Swan Lake, Op. 20, is a ballet composed by Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky in 1875–76. Despite its initial failure, it is now one of the most popular of all ballets; the scenario in two acts, was fashioned from Russian and German folk tales and tells the story of Odette, a princess turned into a swan by an evil sorcerer's curse. The choreographer of the original production was Julius Reisinger; the ballet was premiered by the Bolshoi Ballet on 4 March 1877 at the Bolshoi Theatre in Moscow. Although it is presented in many different versions, most ballet companies base their stagings both choreographically and musically on the 1895 revival of Marius Petipa and Lev Ivanov, first staged for the Imperial Ballet on 15 January 1895, at the Mariinsky Theatre in St. Petersburg. For this revival, Tchaikovsky's score was revised by the St. Petersburg Imperial Theatre's chief conductor and composer Riccardo Drigo. There is no evidence to prove who wrote the original libretto, or where the idea for the plot came from.
Russian and German folk tales have been proposed as possible sources, including "The White Duck" and "The Stolen Veil" by Johann Karl August Musäus, but both those tales differ from the ballet. One theory is that the original choreographer, Julius Reisinger, a Bohemian, created the story. Another theory is that it was written by Vladimir Petrovich Begichev, director of the Moscow Imperial Theatres at the time with Vasily Geltser, Danseur of the Moscow Imperial Bolshoi Theatre. Since the first published libretto does not correspond with Tchaikovsky's music in many places, one theory is that the first published version was written by a journalist after viewing initial rehearsals; some contemporaries of Tchaikovsky recalled the composer taking great interest in the life story of Bavarian King Ludwig II, whose life had been marked by the sign of Swan and could have been the prototype of the dreamer Prince Siegfried. However, Ludwig's death happened 10 years after the first performance of the ballet.
Begichev commissioned the score of Swan Lake from Tchaikovsky in May 1875 for 800 rubles. Tchaikovsky worked with only a basic outline from Julius Reisinger of the requirements for each dance. However, unlike the instructions for the scores of The Sleeping Beauty and The Nutcracker, no written instruction is known to have survived. From around the time of the turn of the 19th century until the beginning of the 1890s, scores for ballets were always written by composers known as "specialists," who were skilled at scoring the light, decorative and rhythmically clear music, at that time in vogue for ballet. Tchaikovsky studied the music of "specialists" such as the Italian Cesare Pugni and the Austrian Ludwig Minkus, before setting to work on Swan Lake. Tchaikovsky had a rather negative opinion of the "specialist" ballet music until he studied it in detail, being impressed by the nearly limitless variety of infectious melodies their scores contained. Tchaikovsky most admired the ballet music of such composers as Léo Delibes, Adolphe Adam, Riccardo Drigo.
He would write to his protégé, the composer Sergei Taneyev, "I listened to the Delibes ballet Sylvia... What charm, what elegance, what wealth of melody and harmony. I was ashamed, for if I had known of this music I would not have written Swan Lake." Tchaikovsky most admired Adam's 1844 score for Giselle, which used the Leitmotif technique: associating certain themes with certain characters or moods, a technique he would use in Swan Lake, The Sleeping Beauty. Tchaikovsky drew on previous compositions for his Swan Lake score. According to two of Tchaikovsky's relatives – his nephew Yuri Lvovich Davydov and his niece Anna Meck-Davydova – the composer had earlier created a little ballet called The Lake of the Swans at their home in 1871; this ballet included the Swan's Theme or Song of the Swans. He made use of material from The Voyevoda, an opera he had abandoned in 1868; the Grand adage from the second scene of Swan Lake was fashioned from an aria from that opera, as was the Valse des fiancées from the third scene.
Another number which included a theme from The Voyevoda was the Entr'acte of the fourth scene. By April 1876 the score was complete, rehearsals began. Soon Reisinger began setting certain numbers aside that he dubbed "undanceable." Reisinger began choreographing dances to other composers' music, but Tchaikovsky protested and his pieces were reinstated. Although the two artists were required to collaborate, each seemed to prefer working as independently of the other as possible. Tchaikovsky's excitement with Swan Lake is evident from the speed with which he composed: commissioned in the spring of 1875, the piece was created within one full year, his letters to Sergei Taneyev from August 1875 indicate, that it was not only his excitement that compelled him to create it so but his wish to finish it as soon as possible, so as to allow him to start on an opera. He created scores of the first three numbers of the ballet the orchestration in the fall and winter, was still struggling with the instrumentation in the spring.
