The TRS-80 Micro Computer System is a desktop microcomputer launched in 1977 and sold by Tandy Corporation through their RadioShack stores. The name is an abbreviation of Z-80 microprocessor, it is one of mass-marketed retail home computers. The TRS-80 has a full-stroke QWERTY keyboard, the Zilog Z80 processor, 4 KB DRAM standard memory, small size and desk footprint, floating-point BASIC programming language, standard 64-character/line video monitor, a starting price of US$600. An extensive line of upgrades and add-on hardware peripherals for the TRS-80 was developed and marketed by Tandy/RadioShack; the basic system can be expanded with up to 48 KB of RAM, up to four floppy disk drives and/or hard disk drives. Tandy/RadioShack provided full-service support including upgrade and training services in their thousands of stores worldwide. By 1979, the TRS-80 had the largest selection of software in the microcomputer market; until 1982, the TRS-80 was the best-selling PC line, outselling the Apple II series by a factor of five according to one analysis.
In mid-1980, the broadly compatible TRS-80 Model III was released. The Model I was discontinued shortly thereafter due to stricter FCC regulations on radio-frequency interference to nearby electronic devices. In April 1983 the Model III was succeeded by the compatible Model 4. Following the original Model I and its compatible descendants, the TRS-80 name became a generic brand used on other technically unrelated computer lines sold by Tandy, including the TRS-80 Model II, TRS-80 Model 2000, TRS-80 Model 100, TRS-80 Color Computer and TRS-80 Pocket Computer. In the mid-1970s, Tandy Corporation's RadioShack division was a successful American chain of more than 3,000 electronics stores. After buyer Don French purchased a MITS Altair kit computer, he began designing his own and showed it to vice president of manufacturing John Roach. Although the design did not impress Roach, the idea of selling a microcomputer did; when the two men visited National Semiconductor in California in mid-1976, Steve Leininger's expertise on the SC/MP microprocessor impressed them.
National executives refused to provide Leininger's contact information when French and Roach wanted to hire him as a consultant, but they found Leininger working part-time at Byte Shop and he and French began working together in June 1976. The company envisioned a kit, but Leininger persuaded the others that because "too many people can't solder", a preassembled computer would be better. Tandy had 11 million customers that might buy a microcomputer, but it would be much more expensive than the US$30 median price of a RadioShack product, a great risk for the conservative company. Executives feared losing money as Sears did with Cartrivision, many opposed the project; as the popularity of CB radio—at one point comprising more than 20% of RadioShack's sales—declined, the company sought new products. In December 1976 French and Leininger received official approval for the project but were told to emphasize cost savings. In February 1977 they showed their prototype, running a simple tax-accounting program, to Charles Tandy, head of Tandy Corporation.
The program crashed as the computer could not handle the US$150,000 figure that Tandy typed in as his salary, the two men added support for floating-point math to its Tiny BASIC to prevent a recurrence. After the demonstration Tandy revealed that he had leaked the computer's existence to the press, so the project was approved. MITS sold 1,000 Altairs in February 1975, was selling 10,000 a year. Leininger and French suggested that RadioShack could sell 50,000 computers, but others disagreed and suggested 1,000 to 3,000 per year at the target US$199 price. Roach persuaded Tandy to agree to build 3,500—the number of RadioShack stores—so that each store could use a computer for inventory purposes if they did not sell. Having spent less than US$150,000 on development, RadioShack announced the TRS-80 at a New York City press conference on August 3, 1977, it cost a RadioShack tape recorder as datacassette storage. The company hoped that the new computer would help RadioShack sell higher-priced products, improve its "schlocky" image among customers.
