Virtual International Authority File
The Virtual International Authority File is an international authority file. It is a joint project of several national libraries and operated by the Online Computer Library Center. Discussion about having a common international authority started in the late 1990s. After a series of failed attempts to come up with a unique common authority file, the new idea was to link existing national authorities; this would present all the benefits of a common file without requiring a large investment of time and expense in the process. The project was initiated by the US Library of Congress, the German National Library and the OCLC on August 6, 2003; the Bibliothèque nationale de France joined the project on October 5, 2007. The project transitioned to being a service of the OCLC on April 4, 2012; the aim is to link the national authority files to a single virtual authority file. In this file, identical records from the different data sets are linked together. A VIAF record receives a standard data number, contains the primary "see" and "see also" records from the original records, refers to the original authority records.
The data are available for research and data exchange and sharing. Reciprocal updating uses the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting protocol; the file numbers are being added to Wikipedia biographical articles and are incorporated into Wikidata. VIAF's clustering algorithm is run every month; as more data are added from participating libraries, clusters of authority records may coalesce or split, leading to some fluctuation in the VIAF identifier of certain authority records. Authority control Faceted Application of Subject Terminology Integrated Authority File International Standard Authority Data Number International Standard Name Identifier Wikipedia's authority control template for articles Official website VIAF at OCLC
Shark Skin Man and Peach Hip Girl
Shark Skin Man and Peach Hip Girl is a 1999 Japanese film directed by Katsuhito Ishii and starring Tadanobu Asano. It is based on a manga of the same name by Minetaro Mochizuki, serialized in Mister Magazine circa 1993 under the title "Daisharin"; the current title was adopted. Kuroo Samehada, a yakuza soldier, is on the run for his life after stealing from his boss Tanuki Fukuda. During a chase through a forest, Tanuki's car is struck by a SUV. Enter Toshiko Momojiri, on the run, she is trying to escape her twisted uncle Michio Sonezaki, who manages the hotel where she works and who has developed a controlling sexual obsession with her. During the crash Toshiko is knocked unconscious, Samehada is able to escape with Toshiko in tow; the couple are chased across Japan by a large cast of gun crazy, deadpan gang members dressed in over-the-top, high-end fashion. They are being followed by Yamada, an amateur hit man, hired by Michio to bring Toshiko back. Tadanobu Asano as Kuroo Samehada Shie Kohinata as Toshiko Momojiri Ittoku Kishibe as Tanuki Fukuda Susumu Terajima as Sawada Kimie Shingyoji as Mitsuko Fukuda Youhachi Shimada as Michio Sonezaki Tatsuya Gashuin as Yamada Shingo Tsurumi as Mitsuru Fukuda Daigaku Sekine as Sakaguchi Koh Takasugi as Sorimachi Shingoro Yamada as Taniguchi Hitoshi Kiyokawa as Maruo Yoji Tanaka as Asahina Keisuke Horibe as Inuzuka Yoshiyuki Morishita as Hidari Kanji Tsuda as Fukazume The film was shown at the 1998 Toronto International Film Festival.
Puchalski, Steve. "Shark Skin Man and Peach Hip Girl: Review and Commentary". Asian Cult Cinema. 28: 37–39. Shark Skin Man and Peach Hip Girl鮫肌男と桃尻女 on IMDb
Eureka (2000 film)
Eureka is a 2000 Japanese drama film directed and written by Shinji Aoyama. It stars Kōji Yakusho, Aoi Miyazaki, Masaru Miyazaki. Eureka is a drama set in rural Kyushu, is entirely shot in sepia tone, it tells the story of the lasting effects of a violent experience on three people, a teenage brother and sister and Kozue Tamura and a bus driver, Makoto Sawai. These three are the sole survivors; the actual violent events which traumatise them are not shown in detail. The extent to which the three have been affected becomes apparent. Naoki and Kozue do not return to school, do not speak and become dissociated from their parents; some time after the hijack, their mother abandons the family. Their father is killed in a car crash, it is not clear. The two children continue to live alone in the family home. Meanwhile, Makoto is finding it impossible to carry on normal life and takes to the road, leaving his estranged wife living in the family home with his elderly father, elder brother, his wife and their daughter.
