Kevin Vincent Muscat is a former Australian international soccer player and current manager, head coach of Melbourne Victory since 2013. As a player, Muscat earned a reputation for his "hard man" physical style of play. After beginning his professional career in the Australian National Soccer League with Sunshine George Cross in 1989, Muscat played eight seasons in the United Kingdom with Crystal Palace, Wolverhampton Wanderers and Millwall, he returned to Australia in 2005 to captain Melbourne Victory in the inaugural season of the A-league. Muscat retired from professional football in March 2011 after Melbourne Victory's 2011 AFC Champions League campaign, citing his growing frustration at his inability to keep pace with the game. Muscat rejoined his former club Sunshine George Cross for part of the 2011 Victorian State League Division 1 season. During his international career, Muscat represented the Australia U-20 side at the 1991 FIFA World Youth Championship in Portugal and the 1993 FIFA World Youth Championship in Australia.
He represented the Australia U-23 side at the 1996 Summer Olympics. After making his full international debut for Australia in September 1994 against Kuwait, Muscat represented the national side at the 1997 FIFA Confederations Cup, 2000 OFC Nations Cup, 2001 FIFA Confederations Cup and the 2005 FIFA Confederations Cup. After several seasons as assistant coach, Muscat was appointed head coach at Melbourne Victory in October 2013, he has coached Victory to the 2014–15 A-League Premiership, the 2014–15 A-League Championship and success in the 2015 FFA Cup. Born in Crawley, West Sussex, in England from Maltese descent, Muscat began his career as a junior at Australian National Soccer League club Sunshine George Cross, making his first senior appearances for the club in the 1989/90 season, he moved from Sunshine to the Australian Institute of Sport in 1990 and was awarded the Weinstein Medal as the Victorian Junior Player of the year. He continued playing in the NSL for Heidelberg United in the 1991-92 season and spent four seasons with South Melbourne Hellas.
In 1995-96 he was trialled at Sheffield United under manager Dave Bassett but stayed at South Melbourne. By August 1996 Bassett had taken the helm at Crystal Palace and signed Muscat to the south London club for £35,000. Muscat was part of the Palace team that subsequently won promotion to the English Premier League, defeating Sheffield United in the 1997 play-off final at Wembley. Muscat made nine Premier League appearances for Palace before moving to First Division Wolverhampton Wanderers for £200,000 in October 1997. Muscat remained at Wolves for five seasons before moving to Scotland to join Rangers on a free transfer in July 2002, he was part of the Rangers squad which won a treble of domestic trophies in 2002-03. Muscat's final British club was Millwall, for whom he played from 2003 to 2005. In 2004, he captained Millwall to the FA Cup Final for the first time in their history, he missed the final itself after suffering a knee ligament injury in the semi-final against Sunderland, although the Millwall manager Dennis Wise insisted on him being presented with a medal.
He left Millwall to return to Australia to become Melbourne Victory's inaugural captain in the 2005-06 season. Under Victory manager Ernie Merrick, Muscat, a defender for his entire career, moved to midfield for the 2006-07 season, he remained the captain until 2011. In February 2011, Muscat announced his intention to retire from club football after the conclusion of the 2011 Asian Champions League, his decision to finish was fast-tracked by an infamous tackle he committed in a Melbourne derby on 22 January 2011, which resulted in a season-ending eight-week ban from the A-League. Muscat played out his competitive career in the 2011 AFC Champions League under the captaincy of centre-back Adrian Leijer, despite having referred to the competition as "not all that enjoyable". Muscat regained the captaincy for his farewell match in Melbourne, a 1-1 draw against J-League side Gamba Osaka. Muscat scored on his return to Sunshine George Cross in a 3-1 loss to Altona Magic in August 2011. Muscat represented Australia at Under-20 level at the World Youth Cup finals in Portugal in 1991 and Australia in 1993, at Under-23 level at the 1996 Atlanta Olympic Games.
He made his full international debut in September 1994 against Kuwait, went on to make 51 appearances for the national team, including Confederations Cup tournaments in 1997, 2001 and 2005. Muscat captained the national team five times from April 2001 and scored a critical penalty in the 1-0 home leg of Australia's unsuccessful play-off against Uruguay for a place in the finals of the 2002 FIFA World Cup. Muscat was dropped from the squad when coach Guus Hiddink took over in 2005 and played no part in Australia's subsequent qualification for the 2006 World Cup, but was recalled in 2006 by Graham Arnold and captained Australia in its 2-0 Asian Cup qualifier against Kuwait. In 2008, newly appointed coach Pim Verbeek selected Muscat in a squad of 22 A-League based players to prepare for 2010 FIFA World Cup qualifiers, but he did not play in any subsequent fixtures. In 1996, Muscat was sent off in his first season in the UK in a match involving Crystal Palace and Norwich City after body checking Norwich player, Darren Eadie which sparked a 21-man melee where punches were thrown.
Two other players were sent off in the incident. Muscat was branded a "lowlife" and a "nobody" by ex-England striker Ian Wright of Nottingham Forest, in September 1999. Wright claimed he was about to shoot when he heard Dougie Freedman, Forest's other striker, shout "leave it". Wright stepped over the ball to allow Freedman to hit it, but instead Muscat appeare
Melbourne is the capital and most populous city of the Australian state of Victoria, the second most populous city in Australia and Oceania. Its name refers to an urban agglomeration of 9,992.5 km2, comprising a metropolitan area with 31 municipalities, is the common name for its city centre. The city occupies much of the coastline of Port Phillip bay and spreads into the hinterlands towards the Dandenong and Macedon ranges, Mornington Peninsula and Yarra Valley, it has a population of 4.9 million, its inhabitants are referred to as "Melburnians". The city was founded on 30 August 1835, in the then-British colony of New South Wales, by free settlers from the colony of Van Diemen’s Land, it was incorporated as a Crown settlement in 1837 and named in honour of the British Prime Minister, William Lamb, 2nd Viscount Melbourne. In 1851, four years after Queen Victoria declared it a city, Melbourne became the capital of the new colony of Victoria. In the wake of the 1850s Victorian gold rush, the city entered a lengthy boom period that, by the late 1880s, had transformed it into one of the world's largest and wealthiest metropolises.
After the federation of Australia in 1901, it served as interim seat of government of the new nation until Canberra became the permanent capital in 1927. Today, it is a leading financial centre in the Asia-Pacific region and ranks 15th in the Global Financial Centres Index; the city is home to many of the best-known cultural institutions in the nation, such as the Melbourne Cricket Ground, the National Gallery of Victoria and the World Heritage-listed Royal Exhibition Building. It is the birthplace of Australian impressionism, Australian rules football, the Australian film and television industries and Australian contemporary dance. More it has been recognised as a UNESCO City of Literature and a global centre for street art, live music and theatre, it is the host city of annual international events such as the Australian Grand Prix, the Australian Open and the Melbourne Cup, has hosted the 1956 Summer Olympics and the 2006 Commonwealth Games. Due to it rating in entertainment and sport, as well as education, health care and development, the EIU ranks it the second most liveable city in the world.
The main airport serving the city is Melbourne Airport, the second busiest in Australia, Australia's busiest seaport the Port of Melbourne. Its main metropolitan rail terminus is Flinders Street station and its main regional rail and road coach terminus is Southern Cross station, it has the most extensive freeway network in Australia and the largest urban tram network in the world. Indigenous Australians have lived in the Melbourne area for an estimated 31,000 to 40,000 years; when European settlers arrived in the 19th-century, under 2,000 hunter-gatherers from three regional tribes—the Wurundjeri and Wathaurong—inhabited the area. It was an important meeting place for the clans of the Kulin nation alliance and a vital source of food and water; the first British settlement in Victoria part of the penal colony of New South Wales, was established by Colonel David Collins in October 1803, at Sullivan Bay, near present-day Sorrento. The following year, due to a perceived lack of resources, these settlers relocated to Van Diemen's Land and founded the city of Hobart.
It would be 30 years. In May and June 1835, John Batman, a leading member of the Port Phillip Association in Van Diemen's Land, explored the Melbourne area, claimed to have negotiated a purchase of 600,000 acres with eight Wurundjeri elders. Batman selected a site on the northern bank of the Yarra River, declaring that "this will be the place for a village" before returning to Van Diemen's Land. In August 1835, another group of Vandemonian settlers arrived in the area and established a settlement at the site of the current Melbourne Immigration Museum. Batman and his group arrived the following month and the two groups agreed to share the settlement known by the native name of Dootigala. Batman's Treaty with the Aborigines was annulled by Richard Bourke, the Governor of New South Wales, with compensation paid to members of the association. In 1836, Bourke declared the city the administrative capital of the Port Phillip District of New South Wales, commissioned the first plan for its urban layout, the Hoddle Grid, in 1837.
Known as Batmania, the settlement was named Melbourne in 1837 after the British Prime Minister, William Lamb, 2nd Viscount Melbourne, whose seat was Melbourne Hall in the market town of Melbourne, Derbyshire. That year, the settlement's general post office opened with that name. Between 1836 and 1842, Victorian Aboriginal groups were dispossessed of their land by European settlers. By January 1844, there were said to be 675 Aborigines resident in squalid camps in Melbourne; the British Colonial Office appointed five Aboriginal Protectors for the Aborigines of Victoria, in 1839, however their work was nullified by a land policy that favoured squatters who took possession of Aboriginal lands. By 1845, fewer than 240 wealthy Europeans held all the pastoral licences issued in Victoria and became a powerful political and economic force in Victoria for generations to come. Letters patent of Queen Victoria, issued on 25 June 1847, declared Melbourne a city. On 1 July 1851, the Port Phillip District separated from New South Wales to become the Colony of Victoria, with Melbourne as its capital.
The discovery of gold in Victoria in mid-1851 sparked a
In sports broadcasting, a sports commentator gives a running commentary of a game or event in real time during a live broadcast, traditionally delivered in the historical present tense. Radio was the first medium for sports broadcasts, radio commentators must describe all aspects of the action to listeners who cannot see it for themselves. In the case of televised sports coverage, commentators are presented as a voiceover, with images of the contest shown on viewers' screens and sounds of the action and spectators heard in the background. Television commentators are shown on screen during an event, though some networks choose to feature their announcers on camera either before or after the contest or during breaks in the action; the main commentator called the play-by-play announcer or commentator in North America, blow-by-blow in combat sports coverage or lap-by-lap for motorsports coverage, is the primary speaker on the broadcast. Broadcasters in this role are valued for their articulateness and for their ability to describe each play or event of an fast-moving sporting event.
The ideal play-by-play voice has a vocal timbre, tolerable to hear over the multiple hours of a sports broadcast and yet dynamic enough to convey and enhance the importance of the in-game activity. Because of their skills, some commentators like Al Michaels in the U. S. David Coleman in the UK and Bruce McAvaney in Australia, may have careers in which they call several different sports at one time or another. Other main commentators may, only call one sport; the vast majority of play-by-play announcers are male. Radio and television play-by-play techniques involve different approaches, it is unusual to have radio and television broadcasts share the same play-by-play commentator for the same event, except in cases of low production budgets or when a broadcaster is renowned. The analyst or color commentator provides expert analysis and background information, such as statistics, strategy on the teams and athletes, anecdotes or light humor, they are former athletes or coaches in their respective sports, although there are some exceptions.
The term "color" refers to insight provided by analyst. The most common format for a sports broadcast is to have an analyst/color commentator work alongside the main/play-by-play announcer. An example is NBC Sunday Night Football in the United States, called by color commentator Cris Collinsworth, a former American football receiver, play-by-play commentator Al Michaels, a professional announcer. In the United Kingdom, there is a much less distinct division between play-by-play and color commentary, although two-man commentary teams feature an enthusiast with formal journalistic training but little or no competitive experience leading the commentary, an expert former competitor following up with analysis or summary. There are however exceptions to this — most of the United Kingdom's leading cricket and snooker commentators are former professionals in their sports, while the former Formula One racing commentator Murray Walker had no formal journalistic training and only limited racing experience of his own.
In the United States, George "Pat" Summerall, a former professional kicker, spent most of his broadcasting career as a play-by-play announcer. Although the combination of a play-by-play announcer and a color commentator is standard as of 2014, in the past it was much more common for a broadcast to have no analysts and just have a single play-by-play announcer to work alone. Vin Scully, longtime announcer for the Brooklyn/Los Angeles Dodgers baseball team, was one of the few examples of this practice lasting into the 21st century until he retired in 2016. A sideline reporter assists a sports broadcasting crew with sideline coverage of the playing field or court; the sideline reporter makes live updates on injuries and breaking news or conducts player interviews while players are on the field or court because the play-by-play broadcaster and color commentator must remain in their broadcast booth. Sideline reporters are granted inside information about an important update, such as injury, because they have the credentials necessary to do so.
In cases of big events, teams consisting of many sideline reporters are placed strategically so that the main commentator has many sources to turn to. In motorsports, it is typical for there to be multiple pit reporters, covering the event from along pit road, their responsibilities will include covering breaking news trackside, interviewing crew chiefs and other team leaders about strategy, commentating on pit stops from along the pit wall. In British sports broadcasting, the presenter of a sports broadcast is distinct from the commentator, based in a remote broadcast television studio away from the sports venue. In North America, the on-air personality based in the studio is called the studio host. During their shows, the presenter/studio host may be joined by additional analysts or pundits when showing highlights of various other matches. Various sports may have different commentator
The Age is a daily newspaper, published in Melbourne, since 1854. Owned and published by Nine, The Age serves Victoria but is available for purchase in Tasmania, the Australian Capital Territory and border regions of South Australia and southern New South Wales, it is delivered in both hardcopy and online formats. The newspaper shares many articles with other Fairfax Media metropolitan daily newspapers, such as The Sydney Morning Herald; as at February 2017, The Age had an average weekday circulation of 88,000, increasing to 152,000 on Saturdays. The Sunday Age had a circulation of 123,000; these represented year-on-year declines of somewhere from 8% to 9%. The Age's website, according to third-party web analytics providers Alexa and SimilarWeb, is the 44th and 58th most visited website in Australia as of July 2015. SimilarWeb rates the site as the seventh most visited news website in Australia, attracting more than 7 million visitors per month; the Age was founded by three Melbourne businessmen, the brothers John and Henry Cooke, who had arrived from New Zealand in the 1840s, Walter Powell.
The first edition appeared on 17 October 1854. The venture was not a success, in June 1856 the Cookes sold the paper to Ebenezer Syme, a Scottish-born businessman, James McEwan, an ironmonger and founder of McEwans & Co, for 2,000 pounds at auction; the first edition under the new owners was on 17 June 1856. From its foundation the paper was self-consciously liberal in its politics: "aiming at a wide extension of the rights of free citizenship and a full development of representative institutions," and supporting "the removal of all restrictions upon freedom of commerce, freedom of religion and—to the utmost extent, compatible with public morality—upon freedom of personal action."Ebenezer Syme was elected to the Victorian Legislative Assembly shortly after buying The Age, his brother David Syme soon came to dominate the paper and managerially. When Ebenezer died in 1860, David became editor-in-chief, a position he retained until his death in 1908, although a succession of editors did the day-to-day editorial work.
