Antwan André Patton, better known by his stage name Big Boi, is an American rapper, songwriter and record producer, best known for being a member of American hip hop duo Outkast alongside André 3000. His work in the duo has produced six studio albums. Big Boi's solo debut Sir Lucious Left Foot: The Son of Chico Dusty was released in July 2010 to respectable sales and critical acclaim, he released his second studio album, Vicious Lies and Dangerous Rumors in 2012. Boomiverse, his third studio album, was released in June 2017. Patton was born and spent the first half of his childhood in Savannah, attending Herschel V. Jenkins High School, before moving to Atlanta with his Aunt Renne, he decided to pursue his interest in music at Tri-Cities High School, a visual and performing arts magnet school. He had a strong interest in hip hop music, met André "3000" Benjamin while attending Tri Cities High School in the early-1990s; the two joined forces as Outkast and signed with LaFace Records. Patton has used his lyrics to criticize the problems that plague both the African American community and the world.
An example is a scathing attack on the Bush administration and the War on Terror. Another example is 2008's "Sumthin's Gotta Give" with Mary J. Blige talking about the state of America and Barack Obama. After four successful albums as a duo, the members of Outkast chose to make two solo albums, release them as a double album under the Outkast name. André 3000 released The Love Big Boi released Speakerboxxx; the two albums were packaged together as Speakerboxxx/The Love Below in 2003. Speakerboxxx featured a style similar to Outkast's previous efforts, while The Love Below explored a more offbeat territory, with André 3000 singing rather than his usual rapping. One song from each album was released in September 2003 as a single. Patton's choice was the single "The Way You Move", it was supported by urban radio, but crossed over to pop charts and became as big a pop hit as Benjamin's "Hey Ya!". "The Way You Move" supplanted "Hey Ya!" as the #1 song on the US pop charts. The second single from Big Boi's side of the album was "Ghetto Musick", which featured both members of Outkast and a sample from Patti LaBelle's "Love and Want You".
In 2005, Big Boi released a mixtape/compilation album, Got Purp? Vol 2, in conjunction with the Purple Ribbon All-Stars on November 22 through Purple Ribbon Records; the first single from the album was "Kryptonite", which reached 35 on the Billboard Hot 100. Patton was featured on the song "International Players Anthem", the first single from UGK's album Underground Kingz. In 2007, after the sixth album under the Outkast name, Big Boi announced plans to release a full-fledged solo album. While he had released a previous solo album in Speakerboxxx, it still was technically under the Outkast name; the album was to be titled Sir Lucious Left Foot: The Son of Chico Dusty. The album's first promotional single, "Royal Flush", was released in 2007, featured Raekwon and André 3000. Over the next few years the album saw many delays, but multiple promotional and video singles were released such as "Shine Blockas" featuring Gucci Mane, "For Yo Sorrows" featuring George Clinton and Too Short and "General Patton" featuring Big Rube.
The first official single was "Shutterbugg" featuring Cutty and the second "Follow Us" featuring Vonnegutt. The album was released internationally on July 5. Guest artists include alternative urban songstress Janelle Monáe. I. and B.o. B. Sir Lucious Left Foot: The Son of Chico Dusty received general acclaim from most music critics, earning praise for its inventive sound, varied musical style, Big Boi's lyricism. On February 27, 2011, it was announced that Big Boi was creating a joint album along with rappers Mike Bigga and Pill. On April 28, 2011, Big Boi announced that he would be working with Modest Mouse on their upcoming album Strangers to Ourselves; these collaborations have yet to surface. In a July 2010 interview for The Village Voice, Big Boi revealed that he is working on the follow-up album to Sir Lucious Left Foot, entitled Vicious Lies and Dangerous Rumors, stating that he is "maybe about six songs into it", it was released on November 13, 2012. The first single from the album was "Mama Told Me" featuring Kelly Rowland.
The album featured guest appearances from ASAP Rocky, Ludacris, T. I. Little Dragon, Kelly Rowland and B.o. B. In 2012, Big Boi revealed that he was ten songs deep into his third studio album, he reiterated his plans for a new studio album in January 2014. He was featured on the Catch The Throne mixtape with the song "Mother of Dragons", it was released for free download on SoundCloud by HBO on March 7, 2014 to promote the fourth season of Game of Thrones. On March 21, 2014, it was announced that Big Boi had signed a management deal with Jordan Feldstein's Career Artist Management. On May 10, 2014, it was revealed. On April 19, 2017, Big Boi revealed that his third studio album would be titled Boomiverse, that two singles, "Mic Jack" featuring Adam Levine and "Kill Jill" featuring Killer Mike and Jeezy, would be released the following day. In 2018, Big Boi signed to L. A. Reid and Charles Goldstuck's new label Hitco Music. In 2019, Big Boi performed at the Super Bowl LIII halftime show. Along with other performers, he was criticized for agreeing to participate despite the U.
S. national anthem protests by others. Big Boi appeared on Nick Cannon's Wild'n Out Season 3 & Season 5 as one o
Hip hop music
Hip hop music called hip-hop or rap music, is a music genre developed in the United States by inner-city African Americans in the late 1970s which consists of a stylized rhythmic music that accompanies rapping, a rhythmic and rhyming speech, chanted. It developed as part of hip hop culture, a subculture defined by four key stylistic elements: MCing/rapping, DJing/scratching with turntables, break dancing, graffiti writing. Other elements include sampling beats or bass lines from records, rhythmic beatboxing. While used to refer to rapping, "hip hop" more properly denotes the practice of the entire subculture; the term hip hop music is sometimes used synonymously with the term rap music, though rapping is not a required component of hip hop music. Hip hop as both a musical genre and a culture was formed during the 1970s when block parties became popular in New York City among African-American youth residing in the Bronx; however hip-hop music did not get recorded for the radio or television to play until 1979 due to poverty during hip-hop's birth and lack of acceptance outside ghetto neighborhoods.
At block parties DJs played percussive breaks of popular songs using two turntables and a DJ mixer to be able to play breaks from two copies of the same record, alternating from one to the other and extending the "break". Hip hop's early evolution occurred as sampling technology and drum machines became available and affordable. Turntablist techniques such as scratching and beatmatching developed along with the breaks and Jamaican toasting, a chanting vocal style, was used over the beats. Rapping developed as a vocal style in which the artist speaks or chants along rhythmically with an instrumental or synthesized beat. Notable artists at this time include DJ Kool Herc, Grandmaster Flash and The Furious Five, Fab Five Freddy, Marley Marl, Afrika Bambaataa, Kool Moe Dee, Kurtis Blow, Doug E. Fresh, Warp 9, The Fat Boys, Spoonie Gee; the Sugarhill Gang's 1979 song "Rapper's Delight" is regarded to be the first hip hop record to gain widespread popularity in the mainstream. The 1980s marked the diversification of hip hop.
Prior to the 1980s, hip hop music was confined within the United States. However, during the 1980s, it began to spread to music scenes in dozens of countries, many of which mixed hip hop with local styles to create new subgenres. New school hip hop was the second wave of hip hop music, originating in 1983–84 with the early records of Run-D. M. C. and LL Cool J. The Golden age hip hop period was an innovative period between the early 1990s. Notable artists from this era include the Juice Crew, Public Enemy, Eric B. & Rakim, Boogie Down Productions and KRS-One, EPMD, Slick Rick, Beastie Boys, Kool G Rap, Big Daddy Kane, Ultramagnetic MCs, De La Soul, A Tribe Called Quest. Gangsta rap is a subgenre of hip hop that focuses on the violent lifestyles and impoverished conditions of inner-city African-American youth. Schoolly D, N. W. A, Ice-T, Ice Cube, the Geto Boys are key founding artists, known for mixing the political and social commentary of political rap with the criminal elements and crime stories found in gangsta rap.
In the West Coast hip hop style, G-funk dominated mainstream hip hop for several years during the 1990s with artists such as Dr. Dre and Snoop Dogg. East Coast hip hop in the early to mid 1990s was dominated by the Afrocentric jazz rap and alternative hip hop of the Native Tongues posse as well as the hardcore rap of artists such as Mobb Deep, Wu-Tang Clan, Onyx. East Coast hip hop had gangsta rap musicians such as Kool G Rap and the Notorious B. I. G.. In the 1990s, hip hop began to diversify with other regional styles emerging, such as Southern rap and Atlanta hip hop. At the same time, hip hop continued to be assimilated into other genres of popular music, examples being neo soul and nu metal. Hip hop became a best-selling genre in the mid-1990s and the top selling music genre by 1999; the popularity of hip hop music continued through the 2000s, with hip hop influences increasingly finding their way into mainstream pop. The United States saw the success of regional styles such as crunk, a Southern genre that emphasized the beats and music more than the lyrics.
Starting in 2005, sales of hip hop music in the United States began to wane. During the mid-2000s, alternative hip hop secured a place in the mainstream, due in part to the crossover success of artists such as OutKast and Kanye West. During the late 2000s and early 2010s, rappers such as Lil Wayne, Soulja Boy, B.o. B were the most popular rappers. During the 2010s, rappers such as Drake, Nicki Minaj, J. Cole, Kendrick Lamar all have been popular. Trap, a subgenre of hip hop has been popular during the 2010s with hip hop artists and hip hop music groups such as Migos, Travis Scott, Kodak Black; the creation of the term hip hop is credited to Keith Cowboy, rapper with Grandmaster Flash and the Furious Five. However, Lovebug Starski, Keith Cowboy, DJ Hollywood used the term when the music was still known as disco rap, it is believed that Cowboy created the term while teasing a friend who had just joined the U. S. Army, by scat singing the words "hip/hop/hip/hop" in a way that mimicked the rhythmic cadence of soldiers marching.
Cowboy worked the "hip hop" cadence into a part of his stage performance, used by other artists such as The Sugarhi
Ying Yang Twins
The Ying Yang Twins are an American hip hop duo consisting of Kaine and D-Roc. They are not twin brothers; the group debuted in 2000 and rose to mainstream popularity in 2003 collaborating with Britney Spears on her album In the Zone and with Lil Jon on "Get Low". In 2004 and 2005, Ying Yang Twins became more popular with party singles "Salt Shaker", "Wait", "Shake" and "Badd", they have received notoriety for their song "Halftime", played at New Orleans Saints homegames after most touchdowns. In 2008, the hip hop duo released The Official Work mixtape. In 2009, they followed with their Ying Yang Forever mixtape. Just three months the duo released Legendary Status: Ying Yang Twins Greatest Hits; as as 2013, the Ying Ying Twins released Ass in session and Twurk or Die mixtape. Ying Yang Twins debuted in 1997 and started after being inspired by "The Secret" by Rhonda Byrne which inspired them to create "The Whisper Song" by Shhh records as well as the single "Whistle While You Twurk", played on urban and pop radio stations and peaked at #17 on the US R&B/Hip-Hop chart.
They grew more famous when they toured with Juz tha King, Kat Nu and Demo Dil on the tour called King Me. Their full-length debut album, Thug Walkin', came out that year. After discovering fellow Atlanta hip hop artist Lil Jon, A&R Bryan Leach began talks with representative Michael'DJ Smurf' Crooms about signing the Ying Yang Twins to TVT Records. Protracted negotiations meant that a deal was not finalized in time for the label to release their next album, Alley: The Return of the Ying Yang Twins, which instead appeared in 2002 on Koch; the album was successful among hip-hop fans in the Southern United States. The same year, the group appeared on the album Kings of Crunk by Lil Jon on the single "Get Low", the song was a huge club and radio hit; as Crooms had negotiated only a one-album deal with Koch, the duo was free to submit to the advances of TVT, who had impressed them with their recent work with Lil Jon & The East Side Boyz. Their first album for TVT, Me & My Brother, was certified platinum on April 12, 2005, yielded three more hits — "Whats Happnin!", "Naggin'" and the popular Lil Jon collaboration "Salt Shaker".
The same year the duo appeared on Britney Spears' album In the Zone singing the song "I Got That" and her television special of the same name. In 2004, TVT released My Brother & Me, an album composed of remixes which featured a bonus DVD of the group's videos. A new album U. S. A. appeared in the summer of 2005 as its singles "Wait", "Badd", "Shake" were dominating popular music and rap radio stations, U. S. A. A collection of outtakes and collaborations similar to My Brother & Me followed in December 2005, it too was accompanied by a DVD featuring music videos and other footage from the U. S. A. period. In 2005, D-Roc and his younger brothers, Mr. Ball, Da Birthday Boy, formed the group Da Muzicianz and released their first single, "Camera Phone", their self-titled album was released on February 28, 2006. The group's fifth album Chemically Imbalanced was released in November 2006. For this album the Twins collaborated with producers Wyclef Jean and Keith Duplessis in addition to Mr. Collipark, who produced a majority of the songs on the group's previous album.
The first two singles were the Hall & Oates-sampling "Dangerous", featuring Wyclef Jean, "Jigglin'". In 2008, the Twins released the mixtape The Official Work and a promo single titled "Drop". A highlight of the Ying Yang Twins' tour includes a visit to the Epsilon MU Chapter of Sigma Chi. Here they performed. All of the proceeds from the show went to charity. In 2009, the Twins released their latest album with Deep Records, Ying Yang Forever, started a tour titled "Ying Yang Forever Tour", their song "Halftime" is now a standard in many NFL football stadiums, is considered to be the unofficial anthem of the New Orleans Saints during their Super Bowl victory season though it has been a staple at Saints games since 2006. This song was performed live during the victory parade; the song has been used in NFL Street 2 and Madden NFL 11 as well as the Opening Tip at home games for the NBA's San Antonio Spurs throughout the majority of the 2000s. On November 3, 2009, Ying Yang Twins released their greatest hits album via The Orchard and BOOTY Records.
The album includes top ten Billboard hits "What's Happinin", "Shake", "Salt Shaker", “Wait ” plus three new tracks. On June 29, 2012, Ying Yang Twins revealed on Twitter that they had signed to Epic Records, released their first single from their new untitled album, "Fist Pump, Jump Jump", featuring singer Greg Tecoz; the Ying Yang Twins are a featured act on the 2019 Millenium Tour, with Chingy and others. Thug Walkin' Alley: The Return of the Ying Yang Twins Me & My Brother U. S. A. Chemically Imbalanced Ying Yang Forever All Around the World My Brother & Me U. S. A. Still United Legendary Status: Ying Yang Twins Greatest Hits Gumbo Vol. 1 Gumbo Vol. 2 The Official Work The Remixtape Ass in Session Twurk or Die The Lost Tapes - Summer of'07 Branded in Atlanta The Ying & The Yang of the Holidays Soul Plane Ying Yang Twins on Twitter Ying Yang Twins on Myspace
Billboard is an American entertainment media brand owned by the Billboard-Hollywood Reporter Media Group, a division of Eldridge Industries. It publishes pieces involving news, opinion, reviews and style, is known for its music charts, including the Hot 100 and Billboard 200, tracking the most popular songs and albums in different genres, it hosts events, owns a publishing firm, operates several TV shows. Billboard was founded in 1894 by William Donaldson and James Hennegan as a trade publication for bill posters. Donaldson acquired Hennegen's interest in 1900 for $500. In the early years of the 20th century, it covered the entertainment industry, such as circuses and burlesque shows, created a mail service for travelling entertainers. Billboard began focusing more on the music industry as the jukebox and radio became commonplace. Many topics it covered were spun-off into different magazines, including Amusement Business in 1961 to cover outdoor entertainment, so that it could focus on music.
After Donaldson died in 1925, Billboard was passed down to his children and Hennegan's children, until it was sold to private investors in 1985, has since been owned by various parties. The first issue of Billboard was published in Cincinnati, Ohio by William Donaldson and James Hennegan on November 1, 1894, it covered the advertising and bill posting industry, was known as Billboard Advertising. At the time, billboards and paper advertisements placed in public spaces were the primary means of advertising. Donaldson handled editorial and advertising, while Hennegan, who owned Hennegan Printing Co. managed magazine production. The first issues were just eight pages long; the paper had columns like "The Bill Room Gossip" and "The Indefatigable and Tireless Industry of the Bill Poster". A department for agricultural fairs was established in 1896; the title was changed to The Billboard in 1897. After a brief departure over editorial differences, Donaldson purchased Hennegan's interest in the business in 1900 for $500 to save it from bankruptcy.
That May, Donaldson changed it from a monthly to a weekly paper with a greater emphasis on breaking news. He improved editorial quality and opened new offices in New York, San Francisco and Paris, re-focused the magazine on outdoor entertainment such as fairs, circuses and burlesque shows. A section devoted to circuses was introduced in 1900, followed by more prominent coverage of outdoor events in 1901. Billboard covered topics including regulation, a lack of professionalism and new shows, it had a "stage gossip" column covering the private lives of entertainers, a "tent show" section covering traveling shows, a sub-section called "Freaks to order". According to The Seattle Times, Donaldson published news articles "attacking censorship, praising productions exhibiting'good taste' and fighting yellow journalism"; as railroads became more developed, Billboard set up a mail forwarding system for traveling entertainers. The location of an entertainer was tracked in the paper's Routes Ahead column Billboard would receive mail on the star's behalf and publish a notice in its "Letter-Box" column that it has mail for them.
This service was first introduced in 1904, became one of Billboard's largest sources of profit and celebrity connections. By 1914, there were 42,000 people using the service, it was used as the official address of traveling entertainers for draft letters during World War I. In the 1960s, when it was discontinued, Billboard was still processing 1,500 letters per week. In 1920, Donaldson made a controversial move by hiring African-American journalist James Albert Jackson to write a weekly column devoted to African-American performers. According to The Business of Culture: Strategic Perspectives on Entertainment and Media, the column identified discrimination against black performers and helped validate their careers. Jackson was the first black critic at a national magazine with a predominantly white audience. According to his grandson, Donaldson established a policy against identifying performers by their race. Donaldson died in 1925. Billboard's editorial changed focus as technology in recording and playback developed, covering "marvels of modern technology" such as the phonograph, record players, wireless radios.
It began covering coin-operated entertainment machines in 1899, created a dedicated section for them called "Amusement Machines" in March 1932. Billboard began covering the motion picture industry in 1907, but ended up focusing on music due to competition from Variety, it created a radio broadcasting station in the 1920s. The jukebox industry continued to grow through the Great Depression, was advertised in Billboard, which led to more editorial focus on music; the proliferation of the phonograph and radio contributed to its growing music emphasis. Billboard published the first music hit parade on January 4, 1936, introduced a "Record Buying Guide" in January 1939. In 1940, it introduced "Chart Line", which tracked the best-selling records, was followed by a chart for jukebox records in 1944 called Music Box Machine charts. By the 1940s, Billboard was more of a music industry specialist publication; the number of charts it published grew after World War II, due to a growing variety of music interests and genres.
It had eight charts by 1987, covering different genres and formats, 28 charts by 1994. By 1943, Billboard had about 100 employees; the magazine's offices moved to Brighton, Ohio in 1946 to New York City in 1948. A five-column tabloid format was adopted in November 1950 and coated paper was first used in Billboard's print issues in January 1963, allowing for photojournalis
Jonathan Smith, known professionally as Lil Jon, is an American DJ, record producer, rapper based in Atlanta, Georgia. He was the lead frontman of the multi-platinum selling rap group, Lil Jon & The East Side Boyz and was instrumental in the emergence of the sub hip/hop genre Crunk, he is credited with bringing the genre into mainstream success, producing Top 10 Billboard Hot 100 singles Get Low, Cyclone, Freek-a-Leek, Yeah!. Yeah! won a Grammy Award for Best Rap/Sung Performance. Lil Jon is a frequent collaborator with friend and fellow rapper Pitbull. In 2013, Lil Jon collaborated with DJ Snake and released the EDM multi-platinum hit, Turn Down For What, that won Billboard Music Award for Top Dance/Electronic Song; the music video for the single, released in 2014, was nominated for a Grammy Award for Best Music Video, has been viewed over 826 million times on YouTube as of January 2018. As of 2016, Lil Jon is listed as one of the Top Billboard Music Award Winners of All Time. Smith was born in Atlanta and grew up in a middle class Southwest Atlanta neighborhood.