After some time, Makoto returns home to find. He takes a job as a day-labourer with an old school-friend. Relationships between Makoto and his brother begin to deteriorate and Makoto moves in with Naoki and Kozue, he makes sure they eat properly. Kozue now begins to communicate a little but Naoki remains mute; the detective who dealt with the hijacking begins to harass Makoto about the murder of a woman in the neighbourhood without any evidence. While Makoto is out at work one day, the children's older student cousin Akihiko arrives and states he intends to stay to look after the children, he and Makoto are uneasy with each other but the four people settle down into a kind of family arrangement. A further murder takes this time the victim is a friend of Makoto's, he is arrested and questioned by the detective but is released. He talks to his friend and co-worker about his wish to return to driving and forms a plan to get all of them, Kozue and himself away from their troubles, he buys an old bus which they convert for living accommodation and they all set off on an extended tour of the island.
Kozue becomes more relaxed as they travel around but Naoki appears more disturbed. It becomes clear that it is Naoki, the murderer. Makoto persuades him to give himself up; the remaining three carry on with the journey until Makoto loses his temper with Akihiko's cynical and shallow outlook and throws him off the bus. Makoto and Kozue continue on their journey until,finally, when they reach the peak of the highest mountain in Kyushu, both realise they are able to face ordinary life again; as they reach this understanding the film turns to colour. Kōji Yakusho as Makoto Sawai Aoi Miyazaki as Kozue Tamura Masaru Miyazaki as Naoki Tamura Yoichiro Saito as Akihiko Sayuri Kokushō as Yumiko Ken Mitsuishi as Shigeo Gō Rijū as Busjack Man Yutaka Matsushige as Matsuoka Sansei Shiomi as Yoshiyuki Sawai Kimie Shingyoji as Mother Eihi Shiina as Keiko Kono Machiko Ono as Mikiko Sawai Denden as Yoshida Eureka was shot in black-and-white and printed in color. Jamie Russell of BBC gave the film 4 stars out of 5.
Lisa Schwarzbaum of Entertainment Weekly gave the film a B+ grade. Scott Tobias of The A. V. Club described the film as a "thoughtful, exquisitely controlled, affecting meditation on what it means to be human". Meanwhile, Michael Wilmington of Chicago Tribune said: "The beautiful images of ocean and country have a sweep and grandeur that suggest Wim Wenders' road movies or the Monument Valley westerns of John Ford", it was listed by Cynthia Fuchs of PopMatters as one of the best films of 2001. Eureka won Prize of the Ecumenical Jury at the 2000 Cannes Film Festival. Eureka on IMDb Eureka at the Japanese Movie Database
Japan is an island country in East Asia. Located in the Pacific Ocean, it lies off the eastern coast of the Asian continent and stretches from the Sea of Okhotsk in the north to the East China Sea and the Philippine Sea in the south; the kanji that make up Japan's name mean "sun origin", it is called the "Land of the Rising Sun". Japan is a stratovolcanic archipelago consisting of about 6,852 islands; the four largest are Honshu, Hokkaido and Shikoku, which make up about ninety-seven percent of Japan's land area and are referred to as home islands. The country is divided into 47 prefectures in eight regions, with Hokkaido being the northernmost prefecture and Okinawa being the southernmost one; the population of 127 million is the world's tenth largest. 90.7 % of people live in cities. About 13.8 million people live in the capital of Japan. The Greater Tokyo Area is the most populous metropolitan area in the world with over 38 million people. Archaeological research indicates; the first written mention of Japan is in Chinese history texts from the 1st century AD.
Influence from other regions China, followed by periods of isolation from Western Europe, has characterized Japan's history. From the 12th century until 1868, Japan was ruled by successive feudal military shōguns who ruled in the name of the Emperor. Japan entered into a long period of isolation in the early 17th century, ended in 1853 when a United States fleet pressured Japan to open to the West. After nearly two decades of internal conflict and insurrection, the Imperial Court regained its political power in 1868 through the help of several clans from Chōshū and Satsuma – and the Empire of Japan was established. In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, victories in the First Sino-Japanese War, the Russo-Japanese War and World War I allowed Japan to expand its empire during a period of increasing militarism; the Second Sino-Japanese War of 1937 expanded into part of World War II in 1941, which came to an end in 1945 following the Japanese surrender. Since adopting its revised constitution on May 3, 1947, during the occupation led by SCAP, the sovereign state of Japan has maintained a unitary parliamentary constitutional monarchy with an Emperor and an elected legislature called the National Diet.
Japan is a member of the ASEAN Plus mechanism, UN, the OECD, the G7, the G8, the G20, is considered a great power. Its economy is the world's third-largest by nominal GDP and the fourth-largest by purchasing power parity, it is the world's fourth-largest exporter and fourth-largest importer. Japan benefits from a skilled and educated workforce. Although it has renounced its right to declare war, Japan maintains a modern military with the world's eighth-largest military budget, used for self-defense and peacekeeping roles. Japan is a developed country with a high standard of living and Human Development Index, its population enjoys the highest life expectancy and third lowest infant mortality rate in the world, but is experiencing issues due to an aging population and low birthrate. Japan is renowned for its historical and extensive cinema, influential music industry, video gaming, rich cuisine and its major contributions to science and modern technology; the Japanese word for Japan is 日本, pronounced Nihon or Nippon and means "the origin of the sun".
The character nichi means "sun" or "day". The compound therefore means "origin of the sun" and is the source of the popular Western epithet "Land of the Rising Sun"; the earliest record of the name Nihon appears in the Chinese historical records of the Tang dynasty, the Old Book of Tang. At the end of the seventh century, a delegation from Japan requested that Nihon be used as the name of their country; this name may have its origin in a letter sent in 607 and recorded in the official history of the Sui dynasty. Prince Shōtoku, the Regent of Japan, sent a mission to China with a letter in which he called himself "the Emperor of the Land where the Sun rises"; the message said: "Here, I, the emperor of the country where the sun rises, send a letter to the emperor of the country where the sun sets. How are you". Prior to the adoption of Nihon, other terms such as Yamato and Wakoku were used; the term Wa is a homophone of Wo 倭, used by the Chinese as a designation for the Japanese as early as the third century Three Kingdoms period.
Another form of Wa, Wei in Chinese) was used for an early state in Japan called Nakoku during the Han dynasty. However, the Japanese disliked some connotation of Wa 倭, it was therefore replaced with the substitute character Wa, meaning "togetherness, harmony"; the English word Japan derives from the historical Chinese pronunciation of 日本. The Old Mandarin or early Wu Chinese pronunciation of Japan was recorded by Marco Polo as Cipangu. In modern Shanghainese, a Wu dialect, the pronunciation of characters 日本; the old Malay word for Japan, Japun or Japang, was borrowed from a southern coastal Chinese dialect Fukienese or Ningpo – and this Malay word was encountered by Portuguese traders in Southeast Asia in the 16th century. These Early Portuguese traders brought the word
National Diet Library
The National Diet Library is the national library of Japan and among the largest libraries in the world. It was established in 1948 for the purpose of assisting members of the National Diet of Japan in researching matters of public policy; the library is similar in scope to the United States Library of Congress. The National Diet Library consists of two main facilities in Tōkyō and Kyōtō, several other branch libraries throughout Japan; the National Diet Library is the successor of three separate libraries: the library of the House of Peers, the library of the House of Representatives, both of which were established at the creation of Japan's Imperial Diet in 1890. The Diet's power in prewar Japan was limited, its need for information was "correspondingly small"; the original Diet libraries "never developed either the collections or the services which might have made them vital adjuncts of genuinely responsible legislative activity". Until Japan's defeat, the executive had controlled all political documents, depriving the people and the Diet of access to vital information.
The U. S. occupation forces under General Douglas MacArthur deemed reform of the Diet library system to be an important part of the democratization of Japan after its defeat in World War II. In 1946, each house of the Diet formed its own National Diet Library Standing Committee. Hani Gorō, a Marxist historian, imprisoned during the war for thought crimes and had been elected to the House of Councillors after the war, spearheaded the reform efforts. Hani envisioned the new body as "both a'citadel of popular sovereignty'", the means of realizing a "peaceful revolution"; the Occupation officers responsible for overseeing library reforms reported that, although the Occupation was a catalyst for change, local initiative pre-existed the Occupation, the successful reforms were due to dedicated Japanese like Hani. The National Diet Library opened in June 1948 in the present-day State Guest-House with an initial collection of 100,000 volumes; the first Librarian of the Diet Library was the politician Tokujirō Kanamori.
The philosopher Masakazu Nakai served as the first Vice Librarian. In 1949, the NDL became the only national library in Japan. At this time the collection gained an additional million volumes housed in the former National Library in Ueno. In 1961, the NDL opened at its present location in Nagatachō, adjacent to the National Diet. In 1986, the NDL's Annex was completed to accommodate a combined total of 12 million books and periodicals; the Kansai-kan, which opened in October 2002 in the Kansai Science City, has a collection of 6 million items. In May 2002, the NDL opened a new branch, the International Library of Children's Literature, in the former building of the Imperial Library in Ueno; this branch contains some 400,000 items of children's literature from around the world. Though the NDL's original mandate was to be a research library for the National Diet, the general public is the largest consumer of the library's services. In the fiscal year ending March 2004, for example, the library reported more than 250,000 reference inquiries.
As Japan's national library, the NDL collects copies of all publications published in Japan. Moreover, because the NDL serves as a research library for Diet members, their staffs, the general public, it maintains an extensive collection of materials published in foreign languages on a wide range of topics; the NDL has eight major specialized collections: Modern Political and Constitutional History. The Modern Political and Constitutional History Collection comprises some 300,000 items related to Japan's political and legal modernization in the 19th century, including the original document archives of important Japanese statesmen from the latter half of the 19th century and the early 20th century like Itō Hirobumi, Iwakura Tomomi, Sanjō Sanetomi, Mutsu Munemitsu, Terauchi Masatake, other influential figures from the Meiji and Taishō periods; the NDL has an extensive microform collection of some 30 million pages of documents relating to the Occupation of Japan after World War II. This collection include the documents prepared by General Headquarters and the Supreme Commander of the Allied Powers, the Far Eastern Commission, the United States Strategic Bombing Survey Team.
The Laws and Preliminary Records Collection consists of some 170,000 Japanese and 200,000 foreign-language documents concerning proceedings of the National Diet and the legislatures of some 70 foreign countries, the official gazettes, judicial opinions, international treaties pertaining to some 150 foreign countries. The NDL maintains a collection of some 530,000 books and booklets and 2 million microform titles relating to the sciences; these materials include, among other things, foreign doctoral dissertations in the sciences, the proceedings and reports of academic societies, catalogues of technical standards, etc. The NDL has a collection of 440,000 maps of Japan and other countries, including the topographica
Vodka Collins is a Tokyo-based Japanese-American rock band, formed in 1971. The core band members are drummer Hiroshi Oguchi, singer-guitarist Alan Merrill, singer-guitarist Hiroshi "Monsieur" Kamayatsu and bassist Take Yokouchi. In reunion recordings in the 1990s, Yokouchi was replaced by Masayoshi "Mabo" Kabe on bass guitar. All of the band's released works are original compositions by the lead singer Alan Merrill; the band has made 5 albums, the most well known being the glam rock album "Tokyo - New York" released in 1973 on EMI records. Other album titles are Chemical Reaction, Pink Soup', Boy's Life and Boys In The Band; the band's most valuable contribution territorially was recording and releasing the first single in the glam rock genre in Japanese, 1973's double a-sided single "Sands Of Time"' and'"Automatic Pilot"' on Toshiba Express records. Vodka Collins were the opening act on the Jackson 5's first show in Japan on April 27, 1973 at the Imperial Theater in Tokyo; the show was broadcast live on Fuji Television.
The band's founding member and drummer Hiroshi Oguchi died January 25, 2009. There was a memorial concert for him with all the original band members performing on stage January 25 of 2010 at the Duo Exchange venue in Tokyo with Grico Tomioka taking Oguchi's place on drums; the band's rhythm guitarist, Monsieur Kamayatsu, died on March 1, 2017. Lead singer Alan Merrill did a memorial concert for Kamayatsu with star guests in Tokyo April 2017 at the Duo Music Exchange. Tokyo – New York ( Chemical Reaction Pink Soup Boy's Life Boys In The Band Vodka Collins website Vodka Collins fansite Vodka Collins site Author Julian Cope's Vodka Collins research Keith Cahoon's Nippop webpages