In military science, suppressive fire is "fire that degrades the performance of an enemy force below the level needed to fulfill its mission". Suppression is only effective for the duration of the fire, it is one of three types of fire support, defined by NATO as "the application of fire, coordinated with the maneuver of forces, to destroy, neutralize or suppress the enemy." Before NATO defined the term, the British and Commonwealth armies used "neutralization" with the same definition as suppression. NATO now defines neutralization as "fire delivered to render a target temporarily ineffective or unusable." Suppressive fire achieves its effect by threatening casualties to individuals who expose themselves to it. Willingness to expose themselves varies depending on the morale and leadership of the target troops. Suppressive fire is used as covering fire, defined by NATO as "Fire used to protect troops when they are within range of enemy small arms." This is sometimes called "winning the firefight" in an infantry-only action.
However, suppressive fire may be used against indirect firers, enemy air defenses or other military activities such as construction work or logistic activities, or to deny an area to the enemy for a short period of time. Using smoke to'blind' enemy observation is a form of non-lethal suppression and at night illuminating flares may be used to suppress enemy activities by denying them the cover of darkness. Suppression can be delivered by any weapon or group of weapons capable of delivering the required intensity of fire for the required period of suppression. However, the suppressive fire capabilities vary because the suppressive effect area varies widely. For example, a rifle or machine gun bullet may only have a suppressive effect within about one metre of its trajectory, whereas a single artillery shell may suppress a few thousand square metres around its burst. Furthermore, sustained suppression over more than a few minutes may be difficult to achieve with small arms fire for logistic reasons, air delivered suppression is affected by payload limits.
In contrast, artillery can suppress an area for an extended period. The purpose of suppression is to stop or prevent the enemy from observing, moving or carrying out other military tasks that interfere with the activities of friendly forces. An important feature of suppressive fire is that it is only effective while it lasts and that it has sufficient intensity. Suppressive fire requires sufficient intensity over the target area, intensity being the suppressive effect per unit of target area per unit of suppression time. Weapons vary in their suppressive capabilities, which are the threat signaled by the noise of projectiles in flight and their impact. Suppressive fire is a tactic to reduce casualties to friendly forces and enable them to conduct their immediate mission. For example, a suppressed target will be unable to engage vulnerable forces that are moving without cover; this enables forces to close with the enemy. For example, a US Marines article notes that "communication and suppressive fire are what enables movement on the battlefield, giving Marines the upper hand."
Suppressive fire may be used to enable a helicopter or boat to land or extract soldiers from a battle zone. The primary intended effect of suppressive fire is psychological. Rather than directly trying to kill enemy soldiers, it makes the enemy soldiers feel unable to safely perform any actions other than seeking cover. Colloquially, this goal is expressed as "it makes them keep their heads down" or "it keeps them pinned down". However, depending on factors including the type of ammunition and the target's protection, suppressive fire may cause casualties and/or damage to enemy equipment. Suppressive fire is used as covering fire against the enemy in the close combat zone. However, suppressive fire delivered by artillery and other indirect fire means can be used to suppress targets of any type, most notably as counter-battery fire against indirect fire units. NATO defines'suppression of enemy air defenses', which has a broader definition and includes materiel damage. An important consideration in the application of suppressive fire from indirect fire systems and aircraft is the safety of the attacking troops.
Fragmenting munitions are indiscriminate and lethal in all directions around the point of burst although the pattern and extent of the lethal area depends on several variable factors, some specific to each situation. In modern warfare, overwatch is a force protection tactic: the state of one small unit or military vehicle supporting another unit, while they are executing fire and movement tactics. An overwatching, or supporting unit has taken a position where it can observe the terrain ahead likely enemy positions; this allows it to provide effective covering fire for advancing friendly units. An ideal overwatch position provides cover for the unit, unobstructed lines of fire, it may be on a height of ground or at the top of a ridge, where a vehicle may be able to adopt a hull-down position. If the overwatching unit is in a position to fire over advancing friendly units, great care must be taken not to let fire fall short; the friendly units should be within tracer burnout. World War I marked a step change because of the development of artillery techniques and the protection provided by trenches.
