Distillers was a Scottish company formed in 1987 combining the businesses of Distillers Company and Arthur Bell & Sons, both owned by Guinness. During a modernisation of the Dalwhinnie plant the traditional worm tubs were removed and shell and tube condensers installed. 1989: Dalwhinnie 15 year old becomes one of the Six Classic Malts of Scotland. 1991: New visitor centre opens. 1994: Dalwhinnie is confirmed by the Met. Office as having the coldest average recorded temperature of any inhabited region in Scotland and the U. K. 1995: Distillery refitted. Traditional worm tubs are reinstated. 1997: Diageo was formed in 1997 from the merger of Guinness and Grand Metropolitan and Dalwhinnie became part of the drinks giant’s portfolio.
1980: The Dalwhinnie Distillers Edition 1980 is released. 1998: A special centenary bottling of Dalwhinnie 15 year old commemorates Dalwhinnie’s 100th anniversary. 1999: Dalwhinnie 15 Year old and the Dalwhinnie Distillers Edition 1981 are both awarded Monde Selection Gold Medals. 2004: Dalwhinnie 15 year old wins a Gold Medal at the International Wine and Spirit Competition. 2009: Dalwhinnie 15 year old wins Gold International Wine & Spirit Competition. 2010: Dalwhinnie Manager’s Choice 1992 is released. Dalwhinnie Distillers Edition wins Gold in the Scotch Whisky Masters 2010 Highlands and Islands Special Edition 2015: Dalwhinnie Distillery Visitor Centre is awarded 5 Stars by the Scottish Tourist Board 2016: Dalwhinnie 15 year Old wins Gold in the San Francisco World Spirits Competition 2016. Dalwhinnie Distillery is awarded the Certificate of Excellence by Trip Advisor. Dalwhinnie Distillery is awarded Gold Level in the Keep Scotland Beautiful – National Award for Environmental Excellence.
2017: Dalwhinnie Distillery is awarded “Best Distillery Tour” 2017 by Drinks International Whisky Scotch whisky List of whisky brands List of distilleries in Scotland Brander, Michael. Brander's guide to Scotch whisky. New York: Globe Pequot. P. 70. ISBN 1558214801. OCLC 34851266. Smith, Robin. Lawson, Alan, ed; the making of Scotland: a comprehensive guide to the growth of its cities and villages. Edinburgh: Canongate. Pp. 240–241. ISBN 1841951706. OCLC 48920986
Smithwick's is an Irish red ale-style beer. Smithwick's brewery was founded in Kilkenny in 1710. In 1965, it was acquired by Guinness, now part of Diageo; the Kilkenny brewery was shut down in 2013 and production of all Smithwick's and Kilkenny branded beers moved to Dublin. Smithwick's Brewery was founded by John Smithwick in 1710; the brewery is on the site of a Franciscan abbey, where monks had brewed ale since the 14th century, ruins of the original abbey still remain on its grounds. The old brewery has since been renovated and now hosts "The Smithwick's Experience Kilkenny" visitor attraction and centre. At the time of its closure, it was Ireland's oldest operating brewery. John Smithwick was an orphan. Shortly after his arrival, Smithwick went into the brewing business with Richard Cole on a piece of land that Cole had leased from the Duke of Ormond in 1705. Five years John Smithwick became the owner of the land; the brewery stayed small. Following John Smithwick's death, the brewery temporarily fell out of family hands.
John Smithwick's great grandson, Edmond bought the brewery land back freehold and worked to reshape its future. Edmond concentrated on discovering new markets and building export trade. Drinkers in England and Wales developed a taste for Smithwick's brews and output increased fivefold; as a result of substantial contributions made to St Mary's Cathedral, Edmond became great friends with Irish liberal Daniel O'Connell, who became godfather to one of his sons. Edmond Smithwick became well known and respected by the people of Kilkenny who elected him town mayor four times. In 1800, export sales began to fall and the brewing industry encountered difficulty. To combat this, the Smithwick family increased production in their maltings, began selling mineral water and delivered butter with the ale from the back of their drays. By 1900, output was at an all-time low and the owner James Smithwick was advised by auditors to shut the doors of the brewery. Instead, James reduced the range of beers they set out to find new markets.
He secured military contracts and soon after saw output increase again. James' son, took control in 1930 and steered the brewery to success through the hardships of both World War II and challenging weather conditions. By January 1950, Smithwick's was exporting ale to Boston. Smithwick's was purchased from Walter Smithwick in 1965 by Guinness and is now, along with Guinness, part of Diageo. Together, Guinness & Co. and Smithwick's developed and launched Smithwick's Draught Ale in 1966. By 1979, half a million barrels were sold each year. In 1980, Smithwick's began exporting to France. In 1993, Smithwick's Draught became Canada's leading imported ale. By 2010, Smithwick's continued to be brewed in Dundalk and Kilkenny with tankers sent to Dublin to be kegged for the on trade market. Cans and bottles were packaged by IBC in Belfast. Production in the Kilkenny brewery finished on 31 December 2013 and Smithwicks brands are now produced in the Diageo St. James' Gate brewery in Dublin; the original Kilkenny site was sold to Kilkenny County Council, with a small portion of the site dedicated to the opening of a visitor's centre, the "Smithwick's Experience Kilkenny".
Official Smithwick's videos give the pronunciation as. Due to the differing accent and dialects of Ireland, it is pronounced, or there but never or; when ordering in the US, or is preferred, while is the most prevalent pronunciation in Canada. In the Old Kilkenny Review, year unknown, Peter Smithwick, K. M. Solicitor, wrote that the tradition in Kilkenny is that Sullivan's Brewery was founded in 1702 by Daniel Sullivan, a Protestant, who bought property in trust for Pierse Bryan of Jenkinstown, a Catholic, prohibited by the Penal Laws from buying land; the property, on the West side of High Street, "standing backward in James' Street", is believed to have been the site of Sullivan's Brewery, the forerunner of Smithwicks. Smithwick's Draught is an Irish red ale and as the style has a red tone, it is produced using roasted, malted barley. In 2004, Diageo PLC began distribution in the USA. Smithwick's had been marketed in Canada. Kilkenny Irish Cream Ale is similar to Smithwick's Draught; the Kilkenny name was used during the'80s and'90s to market a stronger version of Smithwick's for the European and Canadian market due to local difficulty in pronunciation of the word "Smithwick's", but it now refers to a similar yet distinctly different beer.
Smithwick's Pale Ale was launched in 2011. The ale is made of pale ale malt, traditional Smithwick's yeast and Amarillo hops and has an ABV of 4.5%. Irish beer Official website
Haig is a brand of Scotch whisky manufactured by John Haig & Co Ltd. The brand and its original distillery are now part of Diageo, the world's largest spirits company and a major producer of beer Haig offers four whiskies: Haig Club, described as "light and sweet", in a rectangular blue bottle, it was launched in 2014 as a single grain whisky with no age statement, in association with David Beckham and Simon Fuller. The spirits for Haig Club are sourced from the Cameronbridge distillery. Haig Gold Label, in a low-shouldered round bottle. S. version of Haig Dimple. Kane McKenzie Haig founded a distillery in the early 1720s in the Kennetpans near Stirling, which became Scotland's largest distillery by 1733, it has been called the world's first commercial distillery. Stein had taken over distilling operations from a local monastery. Robert Haig was a member of the Scottish Clan Haig family, his great-grandson Kane McKenzie Haig, who lived in the Kennetpans area, married Margaret Stein of the Stein family in 1751 and founded the company known as John Haig & Co.
Their daughter named Margaret, married a local lawyer John Jameson from Alloa in 1788. On marriage and Margaret Jameson moved to Dublin to run a new Stein family distillery in Bow Street, opened in 1780. Contrary to popular belief, the Jameson Irish Whiskey company was not founded in 1780, but in 1810 when John Jameson bought the distillery from his wife's cousins, the Steins; the original Jameson Distillery in Bow Street is now home to the Jameson Visitor Centre. The Stein and Jameson families were significant figures in the whisky market from that time forward. A Haig distillery, now known as the Cameronbridge distillery, was founded in 1824. In 1830, it became the first distillery to produce grain whisky using the column still method invented by Robert Stein in 1826. John Haig & Co. was subsequently merged into the Distillers Company Limited in 1877. DCL combined with John Walker & Son and Buchanan-Dewar in 1925 and was acquired by Guinness in 1986, which put it into its United Distillers subsidiary in 1987.