Small businesses were the primary target market, followed by educators consumers and hobbyists. Although the press conference did not receive much media attention because of a terrorist bombing elsewhere in the city, the computer received much more publicity at the Personal Computer Faire in Boston two days later. A front-page Associated Press article discussed the novelty of a large consumer-electronics company selling a home computer that could "do a payroll for up to 15 people in a small business, teach children mathematics, store your favorite recipes or keep track of an investment portfolio, it can play cards." Six sacks of mail arrived at Tandy headquarters asking about the computer, over 15,000 people called to purchase a TRS-80—paralyzing the company switchboard—and 250,000 joined the waiting list with a $100 deposit. Despite the internal skepticism, RadioShack aggressively entered the
Forrest M. Mims III is an American amateur scientist, magazine columnist, author of the popular Getting Started in Electronics and Engineer's Mini-Notebook series of instructional books, sold in Radio Shack electronics stores. Mims graduated from Texas A&M University in 1966 with a major in government and minors in English and history, he became a commissioned officer in the United States Air Force. Although he has no formal academic training in science, Mims has had a successful career as a science author, researcher and syndicated columnist, his series of electronics books sold over 7 million copies and he is regarded as one of the world's most prolific citizen scientists. Mims does scientific studies in many fields using instruments he designs and makes and he has been published in a number of peer-reviewed journals with professional scientists as co-authors. Much of his research deals with environmental science. A simple instrument he developed to measure the ozone layer earned him a Rolex Award for Enterprise in 1993.
In December 2008 Discover named Mims one of the "50 Best Brains in Science."Mims edited The Citizen Scientist — the journal of the Society for Amateur Scientists — from 2003 to 2010. He is the Chairman of the Environmental Science Section of the Texas Academy of Science, he teaches electronics and atmospheric science at the University of the Nations, an unaccredited Christian university in Hawaii. He is a member of the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, the National Science Teachers Association and several scientific societies. Mims is an advocate for Intelligent Design and serves as a Fellow of the International Society for Complexity and Design and the Discovery Institute, he is a skeptic of global warming. Forrest Mims was born in 1944 in Texas to Forrest M. Mims, Jr. and Ollieve E. Mims, he was the oldest of two boys and three girls. Mims' father was an Air Force pilot and the family lived on military bases from Alaska to Florida but their home state was Texas. Mims was interested in science at an early age, he built an analog computer as a high school science fair project in 1960.
While memorizing his Latin class vocabulary words, Mims conceived a computer that could translate twenty words from one language to another. The input was six potentiometers each having a dial with 26 letters. Entering the first six letters of the word on the potentiometers set a total electrical resistance; the memory of known words was a bank of 20 screwdriver-adjustable trimmer resistors. The memory was searched by a motor driven switch that compared the resistance of the input word with each memory resistor; when a match was found the motor would stop and one of 20 output lamps would be on. This was not a practical language translator, but it was an impressive science fair project for the early 1960s. Mims wrote an article for the December 1987 issue of Modern Electronics describing his homebrew analog computer complete with schematics and photographs. Mims entered Texas A&M University in the fall of 1962 as a physics major; the mathematics courses convinced him to major in liberal arts. He graduated in 1966 with a major in government with minors in history.
When Mims started at Texas A&M it was an all-male military school. In 1964 the university began admitting women, membership in the Corps of Cadets became optional. Mims pursued his electronics avocation while at A&M, his great-grandfather was blind, this led Mims to create a travel aid for the blind. This device was similar to RADAR, except it used the newly developed infrared-emitting diode to send intense pulses of light that reflected from obstacles; the returned light was converted to an audio tone that increased in amplitude as the distance to the obstacles was reduced. The infrared diodes had just been sold for $365 each. Mims explained his project. After reviewing the finished design, Dr. Bonin sent Mims three infrared-emitting diodes. Mims arranged to exhibit his prototype at the annual Texas Medical Association convention held in Austin in April 1966. Wearing his Texas A&M Corps of Cadets uniform, Mims demonstrated his "electronic eyes" to the convention attendees. Mims and his device were reported in Texas newspapers.
