Konrad Zacharias Lorenz was an Austrian zoologist and ornithologist. He shared the 1973 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine with Nikolaas Tinbergen and Karl von Frisch, he is regarded as one of the founders of modern ethology, the study of animal behaviour. He developed an approach that began with an earlier generation, including his teacher Oskar Heinroth. Lorenz studied instinctive behavior in animals in greylag geese and jackdaws. Working with geese, he investigated the principle of imprinting, the process by which some nidifugous birds bond instinctively with the first moving object that they see within the first hours of hatching. Although Lorenz did not discover the topic, he became known for his descriptions of imprinting as an instinctive bond. In 1936 he met Tinbergen, the two collaborated in developing ethology as a separate sub-discipline of biology. A Review of General Psychology survey, published in 2002, ranked Lorenz as the 65th most cited scholar of the 20th century in the technical psychology journals, introductory psychology textbooks, survey responses.
Lorenz's work was interrupted by the onset of World War-II and in 1941 he was recruited into the German army as a medic. In 1944 he was sent to the Eastern Front where he was captured and spent four years as a Soviet prisoner of war. After the war he regretted his membership in the Nazi party. Lorenz wrote numerous books, some of which, such as King Solomon's Ring, On Aggression, Man Meets Dog, became popular reading, his last work "Here I Am – Where Are You?" is a summary of his life's work and focuses on his famous studies of greylag geese. In his autobiographical essay, published in 1973 in Les Prix Nobel, Lorenz credits his career to his parents, who "were supremely tolerant of my inordinate love for animals", to his childhood encounter with Selma Lagerlöf's The Wonderful Adventures of Nils, which filled him with a great enthusiasm about wild geese. " At the request of his father, Adolf Lorenz, he began a premedical curriculum in 1922 at Columbia University, but he returned to Vienna in 1923 to continue his studies at the University of Vienna.
He graduated as Doctor of Medicine in 1928 and became an assistant professor at the Institute of Anatomy until 1935. He received his second doctorate. While still a student, Lorenz began developing what would become a large menagerie, ranging from domestic to exotic animals. In his popular book King Solomon's Ring, Lorenz recounts that while studying at the University of Vienna he kept a variety of animals at his parents' apartment, ranging from fish to a capuchin monkey named Gloria. In 1936, at an international scientific symposium on instinct, Lorenz met his great friend and colleague Nikolaas Tinbergen. Together they studied geese—wild and hybrid. One result of these studies was that Lorenz "realized that an overpowering increase in the drives of feeding as well as of copulation and a waning of more differentiated social instincts is characteristic of many domestic animals". Lorenz began to suspect and fear "that analogous processes of deterioration may be at work with civilized humanity."
This observation of bird hybrids caused Lorenz to believe that domestication resulting from urbanisation in humans might cause dysgenic effects, to argue in two papers that the Nazi eugenics policies against this were therefore scientifically justified. In 1940 he became a professor of psychology at the University of Königsberg, he was drafted into the Wehrmacht in 1941. He sought to be a motorcycle mechanic, but instead he was assigned as a military psychologist, conducting racial studies on humans in occupied Poznań under Rudolf Hippius; the objective was to study the biological characteristics of "German-Polish half-breeds" to determine whether they'benefitted' from the same work ethics as'pure' Germans. The degree to which Lorenz participated in the project is unknown, but the project director Hippius referred a couple of times to Lorenz as an "examining psychologist". Lorenz described that he once saw transports of concentration camp inmates near Poznań, which made him "fully realize the complete inhumanity of the Nazis".
He was sent to the Russian front in 1944 where he became a prisoner of war in the Soviet Union from 1944 to 1948. In captivity he continued to work as a medic and "got quite friendly with some Russians doctors"; when he was repatriated, he was allowed to keep the manuscript of a book he had been writing, his pet starling. He arrived back in Altenberg both "with manuscript and bird intact." The manuscript became his 1973 book Behind the Mirror. The Max Planck Society established the Lorenz Institute for Behavioral Physiology in Buldern, Germany, in 1950. In his memoirs Lorenz described the chronology of his war years differently from what historians have been able to document after his death, he himself claimed that he was captured in 1942, where in reality he was only sent to the front and captured in 1944, leaving out his involvement with the Poznań project. In 1958, Lorenz transferred to the Max Planck Institute for Behavioral Physiology in Seewiesen, he shared the 1973 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine "for discoveries in individual and social behavior patterns" with two other important early ethologists, Nikolaas Tinbergen and Karl von Frisch.
In 1969, he became the first recipient of the Prix mondial Cino Del Duca. He was a student of renowned biologist Sir Julian Huxley. Famed psychoanalyst Ralph Greenson and Sir Peter
OCLC Online Computer Library Center, Incorporated d/b/a OCLC is an American nonprofit cooperative organization "dedicated to the public purposes of furthering access to the world's information and reducing information costs". It was founded in 1967 as the Ohio College Library Center. OCLC and its member libraries cooperatively produce and maintain WorldCat, the largest online public access catalog in the world. OCLC is funded by the fees that libraries have to pay for its services. OCLC maintains the Dewey Decimal Classification system. OCLC began in 1967, as the Ohio College Library Center, through a collaboration of university presidents, vice presidents, library directors who wanted to create a cooperative computerized network for libraries in the state of Ohio; the group first met on July 5, 1967 on the campus of the Ohio State University to sign the articles of incorporation for the nonprofit organization, hired Frederick G. Kilgour, a former Yale University medical school librarian, to design the shared cataloging system.
Kilgour wished to merge the latest information storage and retrieval system of the time, the computer, with the oldest, the library. The plan was to merge the catalogs of Ohio libraries electronically through a computer network and database to streamline operations, control costs, increase efficiency in library management, bringing libraries together to cooperatively keep track of the world's information in order to best serve researchers and scholars; the first library to do online cataloging through OCLC was the Alden Library at Ohio University on August 26, 1971. This was the first online cataloging by any library worldwide. Membership in OCLC is based on use of services and contribution of data. Between 1967 and 1977, OCLC membership was limited to institutions in Ohio, but in 1978, a new governance structure was established that allowed institutions from other states to join. In 2002, the governance structure was again modified to accommodate participation from outside the United States.
As OCLC expanded services in the United States outside Ohio, it relied on establishing strategic partnerships with "networks", organizations that provided training and marketing services. By 2008, there were 15 independent United States regional service providers. OCLC networks played a key role in OCLC governance, with networks electing delegates to serve on the OCLC Members Council. During 2008, OCLC commissioned two studies to look at distribution channels. In early 2009, OCLC negotiated new contracts with the former networks and opened a centralized support center. OCLC provides bibliographic and full-text information to anyone. OCLC and its member libraries cooperatively produce and maintain WorldCat—the OCLC Online Union Catalog, the largest online public access catalog in the world. WorldCat has holding records from private libraries worldwide; the Open WorldCat program, launched in late 2003, exposed a subset of WorldCat records to Web users via popular Internet search and bookselling sites.
In October 2005, the OCLC technical staff began a wiki project, WikiD, allowing readers to add commentary and structured-field information associated with any WorldCat record. WikiD was phased out; the Online Computer Library Center acquired the trademark and copyrights associated with the Dewey Decimal Classification System when it bought Forest Press in 1988. A browser for books with their Dewey Decimal Classifications was available until July 2013; until August 2009, when it was sold to Backstage Library Works, OCLC owned a preservation microfilm and digitization operation called the OCLC Preservation Service Center, with its principal office in Bethlehem, Pennsylvania. The reference management service QuestionPoint provides libraries with tools to communicate with users; this around-the-clock reference service is provided by a cooperative of participating global libraries. Starting in 1971, OCLC produced catalog cards for members alongside its shared online catalog. OCLC commercially sells software, such as CONTENTdm for managing digital collections.
It offers the bibliographic discovery system WorldCat Discovery, which allows for library patrons to use a single search interface to access an institution's catalog, database subscriptions and more. OCLC has been conducting research for the library community for more than 30 years. In accordance with its mission, OCLC makes its research outcomes known through various publications; these publications, including journal articles, reports and presentations, are available through the organization's website. OCLC Publications – Research articles from various journals including Code4Lib Journal, OCLC Research, Reference & User Services Quarterly, College & Research Libraries News, Art Libraries Journal, National Education Association Newsletter; the most recent publications are displayed first, all archived resources, starting in 1970, are available. Membership Reports – A number of significant reports on topics ranging from virtual reference in libraries to perceptions about library funding. Newsletters – Current and archived newsletters for the library and archive community.
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Sliders is an American science fiction and fantasy television series created by Robert K. Weiss and Tracy Tormé, it was broadcast for five seasons between 1995 and 2000. The series follows a group of travelers as they use a wormhole to "slide" between different parallel universes. Tormé, Leslie Belzberg, John Landis, David Peckinpah, Bill Dial and Alan Barnette served as executive producers at different times of the production. For its first two seasons it was produced in Vancouver, British Columbia, it was filmed in Los Angeles, California in the last three seasons. Since its debut on March 22, 1995, the first three seasons were broadcast by the Fox network. After being canceled by Fox, the series moved to Sci Fi Channel for its final two seasons; the last new episode first aired on December 29, 1999 in the United Kingdom, was broadcast on the Sci Fi Channel on February 4, 2000. The show follows a group of people, called "Sliders", as they travel between different Earths in parallel universes via a vortex-like wormhole, hoping to return safely to their original Earth Prime.
The vortex can only be opened after a specific but random period of time on each new universe, monitored by a countdown clock on a portable timer that they carry. While waiting for the timer countdown, the group learns about the differences in the alternate Earth from their own, become unwillingly involved in events that they must resolve before they can safely leave via the vortex; the travelers have no control over what world they end up in, but continually look for means to find Earth Prime. The pilot introduces the four original Sliders: Quinn Mallory, a graduate student in physics who discovered and refined the Sliding technology, their first slide lands them on an Earth, suffering from a second ice age, Quinn, against his better judgement, uses the timer to open the vortex prematurely to save the group from an ice tornado bearing down on them. As a result, the sliders lose the ability to return home and must slide from world to world hoping that the next slide is their Earth. Many of the episodes in these early seasons focused on Earths that resulted from alternate histories, such as if the British had won the Revolutionary War, or if antibiotics had never been discovered.
In the second season, the four encounter a humanoid species called the Kromaggs, who have sliding technology but use it to ransack other Earths for slaves and resources. Season 3 saw; this was described in the show by a change in the functionality of the timer which had kept their slides to the geographic area around San Francisco to extend that range to over 400 miles, including Los Angeles. Fox set a more action-oriented tone to the series based on ideas popularized by current films at the time, such as a tornado-themed episode inspired by Twister and a dinosaur-themed episode inspired by Jurassic Park; the show for the first time included mystical elements, instead of all events being explained purely by science. The network appointed crew members more amenable to their views, most notably executive producer David Peckinpah. During this time, Rhys-Davies expressed a lack of interest in continuing his role, he was dismissed from the series by Fox. Within the show, Professor Arturo discovers.
In a transitional episode, "The Exodus", the Sliders arrive on an Earth about to be destroyed by a pulsar before their next slide window. They encounter a military operation, led by Colonel Angus Rickman and Captain Maggie Beckett, who are using their own sliding technology to save a select group. Working to help Maggie locate a safe parallel Earth, Quinn happens upon their original Earth, but Maggie is unable to breathe there and Quinn is forced to return. Now Quinn has the coordinates for his home Earth in his timer, but Rickman, secretly killing people, steals the timer and flees to another world after killing Arturo. Maggie offers to join Quinn and Rembrandt to chase down Rickman using the Sliders' original timer and recover the one with their Earth's coordinates. In subsequent episodes, the group does catch up with Rickman, recovering the timer. After obtaining the coordinates, Quinn sends Rembrandt and Wade through a vortex leading back to Earth Prime, opting to stay behind with Maggie.
