Kin selection is the evolutionary strategy that favours the reproductive success of an organisms relatives, even at a cost to the organisms own survival and reproduction. Kin altruism is altruistic behaviour whose evolution is driven by kin selection, kin selection is an instance of inclusive fitness, which combines the number of offspring produced with the number an individual can ensure the production of by supporting others, such as siblings. R. A. Fisher in 1930 and J. B. S, Haldane in 1932 set out the mathematics of kin selection, with Haldane famously joking that he would willingly die for two brothers or eight cousins. In 1964, W. D. Hamilton popularised the concept, in the same year John Maynard Smith used the actual term kin selection for the first time. The rule is difficult to test but studies of red squirrels appear to confirm it, Hamilton proposed two mechanisms for kin selection. First, kin recognition allows individuals to be able to identify their relatives, second, in viscous populations, populations in which the movement of organisms from their place of birth is relatively slow, local interactions tend to be to be among relatives by default. The viscous population mechanism makes kin selection and social cooperation possible in the absence of kin recognition, in this case, nurture kinship, the treatment of individuals as kin as a result of living together, is sufficient for kin selection, given reasonable assumptions about population dispersal rates. Note that kin selection is not the thing as group selection. In humans, altruism is more likely and on a larger scale with kin than with unrelated individuals, for example. In other species, vervet monkeys use allomothering, where related females such as older sisters or grandmothers often care for young, according to their relatedness, the social shrimp Synalpheus regalis protects juveniles within highly related colonies. Charles Darwin was the first to discuss the concept of kin selection, breeders of cattle wish the flