Liberal Party (UK)
The Liberal Party was one of the two major parties in the United Kingdom with the opposing Conservative Party in the 19th and early 20th centuries. The party arose from an alliance of Whigs and free trade Peelites and Radicals favourable to the ideals of the American and French Revolutions in the 1850s. By the end of the 19th century, it had formed four governments under William Gladstone. Despite being divided over the issue of Irish Home Rule, the party returned to government in 1905 and won a landslide victory in the following year's general election. Under Prime Ministers Sir Henry Campbell-Bannerman and H. H. Asquith, the Liberal Party passed the welfare reforms that created a basic British welfare state. Although Asquith was the party's leader, its dominant figure was David Lloyd George. Asquith was overwhelmed by the wartime role of coalition Prime Minister and Lloyd George replaced him as Prime Minister in late 1916, but Asquith remained as Liberal Party leader; the pair fought for years over control of the party.
Historian Martin Pugh in The Oxford Companion to British History argues: Lloyd George made a greater impact on British public life than any other 20th-century leader, thanks to his pre-war introduction of Britain's social welfare system. Furthermore, in foreign affairs, he played a leading role in winning the First World War, redrawing the map of Europe at the peace conference, partitioning Ireland; the government of Lloyd George was dominated by the Conservative Party, which deposed him in 1922. By the end of the 1920s, the Labour Party had replaced the Liberals as the Conservatives' main rival; the party went into decline after 1918 and by the 1950s won no more than six seats at general elections. Apart from notable by-election victories, its fortunes did not improve until it formed the SDP–Liberal Alliance with the newly formed Social Democratic Party in 1981. At the 1983 general election, the Alliance won over a quarter of the vote, but only 23 of the 650 seats it contested. At the 1987 general election, its share of the vote fell below 23% and the Liberal and Social Democratic parties merged in 1988 to form the Liberal Democrats.
A splinter group reconstituted the Liberal Party in 1989. It was formed by party members opposed to the merger who saw the Liberal Democrats diluting Liberal ideals. Prominent intellectuals associated with the Liberal Party include the philosopher John Stuart Mill, the economist John Maynard Keynes and social planner William Beveridge; the Liberal Party grew out of the Whigs, who had their origins in an aristocratic faction in the reign of Charles II and the early 19th century Radicals. The Whigs were in favour of increasing the power of Parliament. Although their motives in this were to gain more power for themselves, the more idealistic Whigs came to support an expansion of democracy for its own sake; the great figures of reformist Whiggery were Charles James Fox and his disciple and successor Earl Grey. After decades in opposition, the Whigs returned to power under Grey in 1830 and carried the First Reform Act in 1832; the Reform Act was the climax of Whiggism, but it brought about the Whigs' demise.
The admission of the middle classes to the franchise and to the House of Commons led to the development of a systematic middle class liberalism and the end of Whiggery, although for many years reforming aristocrats held senior positions in the party. In the years after Grey's retirement, the party was led first by Lord Melbourne, a traditional Whig, by Lord John Russell, the son of a Duke but a crusading radical, by Lord Palmerston, a renegade Irish Tory and a conservative, although capable of radical gestures; as early as 1839, Russell had adopted the name of "Liberals", but in reality his party was a loose coalition of Whigs in the House of Lords and Radicals in the Commons. The leading Radicals were John Bright and Richard Cobden, who represented the manufacturing towns which had gained representation under the Reform Act, they favoured social reform, personal liberty, reducing the powers of the Crown and the Church of England, avoidance of war and foreign alliances and above all free trade.
For a century, free trade remained the one cause. In 1841, the Liberals lost office to the Conservatives under Sir Robert Peel, but their period in opposition was short because the Conservatives split over the repeal of the Corn Laws, a free trade issue; this allowed ministries led by Russell and the Peelite Lord Aberdeen to hold office for most of the 1850s and 1860s. A leading Peelite was William Ewart Gladstone, a reforming Chancellor of the Exchequer in most of these governments; the formal foundation of the Liberal Party is traditionally traced to 1859 and the formation of Palmerston's second government. However, the Whig-Radical amalgam could not become a true modern political party while it was dominated by aristocrats and it was not until the departure of the "Two Terrible Old Men", Russell and Palmerston, that Gladstone could become the first leader of the modern Liberal Party; this was brought about by Palmerston's death in 1865 and Russell's retirement in 1868. After a brief Conservative government, Gladstone won a huge victory at the 1868 election and formed the first Liberal government.
West Renfrewshire (UK Parliament constituency)
West Renfrewshire was a county constituency of the House of Commons of the Parliament of the United Kingdom from 1885 to 1983 and again from 1997 until 2005. In 2005 the constituency was abolished and the area is now represented by Inverclyde and Renfrewshire North and Paisley and Renfrewshire South; the Redistribution of Seats Act 1885 provided that the Western division should consist of "the parishes of Inverkip, Port Glasgow, Erskine, Houston, Lochwinnoch, Abbey, Neilston and Dunlop". From 1918 the constituency consisted of "The Lower county District, inclusive of all burghs situated therein, except the burgh of Greenock, together with the burgh of Johnstone." From 1997 to 2005 the constituency consisted of the Renfrew District electoral divisions of Bargarran and Gryffe, the Inverclyde District electoral division of Port Glasgow and Kilmacolm. In 1999 with the creation of the devolved Scottish Parliament, a Scottish Parliamentary constituency of West Renfrewshire was created with the same name and boundaries as the UK Parliament constituency.
Under the Parliamentary Constituencies Order 1983, made under the authority of the House of Commons Act 1949, West Renfrewshire was abolished in 1983. The area of the constituency was divided between Renfrew West and Inverclyde, Paisley North and Paisley South. In 2005, the constituency remains so to the present day; the Parliamentary Constituencies Order 2005 made under the authority of the Parliamentary Constituencies Act 1986 divided the former West Renfrewshire constituency amongst the new Inverclyde and Renfrewshire North and Paisley and Renfrewshire South constituencies. Constituency divided amongst: Renfrew West and Inverclyde Paisley North Paisley South Constituency divided amongst: Inverclyde Paisley and Renfrewshire North Paisley and Renfrewshire South General Election 1914/15: Another General Election was required to take place before the end of 1915; the political parties had been making preparations for an election to take place and by the July 1914, the following candidates had been selected.
The political parties had been making preparations for an election to take place and by the Autumn of 1939, the following candidates had been selected.
Sir John Bowring, KCB was an English political economist, writer, literary translator and the fourth Governor of Hong Kong. Bowring was born in Exeter of Charles Bowring, a wool merchant whose main market was China, from an old Unitarian family, Sarah Jane Anne, the daughter of Thomas Lane, vicar of St Ives, Cornwall, his last formal education was at a Unitarian school in Moretonhampstead and he started work in his father's business at age 13. Bowring at one stage wished to become a Unitarian minister. Espousal of Unitarian faith was illegal in Britain until Bowring had turned 21. Bowring acquired first experiences in trade as a contract provider to the British army during the Peninsular War in the early 1810s for four years from 1811 as a clerk at Milford & Co. where he began picking up a variety of languages. His experiences in Spain fed a healthy skepticism for the might of the British military-colonial machine, he travelled extensively and was imprisoned in Boulogne-sur-Mer for six weeks in 1822 for suspected spying.
He incorporated Bowring & Co. with a partner in 1818 to sell herrings to Spain and France and to buy wine from Spain. It was during this period that he came to know Jeremy Bentham, became his friend, he did not, share Bentham's contempt for belles lettres. He was a diligent student of literature and foreign languages those of Eastern Europe, he somehow found time to write 88 hymns during this time, most published between 1823 and 1825. Failure of his business in 1827, amidst his Greek revolution financing adventure, left him reliant on Bentham's charity and seeking a new, literary direction. Bowring had begun contributing to the newly founded Westminster Review and had been appointed its editor by Bentham in 1825. By his contributions to the Review he attained considerable repute as a political economist and parliamentary reformer, he advocated in its pages the cause of free trade long before it was popularized by Richard Cobden and John Bright, co-founders of the Anti-Corn Law League in Manchester in 1838.
He pleaded earnestly on behalf of parliamentary reform, Catholic emancipation, popular education. Bentham failed in an attempt to have Bowring appointed professor of English or History at University College London in 1827 but, after Bowring visited the Netherlands in 1828, the University of Groningen conferred on him the degree of doctor of laws in February the next year for his Sketches of the Language and Literature of Holland. In 1830, he was in Denmark; as a member of the 1831 Royal Commission, he advocated strict parliamentary control on public expenditure, considered the ensuing reform one of his main achievements. Till 1832, he was Foreign Secretary of the British and Foreign Unitarian Association. Bowring was appointed Jeremy Bentham's literary executor a week before the latter's 1832 death in his arms, was charged with the task of preparing a collected edition of his works; the appointment was challenged by a nephew but Bowring prevailed in court. The work appeared in eleven volumes in 1843, notably omitting Bentham's most controversial works on female sexuality and homosexuality.