In 1891, Syme bought out Ebenezer's heirs and McEwan's and became sole proprietor. He built up The Age into Victoria's leading newspaper. In circulation, it soon overtook its rivals The Herald and The Argus, by 1890 it was selling 100,000 copies a day, making it one of the world's most successful newspapers. Under Syme's control The Age exercised enormous political power in Victoria, it supported liberal politicians such as Graham Berry, George Higinbotham and George Turner, other leading liberals such as Alfred Deakin and Charles Pearson furthered their careers as The Age journalists. Syme was a free trader, but converted to protectionism through his belief that Victoria needed to develop its manufacturing industries behind tariff barriers. In the 1890s, The Age was a leading supporter of Australian federation and of the White Australia policy. After Syme's death the paper remained in the hands of his three sons, with his eldest son Herbert Syme becoming general manager until his death in 1939.
Syme's will prevented the sale of any equity in the paper during his sons' lifetimes, an arrangement designed to protect family control but which had the effect of starving the paper of investment capital for 40 years. Under the management of Sir Geoffrey Syme, his chosen editors Gottlieb Schuler and Harold Campbell, The Age failed to modernise, lost market share to The Argus and to the tabloid The Sun News-Pictorial, although its classified advertisement sections kept the paper profitable. By the 1940s, the paper's circulation was smaller than it had been in 1900, its political influence declined. Although it remained more liberal than the conservative Argus, it lost much of its distinct political identity; the historian Sybil Nolan writes: "Accounts of The Age in these years suggest that the paper was second-rate, outdated in both its outlook and appearance. Walker described a newspaper which had fallen asleep in the embrace of the Liberal Party, it is criticised not only for its increasing conservatism, but for its failure to keep pace with innovations in layout and editorial technique so demonstrated in papers like The Sun News-Pictorial and The Herald."
In 1942, David Syme's last surviving son, Oswald Syme, took over the paper. He modernised the paper's appearance and standards of news coverage. In 1948, convinced the paper needed outside capital, he persuaded the courts to overturn his father's will and floated David Syme and Co. as a public company, selling 400,000 pounds worth of shares, enabling a badly needed technical modernisation of the newspaper's production. A takeover attempt by the Warwick Fairfax family, publishers of The Sydney Morning Herald, was beaten off; this new lease on life allowed The Age to recover commercially, in 1957 it received a great boost when The Argus ceased publication. Oswald Syme retired in 1964, his grandson Ranald Macdonald became chairman of the company, he was the first chairman to hand over full control of the paper to a professional editor from outside the Syme family. This was Graham Perkin, appointed in 1966, who radically changed the paper's format and shifted its editorial line from the rather conservative liberalism of the Symes to a new "left liberalism" characterised by attention to issues such as race and the environment, opposition to White Australia and the death penalty.
It became more s
Mark Anthony Viduka is an Australian retired footballer who played as a centre forward. He captained the Australia national team to the Round of 16 at the 2006 FIFA World Cup which remains their best performance to date, his four goals in the UEFA Champions League are the most scored by any Australian player. In 1993, Viduka started his professional football career in Australia for Croatian-based club Melbourne Knights and became an Australian international in June of the following year. In his two seasons with the Knights, he was top goal scorer in the National Soccer League and was twice awarded the Johnny Warren Medal for NSL Best Player of the Year in 1993–94 and 1994–95, his time at Melbourne Knights included one NSL title in the 1994–95 season. The grandstand at Knights' Stadium, home of the Knights, was renamed the "Mark Viduka Stand" in his honour and paid for with his transfer money. In 1995, Viduka moved to Croatia to play with Croatia Zagreb, he spent three-and-a-half seasons with the club, helping it to win three doubles in Croatia between 1996 and 1998.