The San Antonio Light wrote, "Although a political science major at A&M, Mims's second interest is'science and inventing things.'" Mims would continue to improve this device over the next several years. Popular Mechanics described how the device would fit on a pair of eyeglasses in August 1972 After graduating from Texas A&M in 1966, Mims became a commissioned officer in the U. S. Air Force and was assigned to Tan Son Nhut Air Base near Saigon, Vietnam as an intelligence officer in early 1967. Mims had been interested in model rocketry since high school and brought a supply of rockets to Vietnam, he used a nearby horse racing track as a launch site to test his rocket guidance systems. After an Army helicopter gunship came to check out the rocket launches, Mims learned to notify military authorities before launching rockets at the race track. A night launch from the roof of his apartment house caused an alert at Tan Son Nhut Air Base. Mims' rocket exploits were reported in the military newspaper and Stripes.
Mims tested his infrared travel aid at the Saigon School for Blind Boys and Girls in Saigon and the story appeared in many U. S. newspapers. Colonel David R. Jones of the Air Force Weapons Laboratory learned of Mims's experiments on a trip to Vietnam and arranged for Mims to be assigned to the Laboratory in A
El Cóndor Pasa (song)
El Cóndor Pasa is an orchestral musical piece from the zarzuela El Cóndor Pasa by the Peruvian composer Daniel Alomía Robles, written in 1913 and based on traditional Andean music folk music from Peru. Since it has been estimated that around the world, more than 4000 versions of the melody have been produced, along with 300 sets of lyrics. In 2004, Peru declared this song as part of the national cultural heritage; this song is now considered the second national anthem of Peru. It is the best-known Peruvian song in the English-speaking world due to a 1970 cover by Simon & Garfunkel on their Bridge over Troubled Water album, their version is called "El Cóndor Pasa". In 1913, Peruvian songwriter Daniel Alomía Robles composed "El Cóndor Pasa", the song was first performed publicly at the Teatro Mazzi in Lima; the song was a musical piece in the Peruvian zarzuela, El cóndor pasa. Its music was composed by Daniel Alomía Robles in 1913 and its script was written by Julio de La Paz; the piano arrangement of this play's most famous melody was registered on May 3, 1933 by The Edward B.
Marks Music Corp. in the Library of Congress, under the number 9643. The zarzuela consists of one musical play and two acts. In July 2013, the Colectivo Cultural Centenario El Cóndor Pasa cultural association re-edited the original script, lost for a period of time, published it together with a CD containing the recorded dialogues and seven musical pieces; the music from the original score was reconstructed by musicologist Luis Salazar Mejía with the collaboration of musicians Daniel Dorival and Claude Ferrier and the support of cultural promoter Mario Cerrón Fetta, re-released on November 14, 15, 16, 2013 at the Teatro UNI in Lima to celebrate its first centenary. The zarzuela included the famous melody of the same name, without lyrics, based on the traditional Andean music of Peru, where it was declared a National Cultural Heritage in 2004. In 1965, the American musician Paul Simon heard for the first time a version of the melody by the band Los Incas in a performance at the Théâtre de l'Est parisien in Paris in which both were participating.
Simon became friendly with the band even touring with them and producing their first US-American album. He asked the band for permission to use the song in his production; the band's director and founding member Jorge Milchberg, collecting royalties for the song as co-author and arranger, responded erroneously that it was a traditional Peruvian composition. Milchberg told Simon he was collected royalties. In 1970, the Simon & Garfunkel duo covered the Los Incas version, adding some English lyrics which in turn added Paul Simon to the author credits under the song name "El Cóndor Pasa"; the instrumental version by Los Incas was used as the base track. They included the song on the 1970 album Bridge Over Troubled Water. Simon & Garfunkel released their version as a single in the U. S. which reached #18 on the Billboard Pop Singles chart and #6 on the Easy Listening chart, in fall 1970. This cover achieved major international fame. In regard to the Simon & Garfunkel version, Daniel Alomía Robles, Jorge Milchberg, Paul Simon are now all listed as songwriters, with Simon listed alone as the author of the English lyrics.