Free trade took on the dimensions of faith to Bowring who, in 1841, quipped, "Jesus Christ is free trade and free trade is Jesus Christ", adding, in response to consternation at the proposition, that it was "intimitely associated with religious truth and the exercise of religious principles." Through Bentham connections and in spite of his radicalism, Bowring was appointed to carry out investigations of the national accounting systems of the Netherlands and France in 1832 by the government and House of Commons, respectively. The mark left by his work in France was not welcomed by all, he is a fit charlatan, for Whig employment. Yet his work was so regarded by the Whig government that he was appointed secretary of the Royal Commission on the Public Accounts, he had made his name as something of an expert on government accounting. He stood the same year for the newly created industrial constituency of Blackburn but was unsuccessful. In 1835, Bowring entered parliament as member for Kilmarnock Burghs.
After losing his seat in 1837, he was busied in further economic investigations in Egypt, Switzerland and some of the states in Imperial Germany. The results of these missions appeared in a series of reports laid before the House of Commons and a paper delivered to the British Association of Science with his observations on containment of the plague in the Levant, he spoke out passionately for equal rights for women and the abolition of slavery. On a still narrow, landed constituency, campaigning on a radical and, to Marx and Engels, inconsistent platform of free trade and Chartism, secured a seat in parliament in 1841, as member for Bolton England's constituency most affected by industrial upheaval and riven by deep social unrest bordering on revolution. In the House, he campaigned for free trade, adoption of the Charter, repeal of the Corn Laws, improved administration o
Rutherglen is a town in South Lanarkshire, Scotland. Having existed as a Lanarkshire burgh in its own right for more than 800 years, in 1975 it lost its own local council and administratively became a component of the City of Glasgow District Council within the Strathclyde region. In 1996 Rutherglen was reallocated to the South Lanarkshire council area. Rutherglen received the status of Royal Burgh in 1126 by Royal Charter from King David I of Scotland who ruled from 1124 to 1153. In the 14th century Walter Stewart, father of King Robert II, was granted Farme Castle; this was located close to Farme Cross in the east of Rutherglen, stood until the 1960s. Rutherglen was a centre of heavy industry, having a long coal mining tradition which died out by 1950. J&J White's Chemical Works in Shawfield, in existence from 1820 to 1967, produced more than 70 per cent of the UK's chromate products including chromic acid, chromic oxide pigment and potassium chromate and dichromate. Today there is a significant legacy of soluble chromium waste in the area.
Rutherglen, most of the other towns encircling the city, are dormitory suburbs of Glasgow. The name of Rutherglen, as well as its Scots name Ruglen, is from Scottish Gaelic An Ruadh-Ghleann, meaning'the red valley'; the derivation may however be Welsh, or Cumbric and mean "the valley of Rydderch". Rydderch - pronounced'rutherch' -'ruther' as in'brother' and'ch' as in'loch' - was one of the most famous kings associated with the Welsh-speaking kingdom which centred on Dumbarton. Rutherglen was a parliamentary burgh represented in the UK Parliament as a component of Glasgow Burghs constituency from 1708 to 1832, as a component of Kilmarnock Burghs from 1832 to 1918. In 1918, the Rutherglen constituency was created, which became Glasgow Rutherglen in 1983. In 2005, Scottish constituencies for the UK parliament were replaced with new constituencies, Rutherglen is now within the Rutherglen and Hamilton West constituency. Following the 2017 election, Gerard Killen is the local MP, replacing Margaret Ferrier of the Scottish National Party who had won in 2015.
In 1999, the Scottish Parliamentary constituency of Glasgow Rutherglen was created, with the same boundaries as the UK parliamentary constituency. In 2011 The constituency was redrawn and renamed Rutherglen. Following the 2016 elections, Clare Haughey is the MSP for Rutherglen; the defeated incumbent James Kelly was elected as a list MSP for the Glasgow region which includes Rutherglen. All local representatives have strong personal ties to the area. Administratively, the town centre is within the Rutherglen Central and North ward of South Lanarkshire Council, which has a population of around 15,000. Including another ward of similar size encompassing the southern parts of the town, its overall population was 30,000 in 2016. With neighbouring Cambuslang's figures being similar, the many services and amenities shared between the towns must provide for 60,000 residents; the councillors elected for Rutherglen Wards in the 2007 local elections were: Rutherglen South Councillor Brian McKenna Councillor Eileen Baxendale Councillor Anne Higgins Rutherglen Central and North Councillor Edward McAvoy Councillor Gordon Clark Councillor Denis McKenna In the 2012 local elections, the following councillors were elected: Rutherglen South Councillor Brian McKenna Councillor Robert Brown Councillor Anne Higgins Councillor Anne Higgins subsequently died on 20 November 2012 and a by-election was held on 14 February 2013.