By late 1915, the British Expeditionary Force realized that the effects of artillery fire could not smash an opening in Ger
Infrared thermography, thermal imaging, thermal video are examples of infrared imaging science. Thermographic cameras detect radiation in the long-infrared range of the electromagnetic spectrum and produce images of that radiation, called thermograms. Since infrared radiation is emitted by all objects with a temperature above absolute zero according to the black body radiation law, thermography makes it possible to see one's environment with or without visible illumination; the amount of radiation emitted by an object increases with temperature. When viewed through a thermal imaging camera, warm objects stand out well against cooler backgrounds; as a result, thermography is useful to the military and other users of surveillance cameras. Some physiological changes in human beings and other warm-blooded animals can be monitored with thermal imaging during clinical diagnostics. Thermography is used in veterinary medicine; some alternative medicine practitioners promote its use for breast screening, despite the FDA warning that "those who opt for this method instead of mammography may miss the chance to detect cancer at its earliest stage".
Government and airport personnel used thermography to detect suspected swine flu cases during the 2009 pandemic. Thermography has a long history, although its use has increased with the commercial and industrial applications of the past fifty years. Firefighters use thermography to see through smoke, to find persons, to localize the base of a fire. Maintenance technicians use thermography to locate overheating joints and sections of power lines, which are a sign of impending failure. Building construction technicians can see thermal signatures that indicate heat leaks in faulty thermal insulation and can use the results to improve the efficiency of heating and air-conditioning units; the appearance and operation of a modern thermographic camera is similar to a camcorder. The live thermogram reveals temperature variations so that a photograph is not necessary for analysis. A recording module is therefore not always built-in. Non-specialized CCD and CMOS sensors have most of their spectral sensitivity in the visible light wavelength range.
However, by utilizing the "trailing" area of their spectral sensitivity, namely the part of the infrared spectrum called near-infrared, by using off-the-shelf CCTV camera it is possible under certain circumstances to obtain true thermal images of objects with temperatures at about 280 °C and higher. Specialized thermal imaging cameras use focal plane arrays; the most common types are InSb, InGaAs, HgCdTe and QWIP FPA. The newest technologies use uncooled microbolometers as FPA sensors, their resolution is lower than that of optical cameras 160x120 or 320x240 pixels, up to 1024×768 for the most expensive models. Thermal imaging cameras are much more expensive than their visible-spectrum counterparts, higher-end models are export-restricted due to the military uses for this technology. Older bolometers or more sensitive models such as InSb require cryogenic cooling by a miniature Stirling cycle refrigerator or liquid nitrogen. Thermal images, or thermograms, are visual displays of the amount of infrared energy emitted and reflected by an object.
Because there are multiple sources of the infrared energy, it is difficult to get an accurate temperature of an object using this method. A thermal imaging camera is capable of performing algorithms to interpret that data and build an image. Although the image shows the viewer an approximation of the temperature at which the object is operating, the camera is using multiple sources of data based on the areas surrounding the object to determine that value rather than detecting the actual temperature; this phenomenon may become clearer upon consideration of the formula: Incident Radiant Power = Emitted Radiant Power + Transmitted Radiant Power + Reflected Radiant Power. Emitted radiant power is what is intended to be measured; this phenomenon occurs all the time. It is a process known as radiant heat exchange. However, in the case of infrared thermography, the above equation is used to describe the radiant power within the spectral wavelength passband of the thermal imaging camera in use; the radiant heat exchange requirements described in the equation apply at every wavelength in the electromagnetic spectrum.