Maggie offers to risk her life returning to their Earth, but when she and Quinn open a vortex, they find themselves in yet another alternate Earth. Tracy Tormé, the original executive producer of the show, quit after this season, citing conflict with Fox on the show's direction. One example is the episode "The Exodus" described by Tormé as "one of the worst pieces of television produced, the low point of the entire series". One aspect cited by Tormé was the forgoing of Quinn and Wade's relationship, and, in "The Exodus", Quinn is instead encouraged into a relationship with the wife of a scientist, helping the sliders. Fox would cancel their run of the show after the third season. Starting with the fourth season, the show was picked up by the Sci Fi Channel. Within the fourth-season premiere episode and Maggie, after searching numerous alternate Earths for months, return to Earth Prime o
Charles Robert Darwin, was an English naturalist and biologist, best known for his contributions to the science of evolution. His proposition that all species of life have descended over time from common ancestors is now accepted, considered a foundational concept in science. In a joint publication with Alfred Russel Wallace, he introduced his scientific theory that this branching pattern of evolution resulted from a process that he called natural selection, in which the struggle for existence has a similar effect to the artificial selection involved in selective breeding. Darwin published his theory of evolution with compelling evidence in his 1859 book On the Origin of Species, overcoming scientific rejection of earlier concepts of transmutation of species. By the 1870s, the scientific community and a majority of the educated public had accepted evolution as a fact. However, many favoured competing explanations, it was not until the emergence of the modern evolutionary synthesis from the 1930s to the 1950s that a broad consensus developed in which natural selection was the basic mechanism of evolution.
Darwin's scientific discovery is the unifying theory of the life sciences, explaining the diversity of life. Darwin's early interest in nature led him to neglect his medical education at the University of Edinburgh. Studies at the University of Cambridge encouraged his passion for natural science, his five-year voyage on HMS Beagle established him as an eminent geologist whose observations and theories supported Charles Lyell's uniformitarian ideas, publication of his journal of the voyage made him famous as a popular author. Puzzled by the geographical distribution of wildlife and fossils he collected on the voyage, Darwin began detailed investigations, in 1838 conceived his theory of natural selection. Although he discussed his ideas with several naturalists, he needed time for extensive research and his geological work had priority, he was writing up his theory in 1858 when Alfred Russel Wallace sent him an essay that described the same idea, prompting immediate joint publication of both of their theories.
Darwin's work established evolutionary descent with modification as the dominant scientific explanation of diversification in nature. In 1871 he examined human evolution and sexual selection in The Descent of Man, Selection in Relation to Sex, followed by The Expression of the Emotions in Man and Animals, his research on plants was published in a series of books, in his final book, The Formation of Vegetable Mould, through the Actions of Worms, he examined earthworms and their effect on soil. Darwin has been described as one of the most influential figures in human history, he was honoured by burial in Westminster Abbey. Since 2008, a statue of Charles Darwin occupies the place of honour at London's Natural History Museum. Charles Robert Darwin was born in Shrewsbury, Shropshire, on 12 February 1809, at his family's home, The Mount, he was the fifth of six children of wealthy society doctor and financier Robert Darwin and Susannah Darwin. His grandfathers Erasmus Darwin and Josiah Wedgwood were both prominent abolitionists.
Both families were Unitarian, though the Wedgwoods were adopting Anglicanism. Robert Darwin, himself a freethinker, had baby Charles baptised in November 1809 in the Anglican St Chad's Church, but Charles and his siblings attended the Unitarian chapel with their mother; the eight-year-old Charles had a taste for natural history and collecting when he joined the day school run by its preacher in 1817. That July, his mother died. From September 1818, he joined his older brother Erasmus attending the nearby Anglican Shrewsbury School as a boarder. Darwin spent the summer of 1825 as an apprentice doctor, helping his father treat the poor of Shropshire, before going to the University of Edinburgh Medical School with his brother Erasmus in October 1825. Darwin found lectures dull and surgery distressing, so he neglected his studies, he learned taxidermy in around 40 daily hour-long sessions from John Edmonstone, a freed black slave who had accompanied Charles Waterton in the South American rainforest.