This was won by Ged Killen. Rutherglen Central and North Councillor Edward McAvoy Councillor Gordon Clark Councillor Denis McKenna In the 2017 local elections, the following councillors were elected: Rutherglen South Councillor Carol Nugent Councillor Robert Brown Councillor Margaret Cowie Rutherglen Central and North Councillor Janine Calikes Councillor Ged Killen Councillor Jared Wark Ged Killen subsequently became Westminster MP for the area. A by-election was won by Martin Lennon. Rutherglen Main Street is served by Rutherglen railway station and there are numerous bus links into Glasgow City Centre. Completion of the M74 Extension means that there is a motorway going through the town, that will allow easier access to places such as Glasgow Airport and the English Border; the local newspaper is the Rutherglen Reformer. The local community radio station is CamGlen Radio; the Royal Burgh of Rutherglen now contains many other areas. Since being granted Royal Burgh status by King David I, the town has grown from strength to strength and increased in size.
It now covers a much larger region than the initial Burgh boundary. The nearby village of Burnside and High Burnside fall under the Rutherglen boundary but have their own Community Council. Historic areas such as the Burgh, Farme Cross and Burnside have changed over the years too and more recent estates like Westhouse and the post-war developments of Newfield and Burnhill have given the Burgh an ever-changing character; the current area of Rutherglen can be divided into 22 areas (seven of which fall into the Burnside and
East Renfrewshire (UK Parliament constituency)
East Renfrewshire is a constituency of the House of Commons, to the south of Glasgow, Scotland. It elects one Member of Parliament using the first-past-the-post system of voting. Before 1997, it was the safest Conservative seat in Scotland, however in the 1997 Labour landslide, it was won by Jim Murphy who held the seat until 2015. Kirsten Oswald of the Scottish National Party won the seat in the 2015 SNP landslide with a turnout of 81%; the seat returned to Conservative control in the 2017 election, when it was won by Conservative candidate Paul Masterton. The constituency has a middle-class electorate and includes affluent areas; the constituency was created by the Redistribution of Seats Act 1885 for the 1885 general election. It was abolished for the 1983 general election, when it was replaced by the new Eastwood constituency; the East Renfrewshire constituency was re-established for the 2005 general election, with the same boundaries as the previous Eastwood constituency. Despite the change of name, it is the only constituency in mainland Scotland whose boundaries were unchanged by the 2005 revision of Scottish constituencies.
As created in 1885 the constituency was one of four covering the area of the county of Renfrewshire. The four constituencies were: East Renfrewshire, West Renfrewshire and Greenock. Greenock was enlarged and renamed Greenock and Port Glasgow in 1974. From 1885 the constituency consisted of the parishes of Eastwood, Cathcart and Eaglesham, part of the parish of Govan. From 1918 the constituency consisted of "The Upper County District, inclusive of all burghs situated therein, except the burghs of Paisley and Johnstone, together with so much of the burgh of Renfrew as is contained within the parish of Govan in the county of Lanark." The constituency was abolished for the 1983 general election, eight years after the creation of local government regions and districts in 1975. The new constituency, with revised boundaries, was called Eastwood. In 1996 the area of the Eastwood constituency became the East Renfrewshire unitary council area. In 1999 a Scottish Parliament constituency was created with the name and boundaries of the Eastwood Westminster constituency.
In the widespread redistribution of Scottish seats for the 2005 general election, the name of the Eastwood Westminster constituency was changed back to East Renfrewshire. An outer suburb of the Glasgow conurbation and the rural hinterland to the south-west of Glasgow, this is an affluent, middle-class commuter area with a high proportion of owner-occupiers and professionals. Clarkston used to be a dry area until planning permission for the first pub in the area was given in 2006. East Renfrewshire has the largest Jewish population of any seat in Scotland, with half of Scotland's Jewish population living in the area; the constituency is on the borders of Glasgow, is middle-class residential territory for Glasgow. At the 2014 Scottish independence referendum East Renfrewshire returned a significant majority against the proposal for Scotland to become an independent state. With a voter turnout of 90.4%, 41,690 votes were cast for "No" and 24,287 were cast for "Yes". At the 2016 European Union membership referendum a substantial majority of votes were cast in favour of remaining a member of the European Union in East Renfrewshire, with a turnout of 76.1% there were 39,345 "Remain" votes to 13,596 "Leave" votes.