If the object is radiating at a higher temperature than its surroundings power transfer will be taking place and power will be radiating from warm to cold following the principle stated in the second law of thermodynamics. So if there is a cool area in the thermogram, that object will be absorbing the radiation emitted by the warm object; the ability of objects to emit is called emissivity. Under outdoor environments, convective cooling from wind may need to be considered when trying to get an accurate temperature reading; the thermal imaging camera would next employ a series of mathematical algorithms. Since the camera is onl
Paintball is a competitive team shooting sport in which players eliminate opponents from play by hitting them with spherical dye-filled gelatin capsules that break upon impact. Paintballs are shot using a low-energy air weapon called a paintball marker, powered by compressed air or carbon dioxide and was designed for remotely marking trees and cattle; the game was developed in May 1981 for recreation, but now is played at a formal sporting level with organized competition that involves major tournaments, professional teams, players. Paintball technology is used by military forces, law enforcement and security organizations to supplement military or other training. Paintball markers can play nonlethal suppression of dangerous suspects. Games can be played on outdoor fields of varying sizes. A game field is scattered with artificial terrain, which players use for tactical cover. Game types and goals vary, but may include capture the flag, defending or attacking a particular point or area, or capturing objects of interest hidden in the playing area.
Depending on the variant played, games can last from minutes to hours, or days in "scenario play". The legality of paintball varies among regions. In most areas where regulated play is offered, players are required to wear protective masks, use barrel blocking safety equipment, safe game rules are enforced; the paintball equipment used may depend on the game type, for example: woodsball, speedball, or scenario. However every player will utilize three basic pieces of equipment: Paintball marker: known as a "paintball gun", this is the primary piece of equipment, used to mark the opposing player with paintballs; the paintball gun must have a loader or "hopper" or magazines attached to feed paint into the marker, will be either spring-fed, gravity-fed, or electronically force-fed. Modern markers require a compressed air CO2 tank. In contrast early bolt-action paintball markers used disposable silver capsules seen in pellet guns. In the mid to late 1980s, marker mechanics improved to include constant air pressure and semi-automatic operation.
Further improvements included increased rates of fire. The use of unstable CO2 causes damage to the low-pressure pneumatic components inside electronic markers, therefore the more stable compressed air is preferred by owners of such markers. Paintballs: Paintballs, the ammunition used in the marker, are spherical gelatin capsules containing polyethylene glycol, other non-toxic and water-soluble substances, dye; the quality of paintballs is dependent on the brittleness of the ball's shell, the roundness of the sphere, the thickness of the fill. The highest-grade paintballs incorporate cornstarch and metallic flake into the fill to leave a thick glittery "splat", obvious against any background color, hard to wipe off. All paintballs in use today are biodegradeable. All ingredients used in the making of a paintball are food-grade quality and are harmless to the participants and environment. Manufacturers and distributors have been making the effort to move away from the traditional oil-based paints and compressed CO2 gas propellant, to a more friendly water-based formula and compressed air in an effort to become more "eco-friendly".
Paintballs come including of 0.50 inches an 0.68 inches. Mask or goggles: Masks are safety devices players are required to wear at all times on the field, to protect them from paintballs; the original equipment used by players were safety goggles of the type used in labs and wood shops. Masks can feature throat guards. Modern masks have developed to be less bulky compared with older designs; some players may remove the mouth and/or ear protection for aesthetic or comfort reasons, but this is neither recommended nor allowed at commercial venues. Additional equipment seen among frequent players, tournament participants, professional players include: Pods and pod packs: The most common addition to the above "mandatory" equipment, pods are plastic containers with flip-open lids, that store paintballs in a ready-to-use manner. Pods are available in many sizes, including 10, 80, 100 and 140-round sizes, with the larger 140-round pods being most common among tournament players. Pods are carried by the player in pod packs or harnesses which facilitate easy access to the pods during play.