By April 1876, the work was complete. Tchaikovsky's mention of a draft suggests the presence of some sort of abstract but no such draft has been seen. Tchaikovsky wrote various letters to friends expressing his longstanding desire to work with this type of music, his excitement concerning
National Ballet of Canada
One of the top international ballet companies, The National Ballet of Canada was founded in 1951 by Celia Franca. A company of 70 dancers with its own orchestra, the National Ballet has been led by Artistc Director Karen Kain, one of the greatest ballerinas of her generation, since 2005. Renowned for its diverse repertoire, the company performs traditional full-length classics, embraces contemporary work and encourages the creation of new ballets as well as the development of Canadian choreographers; the company’s repertoire includes works by Sir Frederick Ashton, George Balanchine, John Cranko, Rudolf Nureyev, John Neumeier, William Forsythe, James Kudelka, Wayne McGregor, Alexei Ratmansky, Crystal Pite, Christopher Wheeldon, Aszure Barton, Guillaume Côté and Robert Binet. The National Ballet tours in Canada, the US and internationally with appearances in Paris, Moscow and St. Petersburg, New York City, Washington, D. C. Los Angeles, San Francisco. In 1951, the two major ballet companies in Canada were the Royal Winnipeg Ballet headed by Gweneth Lloyd and the Volkoff Canadian Ballet founded by Boris Volkoff, based in Toronto.
With the aim of create a more based Canadian ballet troupe, following the example set by the Sadler's Wells Royal Ballet, a group of Canadian ballet enthusiasts set out to create the National Ballet of Canada. Both Lloyd and Volkoff were interested in being the first artistic director of the company, but the organizers agreed that the only way to ensure an unbiased selection of dancers for the new ballet company was to hire an outsider, they chose British dancer and choreographer Celia Franca, who had many connections within the dance community and had been to Canada only twice at that point, as artistic director. Franca at first showed little interest interested in heading this new company; when she came to Canada in 1951 to attend a festival, the founders again asked her to consider the position. Franca accepted the job and became the first artistic director, while Volkoff was appointed as Resident Choreographer. Conductor George Crum acted as Musical Director. In August 1951 what was The National Ballet Guild of Canada launched its first cross-country audition tour.
By the end of the month, the ballet had chosen 29 dancers for the troupe and was rehearsing for their first performance in the St. Lawrence Hall. For The National Ballet Guild of Canada's early performances, Franca chose classic ballets, as she believed this would allow the dancers to be properly judged by the international dance community; the first performance was in the Eaton Auditorium on November 12, 1951. The program included Les Sylphides and Polovtsian Dances from Prince Igor; the company toured Canada extensively, with Lois Smith and David Adams as its stars. In 1964 the National adopted the 3200-seat O'Keefe Centre in Toronto as its home venue; the company moved in 2006 to new facilities at the Four Seasons Centre for the Performing Arts. In 1976 Alexander Grant, former Principal Dancer with London's Royal Ballet and Artistic Director of Ballet for All, became the Artistic Director of The National. Under his leadership, The National Ballet added a number of works by Frederick Ashton to its repertoire.
The National Ballet of Canada became the first Canadian company to perform at the Royal Opera House, Covent Garden, London in 1979. In 1989 Reid Anderson became the artistic director, he led the company though a difficult economic recession by choreographing traditional ballet pieces while commissioning Canadian and international choreographers to create contemporary pieces. In 1995 he left the company citing a frustration of the continued funding cuts from the government, the directorship was taken up in 1996 by choreographer James Kudelka. In 2005 Karen Kain, former Principal Dancer became Artistic Director of the Company. In 2009 she introduced Innovation – a mixed programme featuring three world premieres by Canadian choreographers Crystal Pite, Sabrina Matthews, Peter Quanz. In 2011, the company premiered a new version of Juliet by Alexei Ratmansky; the National Ballet of Canada remains Canada's largest and most influential dance company. The National Ballet School was founded in 1959 by Celia Franca and Julia Bondy and was directed for many years by co-founder Betty Oliphant.
The primary goal of the school is to train dancers for the National Ballet of Canada and for companies across Canada and around the world. Graduates of the School include Frank Augustyn, Neve Campbell, Anne Ditchburn, Rex Harrington, Karen Kain, James Kudelka, Veronica Tennant, Martine Lamy, John Alleyne, Emmanuel Sandhu, Mavis Staines. Rudolf Nureyev danced with the company in 1965 and returned in 1972 to stage his version of The Sleeping Beauty, his work is credited to raising the standards of the company. He was responsible for bringing the Company to Lincoln Center's Metropolitan Opera House in New York City where he showcased the company; the Ballet met with rave reviews and this was a pivotal point in receiving recognition internationally. Karen Kain and Frank Augustyn, two members of NBC, received the prize for best pas de deux at the International Ballet Competition in Moscow in 1973; the following year, in 1974, while on a tour in Canada, Mikhail Baryshnikov defected and requested political asylum in Toronto and joined the Royal Winnipeg Ballet.