The area was looked on as safely Conservative before Labour gained the seat in 1997. East Renfrewshire was subsequently viewed as a safe Labour seat until the SNP gained the seat in 2015. At the 2016 Scottish Parliament election, the Eastwood constituency, covering a majority of the East Renfrewshire parliamentary constituency, returned Conservative Jackson Carlaw as its constituency MSP with a majority of 1,611 votes; the Conservatives subsequently gained the seat at the 2017 general election, with Paul Masterton being elected with a 4,712 vote majority over the SNP's Kirsten Oswald. Alexander Munro MacRobert was appointed Solicitor General for Scotland on 31 December 1925. East Renfrewshire by-election, 1926 East Renfrewshire by-election, 1930 East Renfrewshire by-election, 1940 Eastwood
1918 United Kingdom general election
The 1918 United Kingdom general election was called after the Armistice with Germany which ended the First World War, was held on Saturday, 14 December 1918. The governing coalition, under Prime Minister David Lloyd George, sent letters of endorsement to candidates who supported the coalition government; these were nicknamed "Coalition Coupons", led to the election being known as the "coupon election". The result was a massive landslide in favour of the coalition, comprising the Conservatives and Coalition Liberals, with massive losses for Liberals who were not endorsed. Nearly all the Liberal M. P.s without coupons were defeated, although party leader H. H. Asquith managed to return to Parliament in a by-election, it was the first general election to include on a single day all eligible voters of the United Kingdom, although the vote count was delayed until 28 December so that the ballots cast by soldiers serving overseas could be included in the tallies. It resulted in a landslide victory for the coalition government of David Lloyd George, who had replaced H. H. Asquith as Prime Minister in December 1916.
They were both Liberals and continued to battle for control of the party, fast losing popular support and never regained power. It was the first general election to be held after enactment of the Representation of the People Act 1918, it was thus the first election in which women over the age of 30, all men over the age of 21, could vote. All women and many poor men had been excluded from voting. Women showed enormous patriotism, supported the coalition candidates, it was the first parliamentary election in which women were able to stand as candidates following the Parliament Act 1918, believed to be one of the shortest Acts of Parliament given Royal Assent. The Act was passed shortly, it followed a report by Law Officers that the Great Reform Act 1832 had specified parliamentary candidates had to be male and that the Representation of the People Act passed earlier in the year did not change that. One women, Nina Boyle, had presented herself for a by election earlier in the year in Keighley but had been turned down by the returning officer on technical grounds.
The election was noted for the dramatic result in Ireland, which showed clear disapproval of government policy. The Irish Parliamentary Party were completely wiped out by the Irish republican party Sinn Féin, who vowed in their manifesto to establish an independent Irish Republic, they refused to take their seats in Westminster, instead forming a breakaway government and declaring Irish independence. The Irish War of Independence began soon after the election. Lloyd George's coalition government was supported by the majority of the Liberals and Bonar Law's Conservatives. However, the election saw a split in the Liberal Party between those who were aligned with Lloyd George and the government and those who were aligned with Asquith, the party's official leader. On 14 November it was announced that Parliament, sitting since 1910 and had been extended by emergency wartime action, would dissolve on 25 November, with elections on 14 December. Following confidential negotiations over the summer of 1918, it was agreed that certain candidates were to be offered the support of the Prime Minister and the leader of the Conservative Party at the next general election.
To these candidates a letter, known as the Coalition Coupon, was sent, indicating the government's endorsement of their candidacy. 159 Liberal, 364 Conservative, 20 National Democratic and Labour, 2 Coalition Labour candidates received the coupon. For this reason the election is called the Coupon Election.80 Conservative candidates stood without a coupon. Of these, 35 candidates were Irish Unionists. Of the other non-couponed Conservative candidates, only 23 stood against a Coalition candidate; the Labour Party, led by William Adamson, fought the election independently, as did those Liberals who did not receive a coupon. The election was not chiefly fought over what peace to make with Germany, although those issues played a role. More important was the voters' evaluation of Lloyd George in terms of what he had accomplished so far and what he promised for the future, his supporters emphasised. Against his strong record in social legislation, he called for making "a country fit for heroes to live in".
