Tourism in North Korea
Tourism in North Korea is controlled by the North Korean government. Only about 4,000 to 6,000 Western tourists visit North Korea each year. All tourism is organized by one of several state-owned tourism bureaus, including Korea International Travel Company, Korean International Sports Travel Company, Korean International Taekwondo Tourism Company and Korean International Youth Travel Company. Interactions between foreign tourists and local people have been controlled. However, from photos seen around the Internet and evidence from travelers to North Korea, those restrictions seem to have relaxed in the past few years; as of January 2013, foreigners can buy SIM cards at Pyongyang airport, providing access to international calling. The Swedish diplomatic mission to North Korea emphasizes that disrespect against the North Korean nation, its leaders and its symbols are regarded by North Korean authorities as offensive; the tolerance level for disruptive behavior is minimal and as such can lead to imprisonment and torture.
Since September 1, 2017, the United States Department of State has prohibited the use of U. S. passports for travel to North Korea, arguing that U. S. citizens have been subject to arrest and long-term detention for actions that would not otherwise be a cause for arrest in the United States or other countries. The U. S. Department of State states that it has received reports of North Korean authorities detaining U. S. citizens without charges and not allowing them to depart the country. North Korea has detained U. S. citizens who were part of organized tours. On February 1, 2017, the United States released a travel warning to United States citizens, warning would-be travelers of previous encounters and dangers in North Korea. Tourists must go on guided tours; as of June 2011, the northern border to China has been opened and Chinese citizens are free to drive their own vehicles to Luo, a small North Korean northeast border region where they are free to explore and photograph. This is seen as a first step toward expanded development in that region.
Since December 2013, North Korea has been open to tourists during the winter. The Masikryong Ski Resort outside Wonsan City in Kangwon Province opened in early 2014. While tourists have been restricted to Pyongyang, some tours have been able to expand to other parts of the country such as Rajin and Chongjin. Tourists can take the plane to Pyongyang from Beijing, Shenyang and Vladivostok, train services to Pyongyang from Beijing and Moscow. For Westerners, there are a small number of private tour operators that help provide access to North Korea; these include Koryo Tours. FarRail Tours takes tours to see operating steam railways and the Pyongyang Metro. In 2016, an American college student, Otto Warmbier, was arrested and sentenced to 15 years' imprisonment for removing a propaganda poster from a wall in his Pyongyang hotel. At the time of his arrest, Warmbier was traveling with China-based tour operator Young Pioneer Tours on a five-day tour of North Korea, he was released and returned to the U.
S. in a coma, which led to his death on 19 June 2017. As a result, YPT announced it would no longer take U. S. citizens to North Korea as the risk was "too high". Other North Korea tour companies announced they would review their positions on accepting U. S citizens. However, in July 2017, the U. S. government announced that American citizens would no longer be permitted to visit North Korea as tourists. The travel ban took effect on September 1, 2017. In 2002, the area around Mount Kumgang, a scenic mountain close to the South Korea border, was designated as a special tourist destination: Mount Kumgang Tourist Region. Tours run by private companies brought thousands of South Koreans to Mount Kŭmgang every year before the suspension of tours in late 2008 due to the shooting of a South Korean tourist; when tours had not resumed by May 2010, North Korea unilaterally announced that it would seize South Korean real estate assets in the region. In July 2005, the South Korean company Hyundai Group came to an agreement with the North Korean government to open up more areas to tourism, including Baekdu Mountain and Kaesong.