Guinness merged with Grand Metropolitan to form Diageo in 1997. Most current variations of the Haig brand are produced using spirits from Diageo's Glenkinchie distillery and Linkwood distillery. Haig was bottled in a distinctive three-sided bottle starting in the 1890s; the bottle was registered as a trademark in the US in 1958 by Julius Lunsford. It and the bottle design for Coca-Cola were the first two bottle designs to appear in the Principal Register of the United States Patent and Trademark Office. One of their best known advertising slogans was Don't ask for Haig. Another was an inch of Pinch, please! Haig Whisky Club
Tanqueray is a brand of gin produced by Diageo plc and marketed worldwide. Although originated in London, it is now produced in Scotland, it does not command a sizeable market share in its native market, but its largest market is in the United States, where it is the highest selling gin import, followed by southern Europe. Tanqueray is a London dry gin. London dry gin is made by means of double distillation of grain. Botanicals are added during the second distillation. While the recipe is a guarded trade secret, it is known to contain four botanicals: juniper, angelica root, liquorice, it is one of Diageo's 16 "strategic brands" earmarked for prioritisation in promotion and distribution worldwide. Tanqueray gin was distilled in 1830 by Charles Tanqueray in the Bloomsbury district of London; the retail outlet of Edward & Charles Tanqueray & Co was established on Vine Street, London, in 1838. When Charles died in 1868, his son Charles Waugh Tanqueray inherited the distillery, which continued to operate until it was damaged during World War II.
The only facility to survive the Axis bombing, now known as "Old Tom", has since been moved to Cameron Bridge, Scotland. According to one report, Tanqueray became the highest selling gin in the world for the first time in 2016, with nearly three million nine-liter cases sold. Tanqueray London Dry Gin is the original product, launched in 1830, it is variously sold as: Special Dry 47.3% ABV Export Strength 43.1% ABV 40% ABV Tanqueray No. Ten is targeted at the martini market, it is distilled four times. Tanqueray Sterling Vodka was introduced in 1989 and is available in both neutral and citrus flavours, its main market is the United States. Tanqueray Rangpur Gin was introduced in Maryland and Washington, D. C. in the summer of 2006. It has a strong citrus flavor, the result of rangpur limes and bay leave being added during the final distillation process, it is now available throughout the United States. Tanqueray Malacca Gin was introduced in 1997 as a "wetter" alternative to the London Dry, with more sweetness and a stronger fruit palate.
Discontinued in 2001, Diageo announced on 12 December 2012 that a 16,000-case limited edition of Tanqueray Malacca would be relaunched in the US, Great Britain, Western Europe for February 2013. Past offerings from Tanqueray include both orange and lemon gins, produced from 1937 until 1957, when both were phased out. Notable spirit ratings for Tanqueray included a string of Double Golds for 2005–2007 from the San Francisco World Spirits Competition. Years' competitions saw Tanqueray win a string of silver medals and another double gold in 2012. Wine Enthusiast rated the London Dry in its "96–100" category in 2007 but gave it a "90–95" in 2011. Tanqueray introduced "Mr. Jenkins," a white-haired, well-dressed spokes-character, in print ads in 1994, he was retired a few years later. In 2004 Tanqueray introduced “Tony Sinclair,” a younger, foppish hipster socialite spokes-character in television ads. Sinclair's catchphrase at the end of every commercial was “Ready to Tanqueray?” Followed by a manic laugh.
He was portrayed by Rodney Mason as a madcap socialite of Black British descent. Williams, Olivia. Gin Glorious Gin: How Mother's Ruin Became the Spirit of London. London: Headline Publishing Group ISBN 978-1-4722-1534-5 Official website of Tanqueray gin Tanqueray on thebar UK, owned by Diageo