Agamidae is a family of over 300 species of iguanian lizards indigenous to Africa, Australia, and a few in Southern Europe. Many species are commonly called dragons or dragon lizards, they may be sister to the Iguanidae, and have a similar appearance. Agamids usually have well-developed, strong legs and their tails cannot be shed and regenerated like those of geckos, though a certain amount of regeneration is observed in some. Many agamid species are capable of limited change of their colours to regulate their body temperature, in some species, males are more brightly coloured than females, and colours play a part in signaling and reproductive behaviours. Although agamids generally inhabit warm environments, ranging from hot deserts to rainforests, at least one species. This group of lizards includes some more known, such as the domesticated bearded dragon, Chinese water dragon. One of the key distinguishing features of the agamids is their teeth and this feature is shared with the chameleons, but is otherwise unusual among lizards.
Agamid lizards are diurnal, with good vision, and include a number of arboreal species, in addition to ground-. They generally feed on insects and other arthropods, although larger species may include small reptiles or mammals, nestling birds. The great majority of species are oviparous. Very few studies of the Agamidae have been conducted, the first comprehensive assessment was by Moody followed by a more inclusive assessment by Frost and Etheridge. Subsequent studies were based on mitochondrial DNA loci by Macey et al. and Honda et al. few other studies focused on clades within the family, and the Agamidae have not been as well investigated as the Iguanidae. The agamids show a curious distribution and they are found over much of the Old World, including continental Africa, southern Asia, and sparsely in warmer regions of Europe. They are, absent from Madagascar and the New World, the distribution is the opposite of that of the iguanids, which are found in just these areas but absent in areas where agamids are found. A similar faunal divide is found in between the boas and pythons
Cambridge University Press
Cambridge University Press is the publishing business of the University of Cambridge. Granted letters patent by Henry VIII in 1534, it is the worlds oldest publishing house and it holds letters patent as the Queens Printer. The Presss mission is To further the Universitys mission by disseminating knowledge in the pursuit of education, Cambridge University Press is a department of the University of Cambridge and is both an academic and educational publisher. With a global presence, publishing hubs, and offices in more than 40 countries. Its publishing includes journals, reference works, textbooks. Cambridge University Press is an enterprise that transfers part of its annual surplus back to the university. Cambridge University Press is both the oldest publishing house in the world and the oldest university press and it originated from Letters Patent granted to the University of Cambridge by Henry VIII in 1534, and has been producing books continuously since the first University Press book was printed.
Cambridge is one of the two privileged presses, authors published by Cambridge have included John Milton, William Harvey, Isaac Newton, Bertrand Russell, and Stephen Hawking. In 1591, Thomass successor, John Legate, printed the first Cambridge Bible, the London Stationers objected strenuously, claiming that they had the monopoly on Bible printing. The universitys response was to point out the provision in its charter to print all manner of books. In July 1697 the Duke of Somerset made a loan of £200 to the university towards the house and presse and James Halman, Registrary of the University. It was in Bentleys time, in 1698, that a body of scholars was appointed to be responsible to the university for the Presss affairs. The Press Syndicates publishing committee still meets regularly, and its role still includes the review, John Baskerville became University Printer in the mid-eighteenth century. Baskervilles concern was the production of the finest possible books using his own type-design, a technological breakthrough was badly needed, and it came when Lord Stanhope perfected the making of stereotype plates.
This involved making a mould of the surface of a page of type. The Press was the first to use this technique, and in 1805 produced the technically successful, under the stewardship of C. J. Clay, who was University Printer from 1854 to 1882, the Press increased the size and scale of its academic and educational publishing operation. An important factor in this increase was the inauguration of its list of schoolbooks, during Clays administration, the Press undertook a sizable co-publishing venture with Oxford, the Revised Version of the Bible, which was begun in 1870 and completed in 1885. It was Wright who devised the plan for one of the most distinctive Cambridge contributions to publishing—the Cambridge Histories, the Cambridge Modern History was published between 1902 and 1912
Alocasia is a genus of broad-leaved rhizomatous or tuberous perennials from the family Araceae. There are 79 species native to tropical and subtropical Asia to Eastern Australia, the large cordate or sagittate leaves grow to a length of 20 to 90 cm on long petioles. Their araceous flowers grow at the end of a short stalk, the lower parts contain more of the poison. Prolonged boiling before serving or processing may reduce the risks but acidic fruit such as tamarind may dissolve them, Alocasia are distinctly exotic and tropical plants that are increasingly becoming popular as houseplants. The hybrid A. × amazonica has gained the Royal Horticultural Societys Award of Garden Merit and they are typically grown as pot plants, but a better way is to grow the plants permanently in the controlled conditions of a greenhouse. They do not do well in the dark and need good lighting if inside the house and they should be cared for as any other tropical plant with weekly cleaning of the leaves and frequent fine water misting without leaving the plants wet.
Unfortunately, they rarely survive cold winters, or the dryness of artificial heating, once inside the watering period must be reduced and the plants should be protected from spider mites or red spider attack. The following are the species classified under Alocasia along with their common names and distribution ranges
It is the smallest of the seven traditional continents in the English conception. When sea levels were lower during the Pleistocene ice age, including the Last Glacial Maximum about 18,000 BC, geologically, a continent extends to the edge of its continental shelf, so the now-separate islands are considered part of the continent. Due to the spread of animals and plants across the single Pleistocene landmass the separate lands have a related biota, New Zealand is not part of the continent of Australia, but of the separate, submerged continent of Zealandia. New Zealand and Australia are both part of the regions known as Australasia and Oceania. The term Oceania is often used to denote the region encompassing the Australian continent, with a total land area of 8.56 million square kilometres, the Australian continent is the smallest and lowest human inhabited continent on Earth. The continental shelf connecting the islands, half of which is less than 50 metres deep, covers some 2.5 million square kilometres, including the Sahul Shelf and Bass Strait.
As the country of Australia is mostly on a single landmass, archaeological terminology for this region has changed repeatedly. In the early 1970s, the term Greater Australia was introduced for the Pleistocene continent, at a 1975 conference and consequent publication, the name Sahul was extended from its previous use for just the Sahul Shelf to cover the continent. Others have used Meganesia with different meanings, travel writer Paul Theroux included New Zealand in his definition and others have used it for Australia, New Zealand, another biologist, Richard Dawkins, coined the name Australinea in 2004. Australia-New Guinea has been used, the continent primarily sits on the Indo-Australian Plate. Because of its location on its tectonic plate Australia doesnt have any active volcanic regions. The lands were joined with Antarctica as part of the southern supercontinent Gondwana until the plate began to drift north about 96 million years ago, for most of the time since then, Australia–New Guinea remained a continuous landmass.
When the last glacial period ended in about 10,000 BC, rising sea levels formed Bass Strait, separating Tasmania from the mainland. Then between about 8,000 and 6,500 BC, the lowlands in the north were flooded by the sea, separating New Guinea, the Aru Islands, and the Australian mainland. A northern arc consisting of the New Guinea Highlands, the Raja Ampat Islands, the Outer Banda Arc was accreted along the northwestern edge the continent, it includes the islands of Timor and Seram. As the continent drifted north from Antarctica, a fauna, flora. Marsupials and monotremes existed on other continents, but only in Australia–New Guinea did they out-compete the placental mammals, animal groups such as macropods and cassowaries are endemic to Australia. There were three reasons for the enormous diversity that developed in animal and plant life
Cave paintings are painted drawings on cave walls or ceilings, mainly of prehistoric origin, to some 40,000 years ago in Eurasia. The exact purpose of the Paleolithic cave paintings is not known, evidence suggests that they were not merely decorations of living areas since the caves in which they have been found do not have signs of ongoing habitation. They are located in areas of caves that are not easily accessible. Some theories hold that cave paintings may have been a way of communicating with others, the paintings are remarkably similar around the world, with animals being common subjects that give the most impressive images. Humans mainly appear as images of hands, mostly hand stencils made by blowing pigment on a hand held to the wall. The earliest known cave paintings/drawings of animals are at least 35,000 years old and are found in Pettakere cave on the island of Sulawesi in Indonesia, previously it was believed that the earliest paintings were in Europe. The earliest non-figurative rock art dates back to approximately 40,000 years ago, nearly 340 caves have now been discovered in France and Spain that contain art from prehistoric times.
But subsequent technology has made it possible to date the paintings by sampling the pigment itself, the choice of subject matter can indicate chronology. For instance, the reindeer depicted in the Spanish cave of Cueva de las Monedas places the drawings in the last Ice Age. The oldest date given to a cave painting is now a pig that has a minimum age of 35,400 years old at Pettakere cave in Sulawesi. Indonesian and Australian scientists have dated other non-figurative paintings on the walls to be approximately 40,000 years old, the method they used to confirm this was dating the age of the stalactites that formed over the top of the paintings. The art is similar in style and method to that of the Indonesian caves as there were hand stencils and this date coincides with the earliest known evidence for Homo sapiens in Europe. Because of the cave arts age, some scientists have conjectured that the paintings may have made by Neanderthals. The earliest known European figurative cave paintings are those of Chauvet Cave in France and these paintings date to earlier than 30,000 BCE according to radiocarbon dating.
Some researchers believe the drawings are too advanced for this era, the radiocarbon dates from these samples show that there were two periods of creation in Chauvet,35,000 years ago and 30,000 years ago. In 2009, cavers discovered drawings in Coliboaia Cave in Romania, an initial dating puts the age of an image in the same range as Chauvet, about 32,000 years old. Some caves probably continued to be painted over a period of thousands of years. This was created roughly between 10,000 and 5,500 years ago, and painted in rock shelters under cliffs or shallow caves, though individual figures are less naturalistic, they are grouped in coherent grouped compositions to a much greater degree
Bougainville Island is the main island of the Autonomous Region of Bougainville of Papua New Guinea. This region is known as Bougainville Province or the North Solomons. Its land area is 9,300 km2, the population of the province is 175,160, which includes the adjacent island of Buka and assorted outlying islands including the Carterets. Mount Balbi at 2,700 m is the highest point, although Bougainville Island is geographically part of the Solomon Islands archipelago, it is not a part of the state of Solomon Islands. Bougainville was first settled some 28,000 years ago, Three to four thousand years ago, Austronesian people arrived, bringing with them domesticated pigs, chickens and obsidian tools. The first European contact with Bougainville was in 1768, when the French explorer Louis de Bougainville arrived and named the island for himself. Germany laid claim to Bougainville in 1899, annexing it into German New Guinea, Christian missionaries arrived on the island in 1902. During World War I, Australia occupied German New Guinea, including Bougainville and it became part of the Australian Territory of New Guinea under a League of Nations mandate in 1920.
In 1942, during World War II, Japan invaded the island, following the war, the Territory of New Guinea, including Bougainville, returned to Australian control. On 9 September 1975, the Parliament of Australia passed the Papua New Guinea Independence Act 1975, the Act set 16 September 1975 as date of independence and terminated all remaining sovereign and legislative powers of Australia over the territory. Bougainville was to part of an independent Papua New Guinea, however, on 11 September 1975, in a failed bid for self-determination. The republic failed to any international recognition, and a settlement was reached in August 1976. Bougainville was absorbed politically into Papua New Guinea with increased self-governance powers, between 1988 and 1998, civil war on the island claimed over 15,000 lives. The Peace talks brokered by New Zealand began in 1997, leading to autonomy for the island, a multinational Peace Monitoring Group under Australian leadership was deployed. In 2001, a agreement was signed including promise of a referendum on independence from PNG.
Bougainville is the largest island in the Solomon Islands archipelago and it is part of the Solomon Islands rain forests ecoregion. Bougainville and the island of Buka are a single landmass separated by a deep 300-metre-wide strait. The island is 9000 square kilometres, and there are several active, mount Bagana in the north central part of Bougainville is conspicuously active, spewing out smoke that is visible many kilometres distant
West of the line are found organisms related to Asiatic species, to the east, a mixture of species of Asian and Australian origin is present. Wallace noticed this clear division during his travels through the East Indies in the 19th century, the line runs through Indonesia, between Borneo and Sulawesi, and through the Lombok Strait between Bali and Lombok. The distance between Bali and Lombok is small, about 35 kilometres, the distributions of many bird species observe the line, since many birds do not cross even the smallest stretches of open ocean water. Some bats have distributions that cross the line, but other mammals are limited to one side or the other. Other groups of plants and animals show differing patterns, but the pattern is striking. Flora do not follow the Wallace Line to the extent as fauna. Moreover, as noted by Wallace himself, the observations in faunal differences between the two regions had already been made earlier by George Windsor Earl. The name Wallaces Line was first used by Thomas Huxley in an 1868 paper to the Zoological Society of London, Wallaces studies in Indonesia demonstrated the emerging theory of evolution, at about the same time as Joseph Dalton Hooker and Asa Gray published essays supporting Darwins hypothesis.
Understanding of the biogeography of the region centers on the relationship of ancient sea levels to the continental shelves, Australia is likewise connected by the Sahul Shelf to New Guinea. The biogeographic boundary known as Lydekkers Line, which separates the eastern edge of Wallacea from the Australian region, has an origin to the Wallace line. Webers Line runs through this area, at the tipping point between dominance by species of Asian against those of Australian origin. It can reasonably be concluded it was a barrier preventing species migration because the physical aspects of the separated islands are very similar. Species found only on the Asian side include leaf monkeys and ponderous-beaked hornbills while Australian wallabies, spiny anteaters, tree kangaroos, Australia Australasian ecozone Wallace, Alfred Russel. On the Physical Geography of the Malay Archipelago, with the original paper van Oosterzee, Penny. Where Worlds Collide, the Wallace Line, Abdullah, M. T. Biogeography and variation of Cynopterus brachyotis in Southeast Asia.
The University of Queensland, St Lucia, hall, L. S. Gordon G. Grigg, Craig Moritz, Besar Ketol, Isa Sait, Wahab Marni and M. T. Abdullah. Biogeography of fruit bats in Southeast Asia, wilson D. E. D. M. Reeder. Too Many Lines, The Limits of the Oriental and Australian Zoogeographic Regions George Gaylord Simpson, Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society, Vol.121, No
University of Chicago Press
The University of Chicago Press is the largest and one of the oldest university presses in the United States. One of its quasi-independent projects is the BiblioVault, a repository for scholarly books. The Press building is located just south of the Midway Plaisance on the University of Chicago campus, the University of Chicago Press was founded in 1891, making it one of the oldest continuously operating university presses in the United States. Its first published book was Robert F. Harpers Assyrian and Babylonian Letters Belonging to the Kouyunjik Collections of the British Museum, for its first three years, the Press was an entity discrete from the university, it was operated by the Boston publishing house D. C. Heath in conjunction with the Chicago printer R. R. Donnelley and this arrangement proved unworkable, and in 1894 the university officially assumed responsibility for the Press. In 1902, as part of the university, the Press started working on the Decennial Publications, composed of articles and monographs by scholars and administrators on the state of the university and its facultys research, the Decennial Publications was a radical reorganization of the Press.
This allowed the Press, by 1905, to begin publishing books by scholars not of the University of Chicago. A manuscript editing and proofreading department was added to the staff of printers and typesetters, leading, in 1906. By 1931, the Press was an established, leading academic publisher, leading books of that era include Dr. Edgar J. Goodspeeds The New Testament, An American Translation and its successor, Goodspeed and J. M. In 1956, the Press first published books under its imprint. Of the Presss best-known books, most date from the 1950s, including translations of the Complete Greek Tragedies and Richmond Lattimores The Iliad of Homer. That decade saw the first edition of A Greek-English Lexicon of the New Testament and Other Early Christian Literature, in 1966, Morris Philipson began his thirty-four-year tenure as director of the University of Chicago Press. As the Presss scholarly volume expanded, the Press advanced as a trade publisher. In 1992, Norman Macleans books A River Runs Through It and Young Men and Fire were national best sellers, in 1982, Philipson was the first director of an academic press to win the Publisher Citation, one of PENs most prestigious awards.
Paula Barker Duffy served as director of the Press from 2000 to 2007, under her administration, the Press expanded its distribution operations and created the Chicago Digital Distribution Center and BiblioVault. The Press launched an electronic work, The Chicago Manual of Style Online. Garrett P. Kiely became the 15th director of the University of Chicago Press on September 1,2007, the Press publishes over 50 new trade titles per year, across many subject areas. It publishes regional titles, such as The Encyclopedia of Chicago, the Press has recently expanded its digital offerings to include most newly published books as well as key backlist titles
The coconut tree is a member of the family Arecaceae and the only species of the genus Cocos. The term coconut can refer to the coconut palm or the seed, or the fruit. The spelling cocoanut is a form of the word. The term is derived from the 16th-century Portuguese and Spanish word coco meaning head or skull, coconuts are known for their great versatility, as evidenced by many traditional uses, ranging from food to cosmetics. They form a part of the diets of many people in the tropics and subtropics. Coconuts are distinct from other fruits for their quantity of water. When mature, they can be used as seed nuts or processed to give oil from the kernel, charcoal from the hard shell, the endosperm is initially in its nuclear phase suspended within the coconut water. As development continues, cellular layers of endosperm deposit along the walls of the coconut, when dried, the coconut flesh is called copra. The oil and milk derived from it are used in cooking and frying, as well as in soaps. The husks and leaves can be used as material to make a variety of products for furnishing and decorating, the coconut has cultural and religious significance in certain societies, particularly in India, where it is used in Hindu rituals.
Cocos nucifera is a palm, growing up to 30 m tall, with pinnate leaves 4–6 m long. Coconuts are generally classified into two types and dwarf. On fertile soil, a coconut palm tree can yield up to 75 fruits per year. Given proper care and growing conditions, coconut palms produce their first fruit in six to ten years, the coconut fruit is a drupe, not a true nut. Like other fruits, it has three layers, the exocarp and endocarp, the exocarp and mesocarp make up the husk of the coconuts. Coconuts sold in the shops of nontropical countries often have had the exocarp removed, the mesocarp is composed of a fiber, called coir, which has many traditional and commercial uses. The shell has three germination pores or eyes that are visible on its outside surface once the husk is removed. A full-sized coconut weighs about 1.44 kg and it takes around 6,000 full-grown coconuts to produce a tonne of copra
Colocasia esculenta is a tropical plant grown primarily for its edible corms, the root vegetables most commonly known as taro. It is believed to be one of the earliest cultivated plants and this plant and its root is generally called taro, but it has different names in different countries like for instance eddoe, or Malanga. In the Philippines, it is usually called Gabi, Abi or Avi, rhizomes of different shapes and sizes. Leaves up to 40×24.8 cm, sprouts from rhizome, dark green above and light green beneath, triangular-ovate, sub-rounded and mucronate at apex, spadix about 3/5 as long as the spathe, flowering parts up to 8 mm in diameter. Female portion at the fertile ovaries intermixed with white ones. Neuters above the females, rhomboid or irregular oblong, synandrium lobed, cells 6 or 8. Appendage shorter than the male portion, the specific epithet, means edible in Latin. Taro is related to Xanthosoma and Caladium, plants commonly grown as ornamentals, taro was probably first native to the lowland wetlands of Malaysia.
In India, it is known as Gaderi, with smaller ones called arbi or arvi being more common, in Indonesia, it is called talas or keladi. In Turkey, Colocasia esculenta is locally known as gölevez and mainly grown on the Mediterranean coast, in the southeastern USA, this plant is recognized as an invasive species. Taros primary use is the consumption of its edible corm and leaves, in its raw form, the plant is toxic due to the presence of calcium oxalate, and the presence of needle-shaped raphides in the plant cells. However, the toxin can be minimized and the tuber rendered palatable by cooking, corms of the small round variety are peeled and boiled, sold either frozen, bagged in its own liquids, or canned. The leaves are rich in vitamins and minerals and it is sold as an ornamental aquatic plant. It is used for Anthocyanin study experiments especially with reference to abaxial and adaxial anthocyanic concentration, taro Aquatic plants Colocasia esculenta in West African plants – A Photo Guide
Calcite is a carbonate mineral and the most stable polymorph of calcium carbonate. The Mohs scale of hardness, based on scratch hardness comparison. Other polymorphs of calcium carbonate are the minerals aragonite and vaterite, aragonite will change to calcite at 380–470 °C, and vaterite is even less stable. Calcite is derived from the German Calcit, a term coined in the 19th century from the Latin word for lime and it is thus etymologically related to chalk. Calcite crystals are trigonal-rhombohedral, though actual calcite rhombohedra are rare as natural crystals, they show a remarkable variety of habits including acute to obtuse rhombohedra, tabular forms, prisms, or various scalenohedra. Calcite exhibits several twinning types adding to the variety of observed forms and it may occur as fibrous, lamellar, or compact. Cleavage is usually in three directions parallel to the rhombohedron form and its fracture is conchoidal, but difficult to obtain. It has a defining Mohs hardness of 3, a gravity of 2.71.
Color is white or none, though shades of gray, orange, green, violet, calcite is transparent to opaque and may occasionally show phosphorescence or fluorescence. A transparent variety called Iceland spar is used for optical purposes, acute scalenohedral crystals are sometimes referred to as dogtooth spar while the rhombohedral form is sometimes referred to as nailhead spar. Single calcite crystals display an optical property called birefringence and this strong birefringence causes objects viewed through a clear piece of calcite to appear doubled. The birefringent effect was first described by the Danish scientist Rasmus Bartholin in 1669, at a wavelength of ~590 nm calcite has ordinary and extraordinary refractive indices of 1.658 and 1.486, respectively. Between 190 and 1700 nm, the refractive index varies roughly between 1.9 and 1.5, while the extraordinary refractive index varies between 1.6 and 1.4. Calcite, like most carbonates, will dissolve with most forms of acid, calcite can be either dissolved by groundwater or precipitated by groundwater, depending on several factors including the water temperature, pH, and dissolved ion concentrations.
Although calcite is fairly insoluble in water, acidity can cause dissolution of calcite. Ambient carbon dioxide, due to its acidity, has a slight solubilizing effect on calcite, calcite exhibits an unusual characteristic called retrograde solubility in which it becomes less soluble in water as the temperature increases. When conditions are right for precipitation, calcite forms mineral coatings that cement the existing rock grains together or it can fill fractures. On a landscape scale, continued dissolution of calcium carbonate-rich rocks can lead to the expansion and eventual collapse of cave systems, high-grade optical calcite was used in World War II for gun sights, specifically in bomb sights and anti-aircraft weaponry
Tridacna is a genus of large saltwater clams, marine bivalve mollusks in the subfamily Tridacninae, the giant clams. They have heavy shells, fluted with 4 to 6 folds and they inhabit shallow waters of coral reefs in warm seas of the Indo-Pacific region. These clams are popular in aquaria, and in some areas, such as the Philippines. They live in symbiosis with photosynthetic algae, some species are eaten by humans. Recent biochemical studies have suggested there may exist morphologically indistinct cryptic species. Compared to other clams, the mantle that secretes the shell is greatly expanded. The clams even have small lens-like structures called ocelli through which light penetrates, Tridacna clams are common inhabitants of Indo-Pacific coral reef benthic communities in shallower waters. They live in symbiosis with photosynthetic algae that grow in the mantle tissues. Light penetrates the mantle through small lens-like structures called ocelli, by day, the clams spread out their mantle so that the algae receive the sunlight they need to photosynthesize, whereas the colour pigments protect the clam against excessive light and UV radiation.
Adult clams get most of their nutrients from the algae and the rest from filter feeding, when disturbed, the clam closes its shell. The popular opinion that they pose danger to divers who get trapped or injured between the closing sharp-edged shell is not very real, as the reaction is quite slow. Their large size and easy accessibility has caused overfishing and collapse of the stocks in many places. They are being farmed in some areas, both for the seafood market in some Asian countries and for the aquarium trade. Tridacna clams can produce white pearls with an undulating, porcelain-like surface. The Pearl of Lao Tzu, known as the Pearl of Allah, is the worlds largest pearl weighing 6.4 kilogrammes, over a hundred examples of carved Tridacna shells have been found in archaeological expeditions from Italy to the Near East. Similar in artistic style, they were produced in the mid-seventh century. The backs and interior perimeters of the shells show animal, the umbo of the shell is in the shape of a human female or birds head.
They were probably used to store eye cosmetics, coral Reefs, Cities Under The Sea