This election was known as a khaki election, due to the immediate postwar setting and the role of the demobilised soldiers. The coalition won the election with the Conservatives the big winners, they were the largest party in the governing majority. Lloyd George remained Prime Minister, despite the Conservatives outnumbering his pro-coalition Liberals; the Conservatives welcomed his leadership on foreign policy as the Paris Peace talks began a few weeks after the election. An additional 47 Conservatives, 23 of whom were Irish Unionists, won without the coupon but did not act as a separate block or oppose the government except on the issue of Irish independence. While most of the pro-coalition Liberals were re-elected, Asquith's faction was reduced to just 36 seats and lost all their leaders from parliament. Nine of these MPs subsequently joined the Coalition Liberal group; the remainder became bitter enemies of Lloyd George. The Labour Party increased its vote share and surpassed the total votes of either Liberal party.
Labour became the Official Opposition for the first time, but they lacked an official leader and so the Leader of the Opposition for the next fourteen months was the stand-in Liberal leader Donald Maclean (Asquith
Lanarkshire called the County of Lanark is a historic county in the central Lowlands of Scotland. Lanarkshire was the most populous county in Scotland and, in earlier times, had greater boundaries, including neighbouring Renfrewshire until 1402. In modern times, it is bounded to the north by Stirlingshire and a detached portion of Dunbartonshire, to the northeast by Stirlingshire, West Lothian, to the east by Peeblesshire, to the southeast and south by Dumfriesshire, to the southwest by Dumfriesshire and Ayrshire and to the west by Ayrshire and Dunbartonshire. Lanarkshire was divided between two administrative areas. In the mid-18th century it was divided again into three wards: the upper and lower wards with their administrative centres at Lanark and Glasgow and remained this way until the Local Government Act of 1889. Other significant settlements include Coatbridge, East Kilbride, Airdrie, Cambuslang, Rutherglen and Carluke. In 1975, the county council was abolished and the area absorbed into the larger Strathclyde region, which itself was divided into new Council Areas in 1996.
The old area of Lanarkshire is now occupied by the council areas of: East Dunbartonshire Glasgow City Council North Lanarkshire South Lanarkshire North Lanarkshire and South Lanarkshire have a joint board for valuation and electoral registration. There is a joint health board, which does not cover Rutherglen and the surrounding area in South Lanarkshire. Without the northern portion of North Lanarkshire, this is a Lieutenancy area. Lanarkshire was granted a coat of arms by the Lord Lyon on 24 December 1886; the arms is: Party per chevron gules and argent, two cinquefoils pierced in chief ermine, in base a man's heart counter-changed. The cinquefoils come from the arms of the Clan Hamilton, the heart from the arms of the Clan Douglas, the two main local families; the crest is a demi-eagle displayed with sable beaked gules. The motto is VIGILANTIA. From the mid-eighteenth century to the early twentieth century Lanarkshire profited from its rich seams of coal in places such as Glenboig; as the coal industry developed around Glasgow in the 1700s the price of coal to the city rose under the control of a cartel of coal owners.
The solution was to carve out a canal to take advantage of the good coal deposits of the Monklands area. By 1793, the Monklands canal was completed and the Lanarkshire coal industry thrived; the resulting boom lasted for over 100 years but reached its peak by the second decade of the twentieth century and two world wars failed to halt the contraction. Output in the county continued to fall and the National Coal Board concentrated investment in Ayrshire and the Lothians. By 1970 there were only four collieries left in Lanarkshire and the closure of Cardowan in 1983 brought the long decline to an end. Lanarkshire hosted the International Children's Games in August 2011. A total of 1,300 competitors and coaches, along with administrators and delegates, representing 77 cities from 33 countries worldwide attended. North Medwin River South Medwin River River Clyde River Avon South Calder Water Digitised historic and modern maps of Lanarkshire are available from National Library of Scotland including: Glasgow and the county of Lanark manuscript map drawn by Scottish cartographer Timothy Pont sometime between 1583 and 1596 The nether ward of Clyds-dail and Glasco from the Blaeu Atlas of Scotland by Dutch cartographer Joan Blaeu published in 1654 A mape of the west of Scotland containing Clydsdail, Ranfrew, Shyre of Ayre, & Galloway manuscript map drawn by the Scottish surveyor and map maker John Adair in about 1685 Map of the town of Glasgow & country seven miles around by Scottish cartographer Thomas Richardson published in 1795 Ainslie's Map of the Southern Part of Scotland by Scottish cartographer John Ainslie published in 1821 North and south of Lanarkshire from John Thomson's Atlas of Scotland published in 1882