Kaesong was opened to daily tours for South Korean and foreign tourists in December 2007. The city received several hundred tourists each week South Koreans; the tours to Kaesong were suspended in December 2008 due to a political conflict between North and South Korean relating to propaganda balloons. The balloons, filled with information critical of Kim Jong-il and the North Korean regime, were sent into North Korea from just south of the border in South Korea; when South Korea did not respond to North Korean demands to stop the propaganda balloons, North Korea suspended the Kaesong tours. The tours to Kaesong resumed in April 2010, but were again suspended in May 2010 following the ROKS Cheonan sinking. In April 2010, the first tourist trains from Dandong, China brought visitors to North Korea for a four-day tour. Before that, the international train from Beijing to Pyongyang was used as a tourist train. In June 2011, Chinese citizens were allowed on a self-driven tour in North Korea for t
Education in North Korea
Education in North Korea is universal and state-funded schooling by the government. The self-reported national literacy rate for citizens at age of 15 and older is 100 percent. Children go through one year of kindergarten, four years of primary education, six years of secondary education, on to university. In 1988 the United Nations Educational and Cultural Organization reported that North Korea had 35,000 preprimary, 59,000 primary, 111,000 secondary, 23,000 college and university, 4,000 other postsecondary teachers. Formal education has played a central role in the social and cultural development of both traditional Korea and contemporary North Korea. During the Joseon Dynasty, the royal court established a system of schools that taught Confucian subjects in the provinces as well as in four central secondary schools in the capital. There was no state-supported system of primary education. During the 15th century, state-supported schools declined in quality and were supplanted in importance by private academies, the seowon, centers of a Neo-Confucian revival in the 16th century.
Higher education was provided by the Confucian national university, in Seoul. Its enrollment was limited to 200 students who had passed the lower civil-service examinations and were preparing for the highest examinations; the late 19th and early 20th centuries witnessed major educational changes. The seowon were abolished by the central government. Christian missionaries established modern schools. Among them was the first school for women, Ehwa Woman's University, established by American Methodist missionaries as a primary school in Seoul in 1886. During the last years of the dynasty, as many as 3,000 private schools that taught modern subjects to both sexes were founded by missionaries and others. Most of these schools were concentrated in the northern part of Korea. After Japan annexed Korea in 1910, the colonial regime established an educational system with two goals: to give Koreans a minimal education designed to train them for subordinate roles in a modern economy and make them loyal subjects of the emperor.
The Japanese invested more resources in the latter, opportunities for Koreans were limited. A state university modeled on Tokyo Imperial University was established in Seoul in 1923, but the number of Koreans allowed to study there never exceeded 40 percent of its enrollment. Private universities, including those established by missionaries such as Sungsil College in Pyongyang and Chosun Christian College in Seoul, provided other opportunities for Koreans desiring higher education. After the establishment of North Korea, an education system modeled on that of the Soviet Union was established. According to North Korean sources, at the time of North Korea's establishment, two-thirds of school-age children did not attend primary school, most adults, numbering 2.3 million, were illiterate. In 1950, primary education became compulsory for children; the outbreak of the Korean War, delayed attainment of this goal. By 1958 North Korean sources claimed that seven-year compulsory primary and secondary education had been implemented.
In 1959 "state-financed universal education" was introduced in all schools. By 1967 nine years of education became compulsory. In 1975 the compulsory eleven-year education system, which includes one year of preschool education and ten years of primary and secondary education, was implemented. According to a 1983 speech given by Kim Il Sung to education ministers of nonaligned countries in Pyongyang, compulsory higher education was to be introduced "in the near future."At that time, students had no school expenses. In 2012 Chief Kim Jong Un has advocated that North Korea should expand its compulsory education from 11 years to 12 years. According to Joong Ang News in North Korea, a bill to expand its compulsory education was passed last September 2012. Prior to this reformation, North Korea had eleven years of free education system which consisted of one year of kindergarten, four years of elementary school and six years of secondary school prior to college. After reformation, now, it resembles education system in South Korea which consists of six years of elementary school, three years of middle school and three years of high school.
