Kim Il-sung was the first leader of North Korea, which he ruled from the country's establishment in 1948 until his death in 1994. He held the posts of Premier from 1948 to 1972 and President from 1972 to 1994, he was the leader of the Workers' Party of Korea from 1949 to 1994. Coming to power after the end of Japanese rule in 1945, he authorized the invasion of South Korea in 1950, triggering an intervention in defense of South Korea by the United Nations led by the United States. Following the military stalemate in the Korean War, a ceasefire was signed on 27 July 1953, he was the third longest-serving non-royal head of state/government in the 20th century, in office for more than 45 years. Under his leadership, North Korea was established as a communist state with a publicly owned and planned economy, it had close economic relations with the Soviet Union. By the 1960s, North Korea enjoyed a standard of living higher than the South, fraught with political instability and economic crises; the situation reversed in the 1970s, as a newly stable South Korea became an economic powerhouse fueled by Japanese and American investment, military aid, internal economic development, while North Korea stagnated and declined in the 1980s.
Differences emerged between North Korea and the Soviet Union, chief among them being Kim Il-sung's philosophy of Juche, which focused on Korean nationalism, self-reliance, socialism. Despite this, the country received funds and aid from the USSR until the dissolution of the USSR in 1991; the resulting loss of economic aid adversely affected the North's economy, causing widespread famine in 1994. During this period, North Korea remained critical of the United States defense force's presence in the region, which it considered imperialism, having seized the American ship USS Pueblo in 1968, part of an infiltration and subversion campaign to reunify the peninsula under North Korea's rule, he outlived Joseph Stalin by four decades and Mao Zedong by two and remained in power during the terms of office of six South Korean Presidents, ten US Presidents, the rule of British monarchs George VI and his daughter Elizabeth II. Known as the Great Leader, he established a personality cult which dominates domestic politics in North Korea.
At the 6th WPK Congress in 1980, his oldest son Kim Jong-il was elected as a Presidium member and chosen as his heir apparent to the supreme leadership. Kim Il-sung's birthday is a public holiday in North Korea called the "Day of the Sun". In 1998, Kim Il-sung was declared "eternal President of the Republic". During his rule, North Korea was molded into a totalitarian state responsible for widespread human rights abuses. Controversy surrounds Kim's life before the founding of North Korea, with some labeling him an impostor. Several sources indicate that the name "Kim Il-sung" had been used by a prominent early leader of the Korean resistance, Kim Kyung-cheon; the Soviet officer Grigory Mekler, who worked with Kim during the Soviet occupation, said that Kim assumed this name from a former commander who had died. However, historian Andrei Lankov has argued. Several witnesses knew Kim before and after his time in the Soviet Union, including his superior, Zhou Baozhong, who dismissed the claim of a "second" Kim in his diaries.
Historian Bruce Cumings pointed out that Japanese officers from the Kwantung Army have attested to his fame as a resistance figure. Historians accept the view that, while Kim's exploits were exaggerated by the personality cult, built around him, he was a significant guerrilla leader, he was born to Kim Kang Pan-sŏk, who gave him the name Kim Sŏng-ju. Kim's family is said to have originated from North Jeolla Province, his great-grandfather, Kim Ung-u, settled in Mangyongdae in 1860. Kim is reported to have been born in the small village of Mangyungbong near Pyongyang on 15 April 1912. According to Kim, his family was not poor, but was always a step away from poverty. Kim said that he was raised in a Presbyterian family, that his maternal grandfather was a Protestant minister, that his father had gone to a missionary school and was an elder in the Presbyterian Church, that his parents were active in the religious community. According to the official version, Kim's family participated in anti-Japanese activities and in 1920 they fled to Manchuria.
Like most Korean families, they resented the Japanese occupation of the Korean peninsula, which began on 29 August 1910. Another view seems to be that his family settled in Manchuria, as many Koreans had at the time, to escape famine. Nonetheless, Kim's parents Kim's mother Kang Ban Suk, played a role in the anti-Japanese struggle, sweeping the peninsula, their exact involvement—whether their cause was missionary, nationalist, or both—is unclear nevertheless. Still, Japanese repression of opposition was brutal, resulting in the arrest and detention of more than 52,000 Korean citizens in 1912 alone; this repression forced many Korean families to settle in Manchuria. In October 1926 Kim founded the Down-with-Imperialism Union. Kim attended Whasung Military Academy in 1926, but finding the academy's training methods outdated, he quit in 1927. From that time, he attended Yuwen Middle School in China's Jilin province up to 1930, where he rejected the feudal traditions of older-generation Koreans and becam
Axel Dörner is a German trumpeter and composer. Dörner studied piano at the Music Academy in Cologne. From 1991 he studied trumpet with Malte Burba, during his studies he collaborated with trumpeter Bruno Light as the Street Fighters Duo; the duo expanded to form the Street Fighters Quartet and the Street Fighters Double Quartet, with members including Matthias Schubert, Bruno Leicht, Claudio Puntin. He formed the Axel Dörner Quartet with Frank Gratkowski, Hans Schneider, Martin Blume, played with saxophonist Matthias Petzold on the albums Lifelines and Psalmen Und Lobgesänge. Dörner has lived in Berlin since 1994 and is an integral part of the Berlin scene of new improvisational and experimental music. Besides playing solo and in his trio TOOT, he has played with artists such as Otomo Yoshihide and in groups such as Die Anreicherung, Ig Henneman Sextet, Ken Vandermark's Territory-Band and the London Jazz Composers' Orchestra. A versatile musician, he is able to work in idiomata such as bebop.
He played on pianist Alexander von Schlippenbach's album Monk's Casino, featuring interpretations of the complete compositions of Thelonious Monk. 2001: Trumpet 2007: Sind Official website of Axel Dörner European Free Improvisation Pages FMP Publications
Acts of Hate is the 2009 album by German melodic death metal band Soul Demise. A promotional clip for the album's opener, "The Tempest", was included to Maximum Metal Vol. 138 by German magazine Metal Hammer, while the album itself features a clip for "Evidence of Spoken Words". It took the band four years to release a follow-up to 2005's applauded album Blind. Acts of Hate is the first album to feature new members Michael Dauscher on bass and Jan Sotiriu on drums. Dominik Winter of Metal Hammer gave the release high points, calling the band "the Swedish Germans in the metal circus" and recognizing Roman Zimmerhackel's vocals; this was backed up by the review in Legacy, laying its attention on the compositions of the "Bavarian Swedes", stating that they stepped out of the shadow of their idols, At the Gates. Other specialist publications were in the same vein. "The Tempest" "Day of Reckoning" "Evidence of Spoken Words" "Six Billion" "Commit Suicide" "Acted Out of Hate" "Time Wasted is Time Lost" "A Reason For Dying" "The Game" "Crows Gown" "Slight Hope" "In Blind Human Hate" "Evidence of Spoken Words" Roman Zimmerhackel – vocals Andreas Schuhmeier – guitars Alex Hagenauer – guitars Michael Dauscher – bass guitar Jan Sotiriu – drums Drums recorded by Stephan Fimemrs at Aexxys-Art Guitars and vocals recorded at Station 24 Studios Engineered and mastered by Christoph Brandes at Iguana-Studios Cover artwork by Killustrations Layout by Karim Daire Bandphoto by Andreas Seitz "The Tempest" video clip on YouTube