He was part of the Croatia Zagreb team that reached the third round of the UEFA Cup in 1997 and went on to make his UEFA Champions League group stage debut with the club a year later. Celtic bought Viduka in December 1998 for £3.5 million. In the same month as his signing, Celtic announced that Viduka had quit the club without kicking a ball for them, citing stress as his reason. A week Croatia Zagreb complained that it had not received the agreed fee for the player; these issues were resolved and Viduka made his first appearance in a Celtic shirt on 16 February 1999, scoring for the under-21 team as an over-age player in a 4–2 victory against Motherwell. After making his first team debut against Dundee United on 27 February 1999, his first goals for the club came when he scored a brace against Greenock Morton in the Scottish Cup on 8 March 1999, he was voted Scottish Player of the Year for 1999–2000 after scoring 27 goals in his first full season at Celtic Park. He was regarded as a skilled player, with Josip Šimunić noting his ability to hold the ball up well and bring other players into the game.
In February 2000, lower league team Inverness Caledonian Thistle defeated Celtic in a shock upset in the third round of the Scottish Cup. During half time Viduka threw his boots in the bin and refused to play in the second half after an altercation with assistant coach, Eric Black; the match ended 3-1 with Celtic fans in uproar. In March 2000, Viduka assisted Celtic to win Scotland's second most prestigious football knockout competition the 1999-2000 Scottish League Cup, he left after his first full season at the club. Leeds United manager David O'Leary signed Viduka just before the 2000–01 season for £6 million. At Leeds, he was expected to line up in a three-pronged attack alongside the previous season's top scorer Michael Bridges and Australia teammate Harry Kewell, but injuries to those two saw him form a partnership with Alan Smith in Leeds' Champions League matches, while Robbie Keane – signed on loan from Inter Milan as cover for Bridges – benefited in their Premier League matches together in the second half of the season.
In his first season, Viduka scored 22 goals, including all four in a memorable 4–3 win over Liverpool at Elland Road. He signed a five-year deal in the summer of 2001 and would star in both domestic competitions and Europe, with Leeds finishing in the country's top four in 2000–01, fifth in 2001–02. In the 2002–03 campaign, Viduka scored another 22 goals, including a hat-trick in a 6–1 win at Charlton Athletic and the winner in a 3–2 victory at Arsenal on the penultimate day of the season that saved United from relegation, his hat-trick in the Charlton game is the most recent hat-trick to date by a Leeds United player in the Premier League. However, the club's financial crisis continued, resulted in the sale of key players including Harry Kewell and Robbie Keane. In the 2003–04 season, Viduka was again top scorer at Leeds, finishing the season as was the case in the previous season, as interim manager Eddie Gray attempted to steer the club away from the Premier League trap door following the departure of Peter Reid in November after eight months as manager.
However, during his final appearance in the jersey, Leeds were relegated in a 4–1 loss to Bolton Wanderers at Reebok Stadium. After scoring a penalty, Viduka was sent off following two yellow cards, he was sold to Middlesbrough in the summer of 2004. Viduka's debut season at Middlesbrough was impressive, albeit frustrated by injuries. In the 2005–06 season, Viduka was in sensational form in all competitions for Middlesbrough, reaching double figures early on in the season, he played an important part in spearheading Middlesbrough's campaign in the 2005–06 UEFA Cup where the club twice had to score four goals in a game to proceed. Middlesbrough lost in the final to Sevilla on 10 May 2006. With his contract due to expire at the end of the 2006–07 season, Middlesbrough manager Gareth Southgate expressed his interest in retaining Viduka. In August 2006, he was awarded the number 9 shirt at Middlesbrough, his preferred number at all his previous clubs. Following another successful season in which he scored 19 goals, Viduka attracted interest from other clubs who were hoping to sign him on a free transfer as he became out-of-contract.
Southgate reiterated his wish to retain Viduka's services and revealed he would offer him a new contract. Viduka joined north-east rivals Newcastle United on a free transfer on 7 June 2007. In signing for Newcastle, Viduka became manager Sam Allardyce's first
Association football, more known as football or soccer, is a team sport played with a spherical ball between two teams of eleven players. It is played by 250 million players in over 200 countries and dependencies, making it the world's most popular sport; the game is played on a rectangular field called a pitch with a goal at each end. The object of the game is to score by moving the ball beyond the goal line into the opposing goal. Association football is one of a family of football codes, which emerged from various ball games played worldwide since antiquity; the modern game traces its origins to 1863 when the Laws of the Game were codified in England by The Football Association. Players are not allowed to touch the ball with hands or arms while it is in play, except for the goalkeepers within the penalty area. Other players use their feet to strike or pass the ball, but may use any other part of their body except the hands and the arms; the team that scores most goals by the end of the match wins.