In the early 1990s, the compulsory primary and secondary education system was divided into one year of kindergarten, four years of primary school for ages six to nine, six years of senior middle school for ages ten to fifteen. There are two years of kindergarten, for children aged four to six, only the second year is compulsory. In the mid 1980s, there were 9,530 secondary schools. After graduating from people's school, students enter either a regular secondary school or a special secondary school that concentrates on music, art, or foreign languages; these schools teach both general subjects. The Mangyongdae Revolutionary Institute where the children of the North Korean elite are prepared for service as officers in the Korean People’s Army is an important special school where modern training in economics and computers is stressed as is the Kang Pan Sok Revolutionary School. In senior middle schools, polit
International Collegiate Programming Contest
The International Collegiate Programming Contest, known as the ICPC, is an annual multi-tiered competitive programming competition among the universities of the world. Headquartered at Baylor University, directed by ICPC Executive Director and Baylor Professor Dr. William B. Poucher, the ICPC operates autonomous regional contests covering six continents culminating in a global World Finals every year. In 2018, ICPC participation included 52,709 students from 3,233 universities in 110 countries; the ICPC operates under the auspices of the ICPC Foundation and operates under agreements with host universities and non-profits, all in accordance with the ICPC Policies and Procedures. Since 1977 until 2017 ICPC was held under the auspices of ACM and was referred to as ACM-ICPC. Tracing its roots to 1970, over 320,000 ICPC alumni populate the professional ranks of high-tech companies, consulting firms, financial institutions, investment firms, high-tech startups, venture-capital firms and public service.
ICPC Alumni are developers, software engineers, senior software engineers, chiefs, CTOs, CEOs, co-founders. They are professors, in public service. A good number are in venture capital. One is a comedian; the ICPC, the “International Collegiate Programming Contest”, is an extra-curricular, competitive programming sport for students at universities around the world. ICPC competitions provide gifted students opportunities to interact and improve their teamwork and problem-solving prowess; the ICPC is a global platform for academia and community to shine the spotlight on and raise the aspirations of the next generation of computing professionals as they pursue excellence. The ICPC traces its roots to a competition held at Texas A&M University in 1970 hosted by the Alpha Chapter of the Upsilon Pi Epsilon Computer Science Honor Society; this initial programming competition was titled First Annual Texas Collegiate Programming Championship and each University was represented by a team of up to five members.
The computer used was a 360 model 65, one of the first machines with a DAT system for accessing memory. The start of the competition was delayed for about 90 minutes because two of the four "memory bank" amplifiers were down. Teams that participated included, Texas A&M, Texas Tech, University of Houston, five or six other Texas University / Colleges. There were three problems that had to be completed and the cumulative time from "start" to "successful completion" determined first-, second-, third-place winners; the programming language used was Fortran. The programs were written on coding sheets, keypunched on Hollerith cards, submitted for execution; the University of Houston team won the competition completing all three problems with time. The second- and third-place teams did not complete all three three problems; the contest evolved into its present form as a multi-tier competition in 1977, with the first finals held in conjunction with the ACM Computer Science Conference. From 1977 to 1989, the contest included teams of four from universities throughout the United States and Canada.
Headquartered at Baylor University since 1989, with regional contests established within the world's university community, the ICPC has grown into a worldwide competition. To increase access to the World Finals, teams were reduced to three students within their first five academic years. From 1997 to 2017 IBM was the sponsor of ICPC. During that time contest participation has grown by more than 2000%. In 1997, 840 teams from 560 universities participated. In 2017, 46,381 students from 2,948 universities in 103 countries on six continents participated in regional competitions. Organized as a localized extra-curricular university mind sport and operating as a globally-coordinated unincorporated association operating under agreements with host universities and non-profits, the ICPC is open to qualified teams from every university in the world. UPE has provided continuous support since 1970 and honored World Finalists since the first Finals in 1976; the ICPC is indebted to ACM member contributions and ACM assistance from 1976-2018.
Baylor University has served since 1985, hosting ICPC Headquarters since 1989. The ICPC operates as a globally-coordinated unincorporated association operating under agreements with host universities and non-profits to insure that participation in ICPC is open to qualified teams from every university in the world. See ICPC Policies and Procedures; the ICPC World Finals is the final round of competition. Over its history it has become a 4-day event held in the finest venues worldwide with 140 teams competing in the 2018 World Finals. Recent World Champion teams have been recognized by their country's head of state. In recent years, media impressions have hovered at the one billion mark. ICPC contests are team competitions. Current rules stipulate. Participants must be university students, who have had less than five years of university education before the contest. Students who have competed in two World Finals or five regional competitions are ineligible to compete again. During each contest, the teams of three are given 5 hours to solve between eight and fifteen programming problems.
They must submit solutions as programs in C, C++, Python or Kotlin. Programs are run on test data. If a program fails to give a correct answer, the team can submit another program; the winner
Racing video game
The racing video game genre is the genre of video games, either in the first-person or third-person perspective, in which the player partakes in a racing competition with any type of land, air or space vehicles. They may be based on anything from real-world racing leagues to fantastical settings. In general, they can be distributed along a spectrum anywhere between hardcore simulations, simpler arcade racing games. Racing games may fall under the category of sports games. In 1973, Atari released Space Race, an arcade video game where players control spaceships that race against opposing ships, while avoiding comets and meteors, it is a competitive two-player game controlled using a two-way joystick, features black and white graphics. The following year, Atari released the first car driving video game in the arcades, Gran Trak 10, which presents an overhead single-screen view of the track in low resolution white-on-black graphics; that same year, Taito released Speed Race designed by Tomohiro Nishikado, in which the player drives down a straight track dodging other cars.
The game was re-branded as Wheels by Midway Games for release in the United States and was influential on racing games. In 1976, Sega released Moto-Cross, re-branded as Fonz in the US, as a tie-in for the popular sitcom Happy Days; the game featured a three-dimensional perspective view, as well as haptic feedback, which caused the motorcycle handlebars to vibrate during a collision with another vehicle. In October 1976, Atari's Night Driver presented a first-person view. Considered the first "scandalous" arcade game, Exidy's Death Race was criticized in the media for its violent content, which only served to increase its popularity. In 1977, Atari released Super Bug, a racing game significant as "the first game to feature a scrolling playfield" in multiple directions. Sega released Twin Course T. T. a two-player motorbike racing game. Another notable video game from the 1970s was The Driver, a racing-action game released by Kasco that used 16 mm film to project full motion video on screen, though its gameplay had limited interaction, requiring the player to match their steering wheel, gas pedal and brakes with movements shown on screen, much like the sequences in laserdisc video games.1979 saw the release of Vectorbeam's Speed Freak, a 3D vector racing game, which Killer List of Videogames calls "very impressive and ahead of their time".
In 1980, Namco's overhead-view driving game Rally-X was the first game to feature background music, allowed scrolling in multiple directions, both vertical and horizontal, it was possible to pull the screen in either direction. It featured a radar, to show the rally car's location on the map. Alpine Ski, released by Taito in 1981, was a winter sports game, a vertical-scrolling racing game that involved maneuvering a skier through a downhill ski course, a slalom racing course, a ski jumping competition. Turbo, released by Sega in 1981, was the first racing game to use sprite scaling with full-color graphics. One of the most influential racing games was released in 1982: Pole Position, developed by Namco and published by Atari in North America, it was the first game to be based on a real racing circuit, the first to feature a qualifying lap, where the player needs to complete a time trial before they can compete in Grand Prix races. While not the first third-person racing game, Pole Position established the conventions of the genre and its success inspired numerous imitators.
According to Electronic Games, for the first time in the amusement parlors, a first-person racing game gives a higher reward for passing cars and finishing among the leaders rather than just for keeping all four wheels on the road". According to IGN, it was "the first racing game based on a real-world racing circuit" and "introduced checkpoints," and that its success, as "the highest-grossing arcade game in North America in 1983, cemented the genre in place for decades to come and inspired a horde of other racing games". In 1983, Kaneko produced a roller skating racer. In 1984, several racing laserdisc video games were released, including Sega's GP World and Taito's Laser Grand Prix which featured live-action footage, Universal's Top Gear featuring 3D animated race car driving, Taito's Cosmos Circuit, featuring animated futuristic racing. Taito released Kick Start, Buggy Challenge, a dirt track racing game featuring a buggy. Irem's The Battle-Road, a vehicle combat racing game that featured branching paths and up to 32 possible routes.
Racing games in general tend to drift toward the arcade side of reality due to hardware limitations in the 1980s and 1990s. It is, untrue to say that there were no games considered simulations in their time. In 1984, Geoff Crammond, who developed the Grandprix series, produced what is considered the first attempt at a racing simulator on a home system, REVS, released for the BBC Microcomputer; the game offered an unofficial recreation of British Formula 3. The hardware capabilities limited the depth of the simulation and restricted it to one track, but it offered a semi-realistic driving experience with more detail than most other racing games at the time. In 1985, Sega released a Grand Prix style motorbike racer, it used force feedback technology and was one of the first arcade games to use 16-bit graphics and Sega's "Super Scaler" technology that allowed pseudo-3D sprite-scaling at high frame rates. In 1986, Durell released Turbo Esprit, which had an official
Pyongyang University of Music and Dance
The Pyongyang University of Music and Dance is a North Korean performing arts university founded in July 1972 in the Taedonggang District of Pyongyang from a merge with the Pyongyang Art College. Its facilities include a music hall covering 5,501 square meters. 30 percent of the university teachers have academic titles. The university's education system consists of four- to five-year regular courses and two- to three-year special courses. There is an additional 2-year kindergarten course, 4 year primary course and a 3-year preparatory course for young musicians and performers; the Pyongyang Dance College, founded on March 1, 1949, the university merged with the Pyongyang Art College in 1972 to become the Pyongyang University of Music and Dance. Its newly developed buildings saw the "on-the-spot" guidance Kim Il-Sung and Kim Jong-Il whilst being built. National instrumental music Modern instrumental music Vocal music Dance and composition Cheol Woong Kim Il-Jin Kim Kim Ok List of universities in North Korea
Pyongyang University of Science and Technology
Pyongyang University of Science and Technology is North Korea's first funded university. It is founded and funded by associations and people outside the country. PUST was jointly planned and constructed by forces from both North and South Korea, along with contributions from groups and individuals from other nations, in particular China and the United States; the initiative is funded by Evangelical Christian movements. Scheduled for launch in 2003, the project was delayed for several years and began operations in October 2010; the university is in the countryside outside of Pyongyang in a separate but close administrative region with permission required for access to Pyongyang. After introductory negotiations, the PUST project was started in 2001, on the initiative of Professor Kim Chin Kyung, endorsed in a personal meeting with former North Korean leader Kim Jong-Il. Professor Kim's earlier accomplishments include being founding president of Yanbian University of Science and Technology in northeastern China, but inside the Yanbian Korean Autonomous Prefecture, founded in 1992.
The PUST will draw on their experiences. With exception of foreign language courses, all teaching is conducted in English. All faculty work as volunteers and come from a Christian background, with the president saying: "While the skills to be taught are technical in nature, the spirit underlying this historic venture is unabashedly Christian...."The PUST construction plans were politically troubled and slowed down in 2005 and 2006, in connection with the 2006 North Korean nuclear test, but on resumed and have led to their conclusion. PUST classes began in the fall of October 2010, it had its official opening in September 2010 and planned to enroll up to 200 higher-level students per year, from both parts of Korea. Plans include the hiring of up to 250 faculty members from universities and research institutions in South Korea, the United States, other countries; as a joint venture university, the PUST is seen as a contribution to the Korean reunification process. Kim Hak Song, who managed a farm run by the agriculture department of the university, was detained on charges of committing “hostile criminal acts” against the country on 6 May 2017.
Kim Sang-duk, who worked for the university, had been arrested on similar charges on April 22. They both were released on May 8, 2018, into U. S. Secretary of State Mike Pompeo's custody after overtures were made for a meeting to be held between President Donald Trump and Supreme Leader Kim Jong-un in June 2018. Due to a ban on Americans traveling to North Korea issued by the U. S. State Department in mid-July in 2017, the university had to start the fall semester without its dozens of American staffers in September 60 out of 130 foreigners in the university, including faculty members and family members, as none of them received special permission to stay; the goal of PUST is to contribute to North Korean economic development by producing professionals and leaders in technical disciplines, who are fluent in English and another foreign language, who are accustomed to working in an international setting. Bachelor of Science and doctorate degrees will be awarded in Electrical and Computer Engineering and Life Sciences, International Finance and Management.