However, Daniel Alomía Robles was not listed as the composer because Jorge Milchberg had told Simon that the song was considered an Andean folk melody. He further stated that he was the registered arranger of the composition. In late 1970, Daniel Alomía Robles' son Armando Robles Godoy, a Peruvian filmmaker, filed a successful copyright lawsuit against Paul Simon; the grounds for the lawsuit extended that the song had been composed by his father, who had copyrighted the song in the United States in 1933. Armando Robles Godoy said that he held no ill will towards Paul Simon for what he considered a "misunderstanding" and an "honest mistake"."It was an friendly court case because Paul Simon was respectful of other cultures. It was not carelessness on his part", said Armando Robles Godoy. "He happened to hear the song in Paris from a vernacular group Los Incas. He liked it, he went to ask the band for permission and they gave him the wrong information. Jorge Milchberg told him it was a traditional folk song from the 18th century and not my father's composition.
It was a court case without further complications."Later that year, Perry Como released a cover of Paul Simon's English version on his album It's Impossible, while Julie Felix had a UK Top 20 hit with it, taking advantage of Simon & Garfunkel's decision not to release their version as a UK single. Armando Robles Godoy subsequently wrote new Spanish lyrics for the song, taking Paul Simon's version as a reference. In France, Marie Laforêt performed her "Sur les chemins des Andes" in 1966, it is said to be based on Jorge Milchberg's adaptation. In 1969 a jazz version was recorded and arranged by Don Sebesky for Paul Desmond's studio album Bridge over Troubled Water. In 1970, Argentinean Quena virtuoso Facio Santillan recorded the piece for Riviera in France, it was a released as a single and on the album Flutes of the Andes Vol. 2. In 1970, Karel Gott recorded this song in Czech under the original name El Condor Pasa; the lyrics were written by Jiří Štaidl. Andy Williams released a version in 1970 for his album The Andy Williams Show.
In 1970, Malaysian singer and songwriter Sarena Hashim recorded the song in Malay titled "Bayangan Menjelma" with lyrics written by herself. The song appeared in her
Computer hardware includes the physical, tangible parts or components of a computer, such as the cabinet, central processing unit, keyboard, computer data storage, graphics card, sound card and motherboard. By contrast, software is instructions that can be run by hardware. Hardware is so-termed because it rigid with respect to changes or modifications. Intermediate between software and hardware is "firmware", software, coupled to the particular hardware of a computer system and thus the most difficult to change but among the most stable with respect to consistency of interface; the progression from levels of "hardness" to "softness" in computer systems parallels a progression of layers of abstraction in computing. Hardware is directed by the software to execute any command or instruction. A combination of hardware and software forms a usable computing system, although other systems exist with only hardware components; the template for all modern computers is the Von Neumann architecture, detailed in a 1945 paper by Hungarian mathematician John von Neumann.
This describes a design architecture for an electronic digital computer with subdivisions of a processing unit consisting of an arithmetic logic unit and processor registers, a control unit containing an instruction register and program counter, a memory to store both data and instructions, external mass storage, input and output mechanisms. The meaning of the term has evolved to mean a stored-program computer in which an instruction fetch and a data operation cannot occur at the same time because they share a common bus; this is referred to as the Von Neumann bottleneck and limits the performance of the system. The personal computer known as the PC, is one of the most common types of computer due to its versatility and low price. Laptops are very similar, although they may use lower-power or reduced size components, thus lower performance; the computer case encloses most of the components of the system. It provides mechanical support and protection for internal elements such as the motherboard, disk drives, power supplies, controls and directs the flow of cooling air over internal components.
