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Kilowatt hour

The kilowatt-hour is a unit of energy equal to 3600 kilojoules. The kilowatt-hour is used as a billing unit for energy delivered to consumers by electric utilities; the kilowatt-hour is a composite unit of energy equal to one kilowatt of power sustained for one hour. Expressed in the standard unit of energy in the International System of Units, the joule, it is equal to 3600 kilojoules. While the hour is a unit of time listed among the non-SI units accepted by the International Bureau of Weights and Measures for use with the SI, the kilowatt-hour is not; the abbreviation "kWh" is used in commercial, educational and media publications, is the usual practice in electrical power engineering. Other abbreviations and symbols may be encountered: "kW h" is less used, it is consistent with SI standards. The international standard for SI states that in forming a compound unit symbol, "Multiplication must be indicated by a space or a half-high dot, since otherwise some prefixes could be misinterpreted as a unit symbol".

This is supported by a voluntary standard issued jointly by an international and national organization. However, at least one major usage guide and the IEEE/ASTM standard allow "kWh". One guide published by NIST recommends against "kWh" "to avoid possible confusion". "kW⋅h" is, like "kW h", consistent with SI standards, but it is less used in practice. The United States official fuel-economy window sticker for electric vehicles uses the abbreviation "kW-hrs". Variations in capitalization are sometimes seen: KWh, KWH, etc.. The notation "kW/h" is not a correct symbol for kilowatt-hour, as it denotes kilowatt per hour instead. Electrical energy is sold to consumers in kilowatt-hours; the cost of running an electrical device is calculated by multiplying the device's power consumption in kilowatts by the operating time in hours, by the price per kilowatt-hour. The unit price of electricity charged by utility companies may depend on the customer's consumption profile over time. Prices vary by locality.

In the United States prices in different states can vary by a factor of three. While smaller customer loads are billed only for energy, transmission services, the rated capacity, larger consumers pay for peak power consumption, the greatest power recorded in a short time, such as 15 minutes; this compensates the power company for maintaining the infrastructure needed to provide peak power. These charges are billed as demand changes. Industrial users may have extra charges according to the power factor of their load. Major energy production or consumption is expressed as terawatt-hours for a given period, a calendar year or financial year. A 365-day year equals 8,760 hours, so over a period of one year, power of one gigawatt equates to 8.76 terawatt-hours of energy. Conversely, one terawatt-hour is equal to a sustained power of about 114 megawatts for a period of one year. An electric heater consuming 1000 watts, operating for one hour uses one kilowatt-hour of energy. A television consuming 100 watts operating for 10 hours continuously uses one kilowatt-hour.

A 40-watt electric appliance operating continuously for 25 hours uses one kilowatt-hour. In terms of human power, a healthy adult male manual laborer performs work equal to about one half of one kilowatt-hour over an eight-hour day. To convert a quantity measured in a unit in the left column to the units in the top row, multiply by the factor in the cell where the row and column intersect. All the SI prefixes are applied to the watt-hour: a kilowatt-hour is 1,000 Wh; the kilowatt-hour is used by electrical energy providers for purposes of billing, since the monthly energy consumption of a typical residential customer ranges from a few hundred to a few thousand kilowatt-hours. Megawatt-hours, gigawatt-hours, terawatt-hours are used for metering larger amounts of electrical energy to industrial customers and in power generation; the terawatt-hour and petawatt-hour units are large enough to conveniently express the annual electricity generation for whole countries and the world energy consumption.

Energy is the work performed. Energy is measured in watt seconds. Power is measured in joules per second. For example, a battery stores energy; when the battery delivers its energy, it does so at a certain power, that is, the rate of delivery of the energy. The higher the power, the quicker the battery's stored energy is delivered. A higher power output will cause the battery's stored energy to be depleted in a shorter time period. Electric energy production and consumption are sometimes reported on a yearly basis, in units such as megawatt-hours per year gigawatt-hours/year or terawatt-hours per year; these units thus are units of power. They can be converted to SI power units by dividing by the number of hours in a year, about 8766 h/yr. Thus, 1 GWh/yr ≈ 114.08 kW. Power units measure the rate of energy per unit time. Many compound units for various kinds of rates explicitly mention units of time: for example, miles per hour, kilometres per hour, dollars per hour. Kilowatt-hours are a product of time, not a rate of change of power with time.

Watts per hour is a unit of a chan

Swedish Tax Agency

The Swedish Tax Agency is a government agency in Sweden responsible for national tax collection and administering the population registration. The agency was formed on 1 January 2004 through the merger of the Swedish National Tax Board and the 10 existing regional tax authorities; the Swedish Tax Agency was formerly the parent agency of the Swedish Enforcement Administration. Since 1 July 2008, the Swedish Enforcement Administration is an independent agency but with close administrative ties to the Swedish Tax Agency; the agency has local offices in over a hundred cities across Sweden, with the headquarters located in Solna, Stockholm County. Taxation Taxation in Sweden Swedish Taxpayers' Association Population registration in Sweden Swedish F-tax certificate Skatterättsnämnden Official website Tax registration of foreign companies and sole traders in Sweden, Swedish Tax Agency

Carmel, Canlubang

Sitio Carmel or better known as Carmel Housing, is an independent subdivision sitio, located in Calamba, Philippines, located at the southern tip of Canlubang, south of Manphil, west of Asia-2 and east of Carmelray Industrial Park 1. Sitio Carmel, named by "Our Lady of Mount Carmel" a parish chapel in Housing during 1990's decade, its owned by José Yulo in 1972 after Vicente Madrigal settled. Sitio Carmel does not belong covered in Kapayapaan Ville, Canlubang.. PrimaryCarmel Day Care Center Carmel Kiddie Day Care Center Carmel Amusement Zone Carmel Extension Park Carmel Pumping Water Station 2.5km to Bo. Canlubang Feast - July 16 Growth Management & Developmemt sitio Kapayapaan Village, Canlubang


A Sperrbrecher, was a German auxiliary ship of the First World War and the Second World War that served as a type of minesweeper, steaming ahead of other vessels through minefields and detonating them with their reinforced hull. Used as anti-aircraft ships, the Sperrbrecher suffered heavy losses in the war. Sperrbrecher were used extensively by the Germans in World War I; the Imperial Fleet had a total of thirty Sperrbrecher for clearing mine streets – eight were lost during the war. Some of these ships were equipped with airplanes, such as Rio Plauen or Wigbert. In World War II designated as'Special Purpose Merchant Ships', although termed by the Royal Air Force as Heavy Flak Ships, the Sperrbrecher were converted from merchant ships for their special role, were crewed by merchant seamen, their cargo holds were filled with buoyant material to aid in flotation in case of hitting a mine and the bows were strengthened. Ships converted to the Sperrbrecher type were fitted with heavy anti-aircraft armament and carried barrage balloons.

The primary use of the Sperrbrecher was to escort other vessels through cleared paths in defensive minefields, for the purpose of detonating any mines that might have strayed into the passageways. The ships of the Sperrbrecher type were, early in the war, used to clear suspected enemy minefields by sailing through them. With the strengthened hull and buoyant material the ships suffered heavy losses and with the advent of acoustically and magnetically fused mines, they became ineffective. In the war the Sperrbrecher type ships were used to escort U-boats in and out of harbour. Due to their capable dual purpose armament and respectable fire control a Sperrbrecher was an able surface combatant, significant enough to deter a RN escort destroyer from engaging for fear of receiving "a bloody nose". To counter newer, magnetically fused mines, some ships of the Sperrbrecher type were equipped with a large electromagnet in their bows. Referred to as the VES system, this was to detonate magnetic mines well clear of the vessel, the design specifications calling for a distance of 460 metres from the hull at detonation.

Careful military intelligence work by the Royal Navy resulted in a method to defeat this method of minesweeping, sinking several Sperrbrecher through the careful fusing of mines laid as traps, their fuses desensitised to be activated only when the sweeping vessel was directly above them. Over one hundred vessels merchant ships of around 5,000 tonnes and larger displacement, were converted as Sperrbrecher and it is estimated that around 50 percent of the vessels converted were lost during the war. During World War II only one commander received the Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross for services on a Sperrbrecher. Korvettenkapitän of the Reserves Karl Palmgreen received the award on 3 August 1941 as commander of Sperrbrecher IX and I. After the war some Sperrbrecher were converted back to merchant duties, a number remaining in service until the 1970s. R boat, for smaller German minesweepers M-class minesweeper for larger German World War 2 minesweepers Groener, Erich. German Warships, 1815-1945: U-Boats and Mine Warfare Vessels.

Naval Institute Press. ISBN 978-1557503015. Sperrbrecher, at German Navy website

Alexander Robey Shepherd

Alexander Robey Shepherd, better known as Boss Shepherd, was one of the most controversial and influential civic leaders in the history of Washington, D. C. and one of the most powerful big-city political bosses of the Gilded Age. He was head of the DC Board of Public Works from 1871 to 1873 and Governor of the District of Columbia from 1873 to 1874, he is known in Washington, as "The Father of Modern Washington." Born in southwest Washington on January 30, 1835, Shepherd dropped out of school at 13 and took a job as a plumber's assistant. He worked his way up to becoming the owner of the plumbing firm, he invested the profits from that firm in real estate development, which made him a wealthy socialite and influential citizen of the city. Two days after the Battle of Fort Sumter that initiated the American Civil War and his brother each enlisted in the 3rd Battalion of the District of Columbia volunteers; the term of enlistment at that time was only three months, after which Shepherd was honorably discharged.

On January 30, 1861, he was married to Mary Grice Young. Her niece, Marie Grice Young, was the piano teacher of Theodore Roosevelt's children and a Titanic survivor, he was an early member of the Republican Party and a member of the Washington City Councils from 1861 to 1871, during which time he was an important voice for D. C. emancipation for suffrage for the freed slaves. Frederick Douglass would say of him, "I want to thank Governor Shepherd for the fair way in which he treated the colored race when he was in a position to help them." By 1870, war and mismanagement had caused the finances and infrastructure of the city to deteriorate so badly that the Mayor of Washington, Sayles J. Bowen, had his furniture seized in an attempt to pay the city's debts; as a solution and his allies began agitation for the abolition of the elected governments of Washington City and Georgetown, as well as the appointed justices of the peace for Washington County, to be replaced with a unified territorial government that would administer the entire District of Columbia.

The Shepherd machine was able to sway popular support in favor of the notion. In the following year, 1871, Shepherd was able to convince Congress to pass a bill that established the territorial government he desired; the Organic Act of 1871 merged the various governments in the District of Columbia into a single eleven-member legislature, including two representatives for Georgetown and two for the County of Washington, to be presided over by a territorial governor. The two front-runners for the governorship were Shepherd, from Washington, Colonel Jason A. Magruder, from Georgetown, thus Grant's inaugural appointment to the governorship was his friend, the financier Henry D. Cooke, "a gentleman of unimpeachable integrity" — and, secretly, a close political ally of Shepherd's. Shepherd was appointed vice-chair of the city's five-man Board of Public Works; the most powerful public entity in the District of Columbia, the Board of Public Works was an independent entity from the territorial government, reporting directly to Congress, but kept within the territory's sphere of influence by making the governor its chairman.

Cooke, however attended the Board's meetings, allowing Vice-Chair Shepherd to preside. He asserted himself as a leader to such an extent that he did not bother to consult the other members of the Board before making decisions and taking sweeping action, his abilities as a political operator, according to D. C. journalist Sam Smith, were formidable: Boss Shepherd's persuasive skills were such that upon being called to account by the president of a railroad whose tracks on the Mall had been torn up one night by 200 of Shepherd's men, he left the meeting with an offer to become the line's vice president. His cunning was such that when he heard reports of a planned injunction against the removal of what he called a "wretched old market building" on Mt. Vernon Square, he got a friend to take the one judge in the city out for a long ride in the country while the Boss accomplished his mission.... As the Cincinnati Enquirer of the time put it: "Boss Tweed and his gang, to whom Shepherd's enemies are so given to comparing him, were vulgar villians, stupid sneak thieves, by the side of this remarkable man."

The war-worn condition of Washington City in the late 1860s and early 1870s — when it was little more than a hamlet of dirt roads, wooden sidewalks and open sewers, surrounded by farmland and large country estates — was such that Congress had for several years discussed relocating the seat of the Federal government westward to St. Louis — which would have led to ruin for the District of Columbia. Shepherd believed that if the government was to remain in Washington, the city's infrastructure and facilities must be modernized and revitalized, he filled in the long-dormant Washington Canal and placed 157 miles of paved roads and sidewalks, 123 miles of sewers, 39 miles of gas mains, 30 miles of water mains. In 1872, Boss Shepherd was responsible for the demolition of the Northern Libe

Omphalos of Delphi

The Omphalos of Delphi is an ancient marble monument, found at the archaeological site of Delphi, Greece. The omphalos represents the stone which Rhea wrapped in swaddling clothes, pretending it was Zeus, in order to deceive Cronus. Among the Ancient Greeks, it was a widespread belief. According to the myths regarding the founding of the Delphic Oracle, Zeus, in his attempt to locate the center of the earth, launched two eagles from the two ends of the world, the eagles and flying at equal speed, crossed their paths above the area of Delphi. From this point, Zeus threw a stone from the sky to see; the stone fell at Delphi, which since was considered to be the center of the world, the omphalos – "navel of the earth". Indeed, the same stone thrown by Zeus took the same name and became the symbol of Apollo, the sacred Oracle and more of the region of Delphi; the marble-carved stone which constituted the omphalos in the monument with the tripod and the dancers troubled the excavators, because they could not decide if it was the original or a copy from Hellenistic and Roman times.

In the 2nd century A. D. Pausanias has provided us with rare evidence through his work; the stone of the omphalos had an oval shape. It is possible that in ancient times it was covered by a mesh of wool cloth and it was kept in the adyton, beside the tripod and the daphne, the other sacred symbols of the god; as described by Pausanias, within the woolen cloth, wound around the stone there were precious stones designed in the shape of a mermaid, while two gilded eagles were fixed on top of it. Recent studies by French archaeologists have demonstrated that the omphalos and the columns are connected and interlocked. In other words, the stone navel was mounted on the bronze tripods supported by the three dancers, at the top of the column; this is the spot where the omphalos is thought to have been placed till today, as a cover of the column, in order to symbolically supplement the meaning and importance of the Athenian votive offering. The Athenians, wanting to placate and honor the goddess of light, offered him this copy of the original stone, which combined both delphic symbols as a gift from the hands of the three priestess figures of Athenian origin.

Omphalos Media related to Delphi Omphalos at Wikimedia Commons "Omphalos" in the Archaeological Museum of Delphi, Greek Ministry of Culture and Sports