The university has plans to open schools in Public Healthcare and Construction Engineering as early as 2013. Graduate students and professors have internet access. List of universities in North Korea Suki Kim Official website Official NGO website in America Communication for Yust Pust community Science Magazine "Crunch Time for North Korea's Revolutionary New University" My Experience at PUST Report in Science, April 2007: A mission to educate the elite
A video game is an electronic game that involves interaction with a user interface to generate visual feedback on a two- or three-dimensional video display device such as a TV screen, virtual reality headset or computer monitor. Since the 1980s, video games have become an important part of the entertainment industry, whether they are a form of art is a matter of dispute; the electronic systems used to play video games are called platforms. Video games are developed and released for one or several platforms and may not be available on others. Specialized platforms such as arcade games, which present the game in a large coin-operated chassis, were common in the 1980s in video arcades, but declined in popularity as other, more affordable platforms became available; these include dedicated devices such as video game consoles, as well as general-purpose computers like a laptop, desktop or handheld computing devices. The input device used for games, the game controller, varies across platforms. Common controllers include gamepads, mouse devices, the touchscreens of mobile devices, or a person's body, using a Kinect sensor.
Players view the game on a display device such as a television or computer monitor or sometimes on virtual reality head-mounted display goggles. There are game sound effects and voice actor lines which come from loudspeakers or headphones; some games in the 2000s include haptic, vibration-creating effects, force feedback peripherals and virtual reality headsets. In the 2010s, the commercial importance of the video game industry is increasing; the emerging Asian markets and mobile games on smartphones in particular are driving the growth of the industry. As of 2015, video games generated sales of US$74 billion annually worldwide, were the third-largest segment in the U. S. entertainment market, behind broadcast and cable TV. Early games used interactive electronic devices with various display formats; the earliest example is from 1947—a "Cathode ray tube Amusement Device" was filed for a patent on 25 January 1947, by Thomas T. Goldsmith Jr. and Estle Ray Mann, issued on 14 December 1948, as U. S.
Patent 2455992. Inspired by radar display technology, it consisted of an analog device that allowed a user to control a vector-drawn dot on the screen to simulate a missile being fired at targets, which were drawings fixed to the screen. Other early examples include: The Nimrod computer at the 1951 Festival of Britain; each game used different means of display: NIMROD used a panel of lights to play the game of Nim, OXO used a graphical display to play tic-tac-toe Tennis for Two used an oscilloscope to display a side view of a tennis court, Spacewar! used the DEC PDP-1's vector display to have two spaceships battle each other. In 1971, Computer Space, created by Nolan Bushnell and Ted Dabney, was the first commercially sold, coin-operated video game, it used a black-and-white television for its display, the computer system was made of 74 series TTL chips. The game was featured in the 1973 science fiction film Soylent Green. Computer Space was followed in 1972 by the first home console. Modeled after a late 1960s prototype console developed by Ralph H. Baer called the "Brown Box", it used a standard television.
These were followed by two versions of Atari's Pong. The commercial success of Pong led numerous other companies to develop Pong clones and their own systems, spawning the video game industry. A flood of Pong clones led to the video game crash of 1977, which came to an end with the mainstream success of Taito's 1978 shooter game Space Invaders, marking the beginning of the golden age of arcade video games and inspiring dozens of manufacturers to enter the market; the game inspired arcade machines to become prevalent in mainstream locations such as shopping malls, traditional storefronts and convenience stores. The game became the subject of numerous articles and stories on television and in newspapers and magazines, establishing video gaming as a growing mainstream hobby. Space Invaders was soon licensed for the Atari VCS, becoming the first "killer app" and quadrupling the console's sales; this helped Atari recover from their earlier losses, in turn the Atari VCS revived the home video game market during the second generation of consoles, up until the North American video game crash of 1983.
The home video game industry was revitalized shortly afterwards by the widespread success of the Nintendo Entertainment System, which marked a shift in the dominance of the video game industry from the United States to Japan during the third generation of consoles. A number of video game developers emerged in Britain in the early 1980s; the term "platform" refers to the specific combination of electronic components or computer hardware which, in conjunction with software, allows a video game to operate. The term "system" is commonly used; the distinctions below are not always clear and there may be games that bridge one or more platforms. In addition to laptop/desktop computers and mobile devices, there are other devices which have the ability to play games but are not video game machines, such as PDAs and graphing calculators. In common use a "PC game" refers to a form of media that involves a player interacting with a personal computer conne