The case is part of the system to control electromagnetic interference radiated by the computer, protects internal parts from electrostatic discharge. Large tower cases provide extra internal space for multiple disk drives or other peripherals and stand on the floor, while desktop cases provide less expansion room. All-in-one style designs include a video display built into the same case. Portable and laptop computers require cases. A current development in laptop computers is a detachable keyboard, which allows the system to be configured as a touch-screen tablet. Hobbyists may decorate the cases with colored lights, paint, or other features, in an activity called case modding. A power supply unit converts alternating current electric power to low-voltage DC power for the internal components of the computer. Laptops are capable of running from a built-in battery for a period of hours; the motherboard is the main component of a computer. It is a board with integrated circuitry that connects the other parts of the computer including the CPU, the RAM, the disk drives as well as any peripherals connected via the ports or the expansion slots.
Components directly attached to or to part of the motherboard include: The CPU, which performs most of the calculations which enable a computer to function, is sometimes referred to as the brain of the computer. It is cooled by a heatsink and fan, or water-cooling system. Most newer CPUs include an on-die graphics processing unit; the clock speed of CPUs governs how fast it executes instructions, is measured in GHz. Many modern computers have the option to overclock the CPU which enhances performance at the expense of greater thermal output and thus a need for improved cooling; the chipset, which includes the north bridge, mediates communication between the CPU and the other components of the system, including main memory. Random-access memory, which stores the code and data that are being accessed by the CPU. For example, when a web browser is opened on the computer it takes up memory. RAM comes on DIMMs in the sizes 2GB, 4GB, 8GB, but can be much larger. Read-only memory, which stores the BIOS that runs when the computer is powered on or otherwise begins execution, a process known as Bootstrapping, or "booting" or "booting up".
The BIOS includes power management firmware. Newer motherboards use Unified Extensible Firmware Interface instead of BIOS. Buses that connect the CPU to various internal components and to expand cards for graphics and sound; the CMOS battery, which powers the memory for date and time in the BIOS chip. This battery is a watch battery; the video card, which processes computer graphics. More powerful graphics cards are better suited to handle strenuous tasks, such as playing intensive video games. An expansion card in computing is a printed circuit board that can be inserted into an expansion slot of a computer motherboard or
Nascom (computer kit)
The Nascom 1 and 2 were single-board computer kits issued in the United Kingdom in 1977 and 1979 based on the Zilog Z80 and including a keyboard and video interface, a serial port that could be used to store data on a tape cassette using the Kansas City standard, two 8-bit parallel ports. At that time, including a full keyboard and video display interface was uncommon, as most microcomputer kits were delivered with only a hexadecimal keypad and seven-segment display. To minimize cost, the buyer had to assemble a Nascom by hand-soldering about 3,000 joints on the single circuit board; the original Nascom 1 was designed by Chris Shelton. Shelton’s design work was outlined in a series of articles published between November 1977 and January 1979 by Wireless World magazine; the Nascom 1 and Nascom 2 were supplied with full documentation including circuit schematics, construction guide, datasheets for some components and assembly listing for the ROM monitor. An annotated disassembly listing of the Nascom 2 Microsoft ROM BASIC was published and the code was subsequently re-purposed in retrocomputing projects such as Grant Searle's Multicomp and Spencer Owen's RC2014.
The source code can now be found on Github. The Nascom 1 and Nascom 2 hardware designs had these features in common: A 16MHz crystal biased into oscillation and divided down to create the clocks for the CPU, the serial communications and the video interface A Z80/Z80A CPU A Z80/Z80A PIO A Harris 6402 UART that could be used either to communicate with a serial device or to save and load data using a domestic compact cassette recorder. A memory-mapped video display and a UHF video modulator capable of driving a domestic TV Circuitry decoded on IO port 0 to control a software-scanned keyboard, to drive a LED and to generate a timed non-maskable interrupt, used to provide a hardware single-step capabiity An LED on the Z80-CPU "/HALT" output, to provide a visual indication that the CPU was halted; the I/O address map was common between the Nascom 1 and Nascom 2 designs, the memory address map of the Nascom 2 was a superset of the Nascom 1 memory address map. The Nascom 1 was implemented using off-the-shelf integrated-circuits and other electronic components.