There are several designs of pod packs, from belt loops allowing a recreational player to carry one or two extra pods, to harness designs designed for either tournament-style or scenario-style players. Squeegee/swab – From time to time, a paintball will break inside the player's marker; when this happens it coats the inner surfaces of the marker with paint the barrel, which reduces accuracy. While speedball and tournament players have no time to clear this obstruction and instead "shoot thro
Airsoft is a competitive team shooting sport in which participants shoot opponents with spherical plastic projectiles launched via replica air weapons called airsoft guns. Airsoft pellets, or BBs, do not mark their target, hits are not always visibly apparent. Though the pellets can leave red marks or "welts" on exposed skin, the game relies on an honor system in which the person, hit is responsible for calling themselves out. Airsoft guns are magazine-fed, with some having replaceable compressed gas canisters. Many airsoft guns have mounting platforms compatible with genuine firearm accessories, more resemble real guns; this makes them popular for historical reenactments. Gameplay varies in style and composition, but range from short-term skirmishes, organized scenarios, close quarters battle, military simulations or historical reenactments, they are played in outdoor fields. Combat situations on the battlefield may involve the use of military tactics to achieve objectives set in each game. Participants may attempt to emulate the tactical equipment and accessories used by modern military and police organizations.
A game is kept safe by trained professionals and the equipment is powered by gas or various types of batteries. Before gameplay, an airsoft gun's muzzle velocity is checked through a chronograph and measured in feet per second; some countries have a set velocity or kinetic energy restriction, guns shooting over the legal velocity can be confiscated. Some playing fields further restrict projectile velocity. Airsoft originated from Japan in the early 1970s, trademarked as "soft air guns", tailoring to the needs of shooting enthusiasts while conforming to Japan's strict gun control; the name "soft air" referred to the compressed Freon-silicone oil mixture, used as a propellant, weaker than the carbon dioxide used in proper airguns. Designed for target shooting, their plastic pellets can be shot at humans without causing injury and this became popular for casual war-games. Airsoft guns spread to the UK in the late 1980s and early 1990s with a company called LS; the guns had to be assembled before they were capable of firing pellets.
Airsoft equipment was designed to emulate real guns. Since the mid-1980s, airsoft guns have been adapted with a purely recreational application in mind, the sport is enjoyed by all ages. Airsoft replicas are produced globally, with the majority being manufactured in Asia. Many law enforcement agencies and military units within the United States now use Airsoft for force-on-force training drills. On impact, the pain an airsoft pellet causes is directly related with the kinetic energy; this energy is directly proportional to the square of its velocity. It is important to note; as a reference value, a 6 mm 0.20 gram pellet, the most common size and weight, traveling at 100 metres per second has one joule of kinetic energy. A typical set of velocity for sanctioned fields in the United States on guns may be 110 metres per second and under for Close Quarters Battle, 120 metres per second and under for outdoor play with automatic Airsoft Electric Guns, 120–140 metres per second for semi-auto DMR style AEGs, 140–150 metres per second for bolt-action sniper rifles, for a 0.20 g pellet.
The maximum effective range of field-legal airsoft guns is all around 100 m with a upgraded sniper rifle replica. Most airsoft guns used for field play will have an effective range of around 43–67 m, depending on the intended role of the equipment. Most Airsoft guns are capable of shooting from 60 m/s to 125 m/s, although it is possible to purchase upgraded internals for some Airsoft guns that will enable the gun to shoot up to 170 m/s or higher. In California a common limit for CQB is 110 m/s. In Ireland and Japan the energy limit for Airsoft guns is one joule regardless of the type of game play; some UK sites allow semi-automatic-only equipment up to 88 bolt-action rifles up to 95 m/s. However, the majority of UK sites allow both semi-automatic equipment and bolt-action rifles up to 107 m/s. Northern Ireland has a maximum velocity of 100 m/s with 0.20 g pellets, without regard to the type of equipment. In Sweden the legal limitations of airsoft guns caps the energy limit at 10 joules for single fire guns and 3 joules for semi-automatic and automatic guns.