In Darwin's second year at the university he joined the Plinian Society, a student natural-history group featuring lively debates in which radical democratic students with materialistic views challenged orthodox religious concepts of science. He assisted Robert Edmond Grant's investigations of the anatomy and life cycle of marine invertebrates in the Firth of Forth, on 27 March 1827 presented at the Plinian his own discovery that black spores found in oyster shells were the eggs of a skate leech. One day, Grant praised Lamarck's evolutionary ideas. Darwin was astonished by Grant's audacity, but had read similar ideas in his grandfather Erasmus' journals. Darwin was rather bored by Robert Jameson's natural-history course, which covered geology—including the debate between Neptunism and Plutonism, he learned the classification of plants, assisted with work on the collections of the University Museum, one of the largest museums in Europe at the time. Darwin's neglect of medical studies annoyed his father, who shrewdly sent him to Christ's College, Cambridge, to study for a Bachelor of Arts degree as the first step towards becoming an Anglican country parson.
As Darwin was unqualified for the Tripos, he joined the ordinary degree course in January 1828. He preferred shooting to studying, his cousin William Darwin Fox introduced him to the popular craze for beetle collecting.
Australopithecus africanus is an extinct species of the australopithecines, the first of an early ape-form species to be classified as hominin. It was dated as living between 3.3 and 2.1 million years ago, or in the late Pliocene and early Pleistocene times. A. africanus was of slender, or gracile and has been found only in southern Africa at four sites: Taung, Sterkfontein and Gladysvale. In January 2019, scientists reported that Australopithecus sediba is distinct from, but shares anatomical similarities to, both the older Australopithecus africanus, the younger Homo habilis. Raymond Dart the head of the department of anatomy at the University of the Witwatersrand in Johannesburg, South Africa, became interested in fossils found at a limestone quarry at Taung near Kimberley, South Africa in 1924; the most promising of these was a skull of an odd ape-like creature presenting human traits at the eye orbits, and, most the hole at the base of the skull over the spinal column. Dart assigned the specimen.
This was the first time the word "ape" was formally assigned to any hominin, which, in effect, formally declared humans as descended from apes. Dart theorized the Taung child skull must represent an intermediate species between humans, but his claim was rejected by the scientific community in deference to the broadly-held idea that the early development of the line to humans required that a large cranium would precede bipedal locomotion. And the rejection was buttressed by the widespread belief especially in British academia, that the Piltdown Man found in England was the progenitor of the human lineage. Sir Arthur Keith was an anatomist and anthropologist fellow in 1924, a scientist whose personal prejudice looked to Europe—not to Asia or Africa—as the place where the early hominins would be shown to have emerged, he dismissed Dart's claim, suggesting instead that the Taung child skull belonged to a young ape, most an infant gorilla or chimpanzee. Keith's persistence in denouncing the possibility of Australopithecus while justifying the plausibility of Piltdown man was instrumental in binding the two issues inextricably together for over a generation.
Keith immersed himself in defending the Piltdown man and his reputation suffered after the hoax was exposed in 1953. Phillip Tobias, in a lengthy essay published in Current Anthropology in 1992, detailed the history of the investigation of the hoax, he presented argument that implicated the motive of Keith's adamant and continual opposition to Australopithecus, to wit: if Australopithecus was a hominin ancestor Piltdown man could not have been and its bona fides would have been suspect and called out for formal investigation. As part of the essay Tobias debated the inconsistencies in Keith's statements and actions with contemporary members of the science community. Keith's persistent animus towards the Taung child discovery caused serious consequences. Dart's theory—that the skull known as the Taung child was a human ancestor—was supported by Robert Broom, a paleontologist with the Transvaal Museum of natural history in Pretoria. In 1936, the Sterkfontein caves yielded the first adult australopithecine strengthening Dart's claim for Broom.