The Nascom 2 used 16-pin bipolar PROMs which acted as glue logic for decode functions. The Nascom 2 had these additional features that were not present on the Nascom 1: Timed reset to reset the CPU without interrupting the periodic refresh cycles produced by the Z80 Gating to reset the Z80-PIO A reset-jump circuit that allowed the Z80-CPU to start execution from any 4-Kbyte boundary after reset; this allowed, for example. Microsoft BASIC in an 8Kbyte ROM. Two groups of 4 uncommitted 24-pin DIL sockets; each group could be configured to accommodate 1Kx8 ROM or RAM devices and decoded at a start address of 0x1000, 0x2000, 0xB000, 0xC000 or 0xD000. A 24-pin DIL socket that could accommodate a second character-generator ROM Full buffering of the CPU address and control to generate the "NAS-BUS" expansion bus; the I/O address map was decoded as follows: On an unexpanded system, these 8 ports were repeated through the whole of the I/O address space. On an expanded system, the bus signal; the memory address map was decoded as follows: The keyboard used Licon keys in a matrix arrangement, scanned under software control.
The Nascom 1 had 47 keys. The Nascom 2 had 10 additional keys; the display of the Nascom 1 and 2 was consisted of 16 rows of 48 characters. Each row of characters used 64 consecutive memory locations. Scrolling was implemented under software control. Due to an idiosyncrasy of the video memory decoding on the Nascom 1, the lines were decoded discontiguously, with the top line of the display being the 16th region of memory; the top line was not scrolled, except by the NASCOM CP/M implementation. The Nascom 1 used a MCM6576P character generator to display 128 characters; the Nascom 2 used an identical character set but implemented it in a ROM, footprint compatible with a 2716 2Kbyte device. The Nascom 2 allowed; the so-called NAS-GRA ROM was used to display characters with the byte codes 0x80--0xFF. The built-in Microsoft BASIC interpreter could use these graphics to create a crude, blocky 96×48 graphics display; the design of the video display required that the CPU and the video circuitry shared access to the video RAM.
If the CPU and the video circuitry accesses the video RAM the CPU was given priority and the video circuitry would read incorrect data. On the Nascom 1 this gave rise to white flicker on the screen, termed "snow"; the International Nascom Microcomputer Club published a "snow plough" design that reduced the effect by blanking the video when simultaneous access occurred. The Nascom 2 used a different design but still allowed contention to occur, this time giving rise to black flicker on the screen. Sof
The Game Boy is an 8-bit handheld game console developed and manufactured by Nintendo. The first handheld in the Game Boy line, it was first released on April 21, 1989 in Japan, followed by North America three months and in Europe nearly a year after. Designed by the same team that developed the Game & Watch and several Nintendo Entertainment System games, it was created and published by Satoru Okada, Gunpei Yokoi, Nintendo Research & Development 1. Nintendo's second handheld game console, the Game Boy combined features from both the NES and the Game & Watch; the console features a dot-matrix screen, five control buttons, a 2 voice speaker, like its rivals, uses cartridges as physical media. At launch, it was sold either as a standalone unit, or bundled with the one of several games, including Super Mario Land and Tetris. Several accessories were developed for the Game Boy, including a carrying pouch and the Game Boy Printer. Despite being technically inferior to its competitors, the Game Boy received praise for its battery life and durability, outsold the competition, selling one million units in the United States within a few weeks.