His first televised performance after coming out of temporary seclusion in Canada was with the National Ballet of Canada in a version of La Sylphide. The National Ballet
A ballet dancer is a person who practices the art of classical ballet. Both females and males can practice ballet, they rely on years of extensive training and proper technique to become a part of professional companies. Ballet dancers are at a high risk of injury due to the demanding technique of ballet. Ballet dancers begin training between the ages of 2-4 or 5-7 if they desire to perform professionally. Training does not end, they must attend ballet class six days a week to keep themselves aware. Ballet is a strict form of art, the dancer must be athletic and flexible. Ballet dancers begin their classes at the barre, a wooden beam that runs along the walls of the ballet studio. Dancers use the barre to support themselves during exercises. Barre work is designed to warm up the body and stretch muscles to prepare for center work, where they execute exercises without the barre. Center work in the middle of the room starts out with slower exercises leading up to faster exercises and larger movements.
Ballet dancers finish center work practicing big leaps across the floor, called grande allegro. After center work, females present exercises on pointe, or on their toes, supported by special pointe shoes. Males practice turns, they may practice partner work together. Ballet dancers are susceptible to injury because they are putting strain and stress on their bodies and their feet. A ballet dancer's goal is to make physically demanding choreography appear effortless. Ballet dancers increase their risk of injury. However, many ballet dancers do start on the average age of 6 to 8 years old; the upper body of a ballet dancer is prone to injury because choreography and class exercises requires them to exert energy into contorting their backs and hips. Back bends cause the back to pinch, making the spine vulnerable to injuries such as spasms and pinched nerves. Extending the legs and holding them in the air while turned out causes damage to the hips; such damage includes strains, fatigue fractures, bone density loss.
Injuries are common in ballet dancers because ballet consists of putting the body in unnatural positions. One such position is first position, in which the heels are placed together as the toes point outward, rotating, or "turning out" the legs. If First Position is done incorrectly it can cause knee problems, when done it should increase flexibility and reduce pressure on the knees. Meniscal tears and dislocations can happen at the knees when positioned incorrectly because it is easy to let the knees slide forward while turned out in first position. Ballet dancer's feet are prone to other damage. Landing incorrectly from jumps and working in pointe shoes may increase risk of broken bones and weakened ankles where care and attention is not taken by a conscientious teacher and student. Tendonitis is common in female ballet dancers. Landing from jumps incorrectly may lead to shin splints, in which the muscle separates from the bone. Class time is used to correct any habits. If the ballet dancer is properly trained, the dancer will decrease their risk of injury.
Some ballet dancers turn to stretching or other methods of cross training, like Pilates, non impact cardio, swimming. This, outside cross training, attempts to minimize the risk of bodily damage by increasing strength, exercise diversity, stamina. Injuries are a common occurrence in performances. Most injuries do not show up until in a ballet dancer’s life, after years of continuous strain. Traditional, gender-specific titles are used for ballet dancers. In French, a male ballet dancer is referred to a female as a danseuse. In Italian, a ballerina is a female who holds a principal title within a ballet company. In Italian, the common term for a male dancer is danzatore and a female dancer is a danzatrice; these terms are used in English. Since ballerino is not used in English, it does not enjoy the same connotation as ballerina. A regular male dancer in Italy is called a danzatore, while ballerino denotes a principal male ballet dancer in Italy. In the English speaking world, boys or men who dance classical ballet are referred to as ballet dancers.
"ballerino" is used in English-based countries as slang. As late as the 1950s a ballerina was the principal female dancer of a ballet company, very accomplished in the international world of ballet beyond her own company. Ballerina was a critical accolade bestowed on few female dancers, somewhat similar to the title diva in opera; the male version of this term is danseur noble. Since the 1960s, the term has lost this honorific aspect and is applied to women who are ballet dancers. In the original Italian, the terms ballerino and ballerina do not imply the accomplished and critically acclaimed dancers once meant by the terms ballerina and danseur noble when used in English. Rather, they mean one who dances ballet. Italian terms that do convey an accomplished female ballet dancer are prima ballerina and prima ballerina assoluta (the French word étoile is used in this sense at the Scala ballet company in Milan but h
Eugene is a city in the U. S. state of Oregon. It is at the southern end of the verdant Willamette Valley, near the confluence of the McKenzie and Willamette Rivers, about 50 miles east of the Oregon Coast; as of the 2010 census, Eugene had a population of 156,185. The Eugene-Springfield, Oregon metropolitan statistical area is the 146th largest metropolitan statistical area in the US and the third-largest in the state, behind the Portland Metropolitan Area and the Salem Metropolitan Area; the city's population for 2014 was estimated to be 160,561 by the US Census. Eugene is home to the University of Oregon, Northwest Christian University, Lane Community College; the city is noted for its natural environment, recreational opportunities, focus on the arts. Eugene's official slogan is "A Great City for the Arts and Outdoors", it is referred to as the "Emerald City" and as "Track Town, USA". The Nike corporation had its beginnings in Eugene. In 2021, the city will host the 18th Field World Championships.
The first people to settle in the Eugene area were known as the Kalapuyans written Calapooia or Calapooya. They made "seasonal rounds," moving around the countryside to collect and preserve local foods, including acorns, the bulbs of the wapato and camas plants, berries, they stored these foods in their permanent winter village. When crop activities waned, they returned to their winter villages and took up hunting and trading, they were known as the Chifin Kalapuyans and called the Eugene area where they lived "Chifin", sometimes recorded as "Chafin" or "Chiffin". Other Kalapuyan tribes occupied villages that are now within Eugene city limits. Pee-you or Mohawk Calapooians, Winefelly or Pleasant Hill Calapooians, the Lungtum or Long Tom, they were close-neighbors to the Chifin and were political allies. Some authorities suggest, it is that since the Santiam had an alliance with the Brownsville Kalapuyans that the Santiam influence went as far at Eugene. According to archeological evidence, the ancestors of the Kalapuyans may have been in Eugene for as long as 10,000 years.
In the 1800s their traditional way of life faced significant changes due to devastating epidemics and settlement, first by French fur traders and by an overwhelming number of United States colonists. French fur traders had settled seasonally in the Willamette Valley by the beginning of the 19th century, their settlements were concentrated in the "French Prairie" community in Northern Marion County but may have extended south to the Eugene area. Having developed relationships with Native communities through intermarriage and trade, they negotiated for land from the Kalapuyans. By 1828 to 1830 they and their Native wives began year-round occupation of the land, raising crops and tending animals. In this process, the mixed race families began to impact Native access to land, food supply, traditional materials for trade and religious practices. In July 1830, "intermittent fever" struck the lower Columbia region and a year the Willamette Valley. Natives traced the arrival of the disease new to the Northwest, to the U.
S. ship, captained by John Dominis. "Intermittent fever" is thought by researchers now to be malaria. According to Robert T. Boyd, an anthropologist at Portland State University, the first three years of the epidemic, "probably constitute the single most important epidemiological event in the recorded history of what would become the state of Oregon". In his book The Coming of the Spirit Pestilence Boyd reports there was a 92% population loss for the Kalapuyans between 1830 and 1841; this catastrophic event shattered the social fabric of Kalapuyan society and altered the demographic balance in the Valley. This balance was further altered over the next few years by the arrival of Anglo-American settlers, beginning in 1840 with 13 people and growing each year until within 20 years more than 11,000 US colonists, including Eugene Skinner, had arrived; as the demographic pressure from the colonists grew, the remaining Kalapuyans were forcibly removed to Indian reservations. Though some Natives escaped being swept into the reservation, most were moved to the Grand Ronde reservation in 1856.
Strict racial segregation was enforced and mixed race people, known as Métis in French, had to make a choice between the reservation and Anglo society. Native Americans could not leave the reservation without traveling papers and white people could not enter the reservation. Eugene Franklin Skinner, after whom Eugene is named, arrived in the Willamette Valley in 1846 with 1200 other colonists that year. Advised by the Kalapuyans to build on high ground to avoid flooding, he erected the first Anglo cabin on south or west slope of what the Kalapuyans called Ya-po-ah; the "isolated hill" is now known as Skinner's Butte. The cabin was used as a trading post and was registered as an official post office on January 8, 1850. At this time the settlement was known by Anglos as Skinner's Mudhole, it was relocated in 1853 and named Eugene City in 1853. Formally incorporated as a city in 1862, it was named Eugene in 1889. Skinner ran a ferry service across the Willamette River; the first major educational institution in the area was Columbia College, founded a few years earlier than the University of Oregon.
It fell victim to two major fires in four years, after the second fire, the college decided not to rebuild again. The part of south Eugene known as College Hill was the former location o