The ballistics of spring or electrically powered airsoft guns differ from real firearms in that a longer barrel will not always result in better accuracy. In spring/electric airsoft equipment, barrel length does not have a significant effect on accuracy; the "sweet spot" for barrel length in a spring/electric powered airsoft gun is around 450 mm. Past that length, added barrel length will not improve accuracy. In any case, barrel quality, velocity consistency, hopup quality/design are more important factors with regard to accuracy. Added barrel length will result in increased velocity if the cylinder size and compression are appropriate for the barrel length. For example, a gun with a large cylinder and a long barrel will shoot harder than a gun with a small cylinder and a short barrel; this rule will apply for barrels longer than 500 mm, if there is e
In modern military parlance, to take point, walk point, be on point, or be a point man means to assume the first and most exposed position in a combat military formation, that is, the leading soldier or unit advancing through hostile or unsecured territory. The term can be applied to infantry or mechanized columns; the soldier, vehicle, or unit on point is the first to take hostile fire. The inherent risks of taking point create a need for extreme operational alertness. However, ambushes intend to let the point element past the prime kill zone in order to be maximally effective. Point position is rotated periodically so as not to overtax the individual soldier/unit; the term might be related to the Middle English phrase "in point", which meant "in immediate danger or peril". The modern use of the term derives from military tactics. During a military patrol or infantry operation, the point man is a navigator who walks several meters out in front of everyone else and is to be the first one to encounter enemy soldiers.
It is a hazardous position. The term was used in the 19th century American Old West when the lead cowboy at the front of a herd of cattle was known as the pointer or point man, it may have come into common use because many of the cowboys in the late 1800s were veterans of the American Civil War. In cavalry terminology, the men scouting ahead of the main force were said to be "riding point"; this use was first recorded in 1903. The concept seems to have been introduced to the American military at West Point by Professor Dennis H. Mahan, who taught most of the top officers on both sides in the Civil War. In his Elementary Treatise on Advanced-Guard, Out-Post and Detachment Service of Troops, he discussed the use of the column or V-shaped advance guard by the Greeks and Romans: Among the orders of battles among the ancients, that known as the wedge, or boar's head, is the most celebrated. In this disposition, the point, or head, is formed of a subdivision of the phalanx of greater or less strength, according to circumstances.
In the section on Advanced Guards and Advanced Posts, Professor Mahan introduced the definition of the point man to the future American generals: From these indications of the manner of distributing the troops of the advanced-guard, the following general dispositions, adapted to ordinary circumstances of locality may be gathered. The apex, or most advanced point, may be formed of a staff, or other intelligent officer, under the escort of a few horsemen... "Take point" came into common use during World War II by American ground forces. This idiom, "take point" has entered the vernacular in many ways. "Taking point" is used in describing pathfinding behaviors in non-military situations, or to mean "lead the challenge" in a business context. In some cases it has replaced the idiom "stalking horse". More the term has been extended to describe someone at the forefront of an issue, it can be used to refer to the attacker of the position or idea. This use is most used in a political context, as the point man is in the public eye.
In recent American youth culture, the idiom "on point" refers either to someone who possesses abundant and various qualities of competence, leadership or style, or to specific acts which demonstrate such qualities. Profound lyrics, a particular musical performance or a philosophical position might be referred to as "on point." This varies somewhat from the traditional meaning of the phrase, "directly applicable or dispositive of the matter under consideration." In politics, a point man is someone leading the defense of a political position. In the commission of crime a robbery, a "point man" is a lookout. Gun dogs and hunting dogs, such as the pointing breed, "makes/comes to a point" by standing rigid and facing the game. In ice hockey the point man is the defense man on the blue line of the offensive position in the "attacking zone", meaning that he is farther from the net than any other skater. In ballet, the term en pointe refers to the act of standing on the points of the toes while performing steps Random House Word of the Day Entry on point man Elementary Treatise on Advanced-Guard, Out-Post and Detachment Service of Troops Walking Point: The energetic journey of Edwin Kieffer, by Jeff Brodsky in August 9, 2006 Mountain Xpress
No man's land
No man's land is land, unoccupied or is under dispute between parties who leave it unoccupied due to fear or uncertainty. The term was used to define a contested territory or a dumping ground for refuse between fiefdoms. In modern times, it is associated with World War I to describe the area of land between two enemy trench systems, which neither side wished to cross or seize due to fear of being attacked by the enemy in the process. According to Alasdair Pinkerton, an expert in human geography at the Royal Holloway University of London, the term is first mentioned in Domesday Book in the 11th century to describe parcels of land that were just beyond the London city walls; the Oxford English Dictionary contains a reference to the term dating back to 1320, spelled nonesmanneslond, when the term was used to describe a disputed territory or one over which there was legal disagreement. The same term was used as the name for the piece of land outside the north wall of London, assigned as the place of execution.