If the score is level at the end of the game, either a draw is declared or the game goes into extra time or a penalty shootout depending on the format of the competition. Association football is governed internationally by the International Federation of Association Football, which organises World Cups for both men and women every four years; the rules of association football were codified in England by the Football Association in 1863 and the name association football was coined to distinguish the game from the other forms of football played at the time rugby football. The first written "reference to the inflated ball used in the game" was in the mid-14th century: "Þe heued fro þe body went, Als it were a foteballe"; the Online Etymology Dictionary states that the "rules of the game" were made in 1848, before the "split off in 1863". The term soccer comes from a slang or jocular abbreviation of the word "association", with the suffix "-er" appended to it; the word soccer was first recorded in 1889 in the earlier form of socca.
Within the English-speaking world, association football is now called "football" in the United Kingdom and "soccer" in Canada and the United States. People in countries where other codes of football are prevalent may use either term, although national associations in Australia and New Zealand now use "football" for the formal name. According to FIFA, the Chinese competitive game cuju is the earliest form of football for which there is evidence. Cuju players could use any part of the body apart from hands and the intent was kicking a ball through an opening into a net, it was remarkably similar to modern football. During the Han Dynasty, cuju games were standardised and rules were established. Phaininda and episkyros were Greek ball games. An image of an episkyros player depicted in low relief on a vase at the National Archaeological Museum of Athens appears on the UEFA European Championship Cup. Athenaeus, writing in 228 AD, referenced the Roman ball game harpastum. Phaininda and harpastum were played involving hands and violence.
They all appear to have resembled rugby football and volleyball more than what is recognizable as modern football. As with pre-codified "mob football", the antecedent of all modern football codes, these three games involved more handling the ball than kicking. Other games included kemari in chuk-guk in Korea. Association football in itself does not have a classical history. Notwithstanding any similarities to other ball games played around the world FIFA has recognised that no historical connection exists with any game played in antiquity outside Europe; the modern rules of association football are based on the mid-19th century efforts to standardise the varying forms of football played in the public schools of England. The history of football in England dates back to at least the eighth century AD; the Cambridge Rules, first drawn up at Cambridge University in 1848, were influential in the development of subsequent codes, including association football. The Cambridge Rules were written at Trinity College, Cambridge, at a meeting attended by representatives from Eton, Rugby and Shrewsbury schools.
They were not universally adopted. During the 1850s, many clubs unconnected to schools or universities were formed throughout the English-speaking world, to play various forms of football; some came up with their own distinct codes of rules, most notably the Sheffield Football Club, formed by former public school pupils in 1857, which led to formation of a Sheffield FA in 1867. In 1862, John Charles Thring of Uppingham School devised an influential set of rules; these ongoing efforts contributed to the formation of The Football Association in 1863, which first met on the morning of 26 October 1863 at the Freemasons' Tavern in Great Queen Street, London. The only school to be represented on this occasion was Charterhouse; the Freemason's Tavern was the setting for five more meetings between October and December, which produced the first comprehensive set of rules. At the final meeting, the first FA treasurer, the representative from Blackheath, withdrew his club from the FA over the removal of two draft rules at the previous meeting: the first allowed for running with the ball in hand.