Together with its successor, the Game Boy Color, the handheld has sold an estimated 118 million units worldwide. It is one of the most recognizable devices from the 1980s, becoming a cultural icon in the years following its release. Several redesigns were released during the console's lifetime, including the Game Boy Pocket and the Game Boy Light. Production of the Game Boy continued into the early 2000s, until it was discontinued following the release of its successor, the Game Boy Advance, in 2001; the original internal codename for the Game Boy was "Dot Matrix Game", these initials came to be featured on the final product's model number, "DMG-01". The internal reception of the device was very poor; the Game Boy has four operation buttons labeled "A", "B", "SELECT", "START", as well as a directional pad. There is a volume control dial on the right side of the device and a similar dial on the left side to adjust the contrast. At the top of the Game Boy, a sliding on-off switch and the slot for the Game Boy cartridges are located.
The on-off switch includes a physical lockout to prevent users from either inserting or removing a cartridge while the unit is switched on. Nintendo recommends users leave a cartridge in the slot to prevent dust and dirt from entering the system; the Game Boy contains optional input and/or output connectors. On the left side of the system is an external 3.5 mm × 1.35 mm DC power supply jack that allows users to use an external rechargeable battery pack or AC adapter instead of four AA batteries. The Game Boy requires 6 V DC of at least 150 mA. A 3.5 mm stereo headphone jack is located on the bottom side of the unit which allows users to listen to the audio with the bundled headphones or external speakers. The right-side of the device offers a port which allows a user to connect to another Game Boy system via a link cable, provided both users are playing the same game; the port can be used to connect a Game Boy Printer. The link cable was designed for players to play head-to-head two-player games such as in Tetris.
However, game developer Satoshi Tajiri would use the link cable technology as a method of communication and networking in the popular Pokémon video game series. CPU: Custom 8-bit Sharp LR35902 at 4.19 MHz. This processor is similar to an Intel 8080 in that none of the registers introduced in the Z80 are present. However, some of the Z80's instruction set enhancements over the 8080 bit manipulation, are present. Still other instructions are unique to this particular flavor of 8080/Z80 CPU. Parity flag, half of conditional and all input-output instructions were removed from 8080 instruction set also; the IC contains integrated sound generation. RAM: 8 kiB internal S-RAM Video RAM: 8 kiB internal ROM: On-CPU-Die 256-byte bootstrap; the unit only has one speaker. Display: Reflective STN LCD 160 × 144 pixels Frame rate: Approximately 59.7 frames per second Vertical blank duration: Approx 1.1 ms Screen size: 66 mm diagonal Color palette: 2-bit Communication: 2 Game Boys can be linked together via built-in serial ports, up to 4 with a DMG-07 4-player adapter.
And 16 in maximum. Power: 6 V, 0.7 W Dimensions: 90 mm × 148 mm × 32 mm / 3.5″ × 5.8″ × 1.3″ Weight: 220 g On March 20, 1995, Nintendo released several Game Boy models with colored cases, advertising them in the "Play It Loud!" campaign, known in Japan as Game Boy Bros. Specifications for this unit remain the same as the original Game Boy, including the monochromatic screen; this new line of colored Game Boys would set a precedent for Nintendo handhelds. Play It Loud! units were manufactured in red, black, white and clear or sometimes called X-Ray in the UK. Most common are the yellow, red and black, Green is scarce but blue and white are the rarest. Blue was a Europe and Japan only release, White was a Japanese majority release with UK Toys R Us s
TRS-80 Color Computer
The RadioShack TRS-80 Color Computer is a line of home computers based on the Motorola 6809 processor. The Tandy Color Computer line started in 1980 with what is now called the CoCo 1 and ended in 1991 with the more powerful CoCo 3. All three CoCo models maintained a high level of software and hardware compatibility, with few programs written for the older model being unable to run on the newer ones. Despite bearing the TRS-80 name, the Color Computer is a radical departure from the earlier TRS-80; the machines in the Color Computer line are not compatible with software made for the earlier TRS-80. The TRS-80 Color Computer started out as a joint venture between Tandy Corporation of Fort Worth and Motorola Semiconductor, Inc. of Austin, to develop a low-cost home computer in 1977. The initial goal of this project, called "Green Thumb," was to create a low cost Videotex terminal for farmers and others in the agricultural industry; this terminal would connect to a phone line and an ordinary color television and allow the user access to near-real-time information useful to their day-to-day operations on the farm.
Motorola's MC6847 Video Display Generator chip was released about the same time as the joint venture started and it has been speculated that the VDG was designed for this project. At the core of the prototype "Green Thumb" terminal, the MC6847, along with the MC6809 microprocessor unit, made the prototype a reality by about 1978; the prototype contained too many chips to be commercially viable. Motorola solved this problem by integrating all the functions of the many smaller chips into one chip, the MC6883 Synchronous Address Multiplexer. By that time in late 1979, the new and powerful Motorola MC6809 processor was released; the SAM, VDG, 6809 were combined and the AgVision terminal was born. The AgVision terminal was sold through Radio Shack stores as the VideoTex terminal around 1980. Internal differences, if any, are unclear. With its proven design, the VideoTex terminal contains all the basic components for a general-purpose home computer; the internal modem was removed, I/O ports for cassette storage, serial I/O, joysticks were provided.
An expansion connector was added to the right side of the case for future enhancements and program cartridges, a RAM button covers the hole where the Modem's LED "DATA" indicator had been. On July 31, 1980, Tandy announced the TRS-80 Color Computer. Sharing the same case and layout as the AgVision/VideoTex terminals, at first glance it would be hard to tell the TRS-80 Color Computer from its predecessors. Tandy viewed businesses as its primary market for computers. Although the company's Ed Juge said in 1981 that the Color Computer was "our entry into the home-computer market", he described it as "for serious professionals", stating that a word processor and spreadsheet would soon be available; the initial model shipped with 4 KB of Dynamic Random Access Memory and an 8 kB Microsoft BASIC interpreter in ROM. Its price was 399 USD. Within a few months, Radio Shack stores across the US and Canada began receiving and selling the new computer; the Color Computer, with its Motorola 6809E processor, is different from the Zilog Z80-based TRS-80 models.
Indeed, the "80" in "TRS-80" stands for "Z80". For a time, the CoCo was referred to internally as the TRS-90 in reference to the "9" in "6809". However, this was dropped and all CoCos sold as Radio Shack computers were called TRS-80 in spite of the processor change. Like its Z80-based predecessors, the CoCo shipped with a version of BASIC. Tandy licensed Microsoft BASIC; the original CoCo offered standard Color BASIC and Extended Color BASIC. This was further extended by a Disk Extended Color BASIC ROM included in the floppy controller; the CoCo 3 included Super Extended Color BASIC as deploying extensions added by Microware. Third-party floppy controller ROMs, such as J&M System JDOS, DSS Peripherals Disk Controller, enabled the use of double-sided disk drives; the CoCo BASIC offered a number of advanced sound and program control features many of which would appear in IBM PC-compatible versions of Microsoft BASIC, these included statements for playing musical notes and drawing graphics primitives.
These advanced features were possible on the 8-bit CoCo because 6809 machine language was more code-dense than Z80 or 6502 machine language, thus more features could be packed into a small BASIC ROM. The CoCo is designed to be attached to a color television set, whereas the Z80 machines use monochrome computer monitors built into the case; the CoCo features an expansion connector for program cartridges and other expansion devices, such as floppy-disk controllers and modems. Tandy released a Multi-Pak Interface which allowed switching among four cartridges; this is similar in concept to the Model I's Expansion Interface. The CoCo did not have internally-mounted disk drives and instead reverted to the TRS-80 Model I setup with separate external drives in a daisy chain, each unit requiring a separate wall outlet for power; the original drives offered with the CoCo were 35-track TEC units instead of the more expensive 40 track Tandon drives in the Model III—they had a formatted capacity of 160K.
The floppy controller consisted of a car