The term was applied to a little-used area on ships called the forecastle, a place where various ropes, tackle and other supplies were stored. In the United Kingdom several places called No Man's Land denoted "extra-parochial spaces that were beyond the rule of the church, beyond the rule of different fiefdoms that were handed out by the king … ribbons of land between these different regimes of power"; the British Army did not employ the term when the Regular Army arrived in France in August 1914, soon after the outbreak of the Great War. The terms used most at the start of the war to describe the area between the trench lines included'between the trenches' or'between the lines'; the term'no man's land' was first used in a military context by soldier and historian Ernest Swinton in his short story The Point of View. Swinton used the term in war correspondence on the Western Front, with specific mention of the terms with respect to the Race to the Sea in late 1914; the Anglo-German Christmas truce of 1914 brought the term into common use, thereafter it appeared in official communiqués, newspaper reports, personnel correspondences of the members of the British Expeditionary Force.
In World War I, no man's land ranged from several hundred yards to in some cases less than 10 yards. Defended by machine guns, mortars and riflemen on both sides, it was extensively cratered, riddled with barbed wire, rudimentary improvised land mines, as well as corpses and wounded soldiers who were not able to make it through the hail of bullets and flames; the area was sometimes contaminated by chemical weapons. It was open to fire from the opposing trenches and hard going slowed down any attempted advance. However, not only were soldiers forced to cross no man's land when advancing, as the case might be when retreating, but after an attack the stretcher bearers would need to go out into it to bring in the wounded. No man's land remained a regular feature of the battlefield until near the end of World War I, when mechanised weapons made entrenched lines less of an obstacle. Effects from World War I no man's lands persist today, for example at Verdun in France, where the Zone Rouge is an area with unexploded ordnance, poisoned beyond habitation by arsenic and phosgene.
The zone is sealed off and still deemed too dangerous for civilians to return: "The area is still considered to be poisoned, so the French government planted an enormous forest of black pines, like a living sarcophagus", comments Alasdair Pinkerton, a researcher at Royal Holloway University of London, who compared the zone to the nuclear disaster site at Chernobyl encased in a "concrete sarcophagus". During the Cold War, one example of "no man's land" was the territory close to the Iron Curtain; the territory belonged to the Eastern Bloc countries, but over the entire Iron Curtain there were several wide tracts of uninhabited land, several hundred meters in width, containing watch towers, unexploded bombs and other such debris. The U. S. Naval Base at Guantánamo Bay, Cuba is separated from Cuba proper by an area called the Cactus Curtain. In late 1961, Cuba had its troops plant an 8-mile barrier of Opuntia cactus along the northeastern section of the 28-kilometre fence surrounding the base to prevent economic migrants fleeing from Cuba from resettling in the United States.
This was dubbed the "Cactus Curtain", an allusion to Europe's Iron Curtain and the Bamboo Curtain in East Asia. U. S. and Cuban troops placed some 55,000 land mines across the no man's land, creating the second-largest minefield in the world, the largest in the Americas. On 16 May 1996, the President of the United States, ordered their removal; the U. S. land mines have since been replaced with sound sensors to detect intruders. The Cuban government has not removed the corresponding minefield on its side of the border; the 1949 Armistice Agreements between Israel and Jordan were signed in Rhodes with the help of UN mediation on 3 April 1949. Armistice lines were determined in November 1948. Between the lines territory was left, defined as no man's land; such areas existed in Jerusalem, in the area between the western and southern parts of the Walls of Jerusalem and Musrara. A strip of land north and south of Latrun was known as "no man's land" because it was not controlled by either Israel or Jordan in 1948–1967.
In 1885, the United States Interior Department ruled that what was called "The Neutral Strip" was public land and that squatter homesteads were invalid. The Strip began to be called No Man's Land around 1886 after one official stated "no man can own the land". Batman: No Man