Other English rugby clubs followed this lead and did not join the FA and instead in 1871 formed the Rugby Football Union. The eleven remaining clubs, under
Football Victoria, known until 19 June 2018 as Football Federation Victoria, is the state governing body for association football in Victoria, Australia. It is affiliated with the sport's national governing body. Football Victoria began operation in 1884 under the name Anglo Australian Football Association of Victoria and is one of the oldest sporting associations in Victoria, it has had several name changes over the years, but has survived as the governing body of football in Victoria since this time. The Football Association, the predecessor of Football Federation Australia, was formed in 1923; the federation conducted its first competition in 1909 with Carlton United becoming the inaugural First Division champions. The name of the competition was changed to the State League in 1958 and became the Victorian Premier League in 1990. In 1992 and 1993, wheelchair soccer was conceived when a "come'n' try" was conducted with the support of Leisure Action, a division of the Spastic Society. A pilot season resulted in the northwest region, the success of which lead LA to source funding and development partners.
Early in 1995 the FFV agreed to become the auspicing body for the future development of wheelchair soccer in Victoria and in 2000 signed an agreement to that effect. In 1996 the board of management of the FFV initiated a major organisational review and obtained independent advice on the existing management structure and the organisational arrangements required to make the administration of soccer more effective; the review resulted in the formation of an independent commission, replacing the board, elected in December 1996. To provide for the future development of women's soccer, in 1999 the FFV and Women's Soccer Victoria combined and established an integrated structure to provide professional administrative services and infrastructure to all female participants in soccer; this resulted in a women's soccer competition for junior and senior teams starting in 1999 and other initiatives aimed at grass roots and elite player development. In 2005 it changed its name from Victorian Soccer Federation to Football Federation Victoria.
In 2009, player registrations for soccer in Victoria passed 50,000, the highest number in the federation's history. As part of its strategy to become a more "customer focussed" organisation, in November 2009 the head office of Football Federation Victoria moved from its location at the Darebin International Sports Centre in Thornbury in Melbourne's northern suburbs to its new and more centrally located headquarters at Level 3, 436 St Kilda Road, Melbourne. In 2018, the federation was renamed from "Football Federation Victoria" to "Football Victoria". Football Federation Victoria oversees all aspects of the sport within the state, however there are twelve regional associations that manage local leagues and competitions in their areas. Albury Wodonga Football Association Ballarat & District Soccer Association Bendigo Amateur Soccer League Cobram Junior Soccer Association Football Federation Victoria Geelong Region Gippsland Soccer League Latrobe Valley Soccer League Moama-Echuca Soccer Association Shepparton Junior Soccer Association Football Federation Victoria Sunraysia Swan Hill Soccer League South West Victorian Football Association For the full soccer pyramid in Australia, see Australian soccer league system.
The soccer pyramid in Victoria comprises the seven levels of soccer in Victoria below the A-League. It has a hierarchical format that features relegation between all levels. All clubs in the system are eligible for entry to the FFA Cup, are seeded in accordance to tier standing. For the 2013 season, Football Federation Victoria announced a restructure of the league. Tiers 5, 6 and 7, which were known as Provisional League 1, 2 and 3 were removed, as was the Metropolitan League, they were replaced by State League 4 and 5, divided geographically into North, East and West divisions, thus making State League 5 the lowest division in which are club can theoretically be promoted into the VPL. The Victorian Premier League and State League 1 to 3 remained the same. 2013 will see the inaugural State League Champions series take place in Victoria. The champion of each league from State League 1 and below will play a finals series against the champions of other regions in their division as follows: State League 1 North-West v South-East State League 2 North-West vs South-East State League 3 North-West vs South-East State League 4 North vs West & South vs East, with winners meeting in a final State League 5 North vs West & South vs East, with winners meeting in a finalVarious regional leagues that are affiliated with the FFV, although they are not connected to the Victorian soccer pyramid and thus there is no promotion or relegation between them.
These leagues include Bayside FA Premier, Gippsland Soccer League, North Eastern Soccer League, Bendigo Amateur Soccer League, Ballarat & District Soccer Association, Geelong Regional Football Association and South West Victorian Football Association, as well as various junior leagues. Football Federation Victoria Official website