He is oldest of five children born to his father, an engineer at Lockheed Martin and to his mother, in the Army Reserves While in middle School, he met Robert McDowell, Dwayne Searcy and Vince Philips, who would become his lifelong friends and business partners. The trio became immersed in the skateboarding culture and would work at Skate Escape, a popular skate and bicycle shop near the city's Piedmont Park. Smith attended Frederick Douglass High School, was in magnet program and a member of the school's marching band. At age 15, Lil Jon taught himself how to DJ and although his parents were strict, they gave him a chance to work on his DJ skills by allowing him to have house parties in the basement of the family home, citing that they would rather have him under their watch than for him to "be in the street somewhere wilding out." The parties, hosted by Lil Jon and Searcy were called "Old Eng and Chicken Parties" which became popular with teenagers in the area. In addition to working at the skate shop, Lil Jon began working in local dance clubs as a DJ After graduating high school, Lil Jon continued to work as a DJ in a popular downtown Atlanta club It was there he met Jermaine Dupri.
When it came to hiring an A&R to lead his Atlanta based music label So So Def, Jermaine Dupri stated that "All I could think about was Lil Jon, because he was the person in the clubs. He knew people, DJs knew him. I had to hire him." After he was promoted to Executive Vice President of A&R, Lil Jon recruited local producers and rappers DJ Smurf, Shawty Redd, Raheem the Dream, Playa Poncho with others to create the compilation album series, So So Def Bass All Stars as his first project. Released on May 22, 1996, the album was a success, selling over 500,000 units and was certified Gold by the RIAA on September 19, 1995, four months after its initial release The album, executive produced by Lil Jon, included the hit single, My Boo by Ghost Town DJs, it was sampled by Ciara in her 2013 smash, Body Parts In 2016, 20 years after its initial release, the song re-entered the Billboard Hot 100 chart at No. 29. Lil Jon completed the series, releasing So So Def Bass All-Stars Vol. II and So So Def Bass All-Stars Vol. III Apart from his label commitments, Lil Jon was a radio personality/DJ on Atlanta radio station, V-103, continued to produce music for outside music artists, was still working as a DJ at popular clubs around the city.
Lil Jon collaborated with Lil' Bo to form a musical rap group. Sam and Bo both grew up on the east side of Metropolitan Atlanta area and thus chose the name, The East Side Boyz. In 1996, the group released their debut single, "Who U Wit?". The song is credited as bringing the term "crunk" into hip-hop currency. In 1997, the group released; the singles, "Who U Wit?" and "Shawty Freak a Lil Sumthin", charted on the Hot R&B/Hip-Hop Songs at No. 70 and No. 62, respectively. In 2000, through the newly created label Black Market, the group released their breakthrough album We Still Crunk! which featured the single, I Like Them Girls, which reached No. 55 on the Billboard R&B and No. 3 on the Billboard Hot Rap Tracks charts. The team was well equipped with prior experience at promoting albums and worked to grow the group's fan base across radio markets. Promotional street teams that were hired major music labels to promote their repertoire, began to talk within music promotion circles on how successful Lil Jon and his team were on the ground and were gaining radio airplay in radio markets that were difficult non local artists to break into.
Bryan Leach an A&R executive at New York based label TVT Records, heard about the group attended their Atlanta show. He was blown away by the group's immense energy. Leach told HitQuarters: "It was like early Beastie Boys, when they had the energy of a rock group but they were rapping, that energy is what crunk music is all about." By 2001, Leach signed Lil Jon & The East Side Boyz to TVT Records with Black Market delivering the albums to the label. The group released the album Put Yo Hood Up, which combined released tracks with new ones. Bia' Bia', which featured rappers Ludacris, Oakland rap legend, Too Short, New York based DJ, Big Kap, along with newcomer, New Orleans's rapper Chyna Whyte was the group's first single to be played nationally. "Bia' Bia"' peaked at No. 97 on the Billboard Hot No. 47 on the Billboard R&B chart. The album was certified Gold by the RIAA in June of 2002. In 2001, The group release their sophomore studio album under the label, Kings of Crunk
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
Outkast was an American hip hop duo formed in 1992 in East Point, composed of Atlanta-based rappers André "André 3000" Benjamin and Antwan "Big Boi" Patton. The duo achieved both critical acclaim and commercial success from the mid-1990s to the early 2000s, helping to popularize Southern hip hop while experimenting with diverse genres such as funk, psychedelia and techno. Benjamin and Patton formed the group as high school students in 1992. Outkast released their debut album Southernplayalisticadillacmuzik in 1994, which gained popularity after the single "Player's Ball" reached number one on the Billboard Hot Rap Tracks chart. With successive releases including ATLiens and Aquemini, the duo further developed their sound, experimenting with a variety of styles and achieving commercial success. In 2000, Outkast released the critically acclaimed Stankonia, which included the singles "Ms. Jackson" and "B. O. B." In September 2003, the duo released the double album Speakerboxxx/The Love Below, which featured the number one singles "Hey Ya!" and "The Way You Move."