Broom classified an adult endocranial cast having a brain capacity of 485 cc as Plesianthropus transvaalensis. In April 1947, while blasting at Sterkfontein, he and John T. Robinson discovered a skull belonging to a middle-aged female which he classified as Plesianthropus transvaalensis. Both fossils were classified as Australopithecus africanus. Mrs. Ples, whose cranial capacity is only about 485 cubic centimetres, was one of the first fossils to reveal that upright walking had evolved well before any significant growth in brain size. And, in comparison to modern apes, Dart noted as with the Taung child the lack of facial projection, a characteristic shared with advanced hominines. In 1997, paleoanthropologist Ronald J. Clarke began extracting the remains of a near-complete skeleton of Australopithecus named Little Foot, discovered in the cave system at Sterkfontein. Little Foot is classified as Australopithecus africanus. Analysis made in 2015 by a new radioisotopic technique dated the Little Foot specimen to about 3.7 mya. A. africanus was similar in many traits to A. afarensis, a bipedal hominin with arms longer than the legs.
It has human-like, advanced crani
War is a state of armed conflict between states, governments and informal paramilitary groups, such as mercenaries and militias. It is characterized by extreme violence, aggression and mortality, using regular or irregular military forces. Warfare refers of wars in general. Total war is warfare, not restricted to purely legitimate military targets, can result in massive civilian or other non-combatant suffering and casualties; the scholarly study of war is sometimes called polemology, from the Greek polemos, meaning "war", -logy, meaning "the study of". While some scholars see war as a universal and ancestral aspect of human nature, others argue it is a result of specific socio-cultural or ecological circumstances; the English word war derives from the 11th century Old English words wyrre and werre, from Old French werre, in turn from the Frankish *werra deriving from the Proto-Germanic *werzō'mixture, confusion'. The word is related to the Old Saxon werran, Old High German werran, the German verwirren, meaning “to confuse”, “to perplex”, “to bring into confusion”.
War must entail some degree of confrontation using weapons and other military technology and equipment by armed forces employing military tactics and operational art within a broad military strategy subject to military logistics. Studies of war by military theorists throughout military history have sought to identify the philosophy of war, to reduce it to a military science. Modern military science considers several factors before a national defence policy is created to allow a war to commence: the environment in the area of combat operations, the posture national forces will adopt on the commencement of a war, the type of warfare troops will be engaged in. Asymmetric warfare is a conflict between belligerents of drastically different levels of military capability and/or size. Biological warfare, or germ warfare, is the use of weaponized biological toxins or infectious agents such as bacteria and fungi. Chemical warfare involves the use of weaponized chemicals in combat. Poison gas as a chemical weapon was principally used during World War I, resulted in over a million estimated casualties, including more than 100,000 civilians.
Civil war is a war between forces belonging to political entity. Conventional warfare is declared war between states in which nuclear, biological, or chemical weapons are not used or see limited deployment. Cyberwarfare involves the actions by a nation-state or international organization to attack and attempt to damage another nation's information systems. Insurgency is a rebellion against authority, when those taking part in the rebellion are not recognized as belligerents. An insurgency can be fought via counter-insurgency warfare, may be opposed by measures to protect the population, by political and economic actions of various kinds aimed at undermining the insurgents' claims against the incumbent regime. Information warfare is the application of destructive force on a large scale against information assets and systems, against the computers and networks that support the four critical infrastructures. Nuclear warfare is warfare in which nuclear weapons are the primary, or a major, method of achieving capitulation.
Total war is warfare by any means possible, disregarding the laws of war, placing no limits on legitimate military targets, using weapons and tactics resulting in significant civilian casualties, or demanding a war effort requiring significant sacrifices by the friendly civilian population. Unconventional warfare, the opposite of conventional warfare, is an attempt to achieve military victory through acquiescence, capitulation, or clandestine support for one side of an existing conflict. War of aggression is a war for gain rather than self-defense. War of liberation, Wars of national liberation or national liberation revolutions are conflicts fought by nations to gain independence; the term is used in conjunction with wars against foreign powers to establish separate sovereign states for the rebelling nationality. From a different point of view, these wars are called insurgencies, rebellions, or wars of independence; the earliest recorded evidence of war belongs to the Mesolithic cemetery Site 117, determined to be 14,000 years old.
About forty-five percent of the skeletons there displayed signs of violent death. Since the rise of the state some 5,000 years ago, military activity has occurred over much of the globe; the advent of gunpowder and the acceleration of technological advances led to modern warfare. According to Conway W. Henderson, "One source claims that 14,500 wars have taken place between 3500 BC and the late 20th century, costing 3.5 billion lives, leaving only 300 years of peace." An unfavorable review of this estimate mentions the following regarding one of the proponents of this estimate: "In addition feeling that the war casualties figure was improbably high, he changed "approximately 3,640,000,000 human beings have been killed by war or the diseases produced by war" to "approximately 1,240,000,000 human beings...&c."" The lower figure is more plausible, but could be on the high side, considering that the 100 deadliest acts of mass violence between 480 BCE and 2002 CE claimed about 455 million human lives in total.
Primitive warfare is estimated to have accounted for 15
Gombe Chimpanzee War
The Gombe Chimpanzee War, lasting from 1974 to 1978, was a violent conflict between two communities of chimpanzees in Gombe Stream National Park, in Tanzania. The belligerent groups were the Kasakela and the Kahama, which occupied territories in the northern and southern areas of the park, respectively; the two had been a single, unified community, but by 1974 researcher Jane Goodall, observing the community, first noticed the chimps dividing themselves into northern and southern sub-groups. Computer-aided analysis of Goodall's notes would reveal that the social rift between the two groups had been present as early as 1971; the Kahama group, in the south, consisted of six adult males, three adult females and their young, an adolescent male. The larger Kasakela group, consisted of twelve adult females and their young, eight adult males; the first outbreak of violence occurred on January 7, 1974, when a party of six adult Kasakela males attacked and killed "Gobi", a young Kahama male, feeding in a tree.
This was the first time that any of the chimpanzees had been seen to deliberately kill a fellow chimp. Over the next four years, all six of the adult male members of the Kahama were killed by the Kasakela males. Of the females from Kahama, one was killed, two went missing, three were beaten and kidnapped by the Kasakela males; the Kasakela succeeded in taking over the Kahama's former territory. These territorial gains were not permanent, however. Cowed by the superior strength and numbers of the Kalande, as well as a few violent skirmishes along their border, the Kasakela gave up much of their new territory; the outbreak of the war came as a disturbing shock to Goodall, who had considered chimpanzees to be, although similar to human beings, "rather'nicer'" in their behavior. Coupled with the observation in 1975 of cannibalistic infanticide by a high-ranking female in the community, the violence of the Gombe war first revealed to Goodall the "dark side" of chimpanzee behavior, she was profoundly disturbed by this revelation.
When I woke in the night, horrific pictures sprang unbidden to my mind—Satan, cupping his hand below Sniff's chin to drink the blood that welled from a great wound on his face. When Goodall reported on the events of the Gombe War, her account of a occurring war between chimpanzees was not universally believed. At the time, scientific models of human and animal behavior never overlapped; some scientists accused her of excessive anthropomorphism. However research using less intrusive methods confirmed that chimpanzee societies, in their natural state, wage war. A 2018 study published in the American Journal of Physical Anthropology concluded that the Gombe War was most a consequence of a power struggle between three high-ranking males, exacerbated by an unusual scarcity of fertile females. Killer ape hypothesis, proposed by Raymond Dart in 1953 Goodall, Jane. Through a Window: My Thirty Years with the Chimpanzees of Gombe. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt. ISBN 9780547488387. Morris, Ian. War! What Is It Good For?: The Role of Conflict and the Progress of Civilisation from Primates to Robots.
MacMillan. ISBN 9781847654540. Goodall, Jane; the chimpanzees of Gombe: patterns of behavior. Belknap Press of Harvard University Press. ISBN 9780674116498