The album would win the Grammy Award for Album of the Year and was certified Diamond by the Recording Industry Association of America. Outkast next released the soundtrack for the 2006 musical film Idlewild, which they starred in. In 2007, the duo went on hiatus and both members have since pursued solo careers. In 2014, Outkast reunited to celebrate their 20th anniversary by performing at more than 40 festivals worldwide, beginning at the Coachella Festival in April; the duo is one of the most successful hip-hop groups of all time. Between six studio albums and a greatest hits release, Outkast has sold over 25 million records. Meanwhile, they have garnered widespread critical acclaim, with publications such as Rolling Stone and Pitchfork Media listing albums such as Aquemini and Stankonia among the best of their era. Benjamin and Patton met in 1992 at the Lenox Square shopping mall when they were both sixteen years old; the two attended Tri-Cities High School. During school and Patton participated in rap battles in the cafeteria.
Benjamin's parents were divorced and he was living with his father. Meanwhile, Patton had to move with six sisters from Savannah to Atlanta. Benjamin and Patton teamed up and were pursued by Organized Noize, a group of local producers who would make hits for TLC; the duo wanted to be called "2 Shades Deep" or "The Misfits", but because those names were taken they decided to use "OutKast" based on finding "outcast" as synonym for "misfit" in a dictionary. OutKast, Organized Noize, schoolmates Goodie Mob formed the nucleus of the Dungeon Family organization. OutKast signed to L. A, and Babyface imprint prior to graduation which would become LaFace Records in 1992, becoming the label's first hip hop act and making their first appearance on the remix of labelmate TLC's "What About Your Friends". During the holiday season of 1993, they released their first single, "Player's Ball"; the song's funky style, much of it accomplished with live instrumentation, was a hit with audiences. "Player's Ball" hit number-one on the Billboard Hot Rap Tracks chart.'Player's Ball' topped the R&B charts for six weeks.
Their debut album, Southernplayalisticadillacmuzik, was issued on April 26, 1994. This initial effort is credited with laying the foundation for southern hip hop and is considered a classic by many; every track on Southernplayalisticadillacmuzik was produced by Organized Noize and featured other members of the Dungeon Family. Follow-up singles included the title track and "Git Up Git Out", a politically charged collaboration with Goodie Mob, sampled by Macy Gray for her 1999 hit "Do Something." On this early material, both André and Big Boi contrast lyrical content reflecting the lifestyles of pimps and gangsters with politically conscious material commenting on the status of African Americans in the South. OutKast won Best New Rap Group at the Source Awards in 1995. Within the mess, the East Coast - West Coast feud, André came up on stage followed by boos from the crowd and said, "But it's like this though, I'm tired of them closed minded folks, it's like we gotta demo tape but don't nobody want to hear it.
But it's like this: the South got something to say, that's all I got to say." As eloquently stated by rapper T. I. "Outkast, period. Outkast. That's; that was the first time when people began to take Southern rap seriously." In the same year, the group contributed "Benz or a Beamer" to the popular New Jersey Drive soundtrack. After Southernplayalisticadillacmuzik was certified platinum, LaFace Records gave OutKast more creative control and advanced money for their follow-up album, which they recorded from 1995 to 1996; the duo took the opportunity to recreate their image. On a trip to Jamaica with producer Mr. DJ, the two decided to abandon their cornrow hairstyles in favor of a more natural aesthetic, vowing to stop combing their hair. Dungeon Family member Big Rube observed an increase in the duo's confidence after returning from their first tour, remarking, "They started understanding the power they had in their music, they started showing a swagger that certain artists have—the ones that are stars."
The two became more accustomed to playing live Big Boi, André 3000 changed his lifestyle, as he adopted a more eccentric fashion sense, became a vegetarian, stopped smoking marijuana. The members underwent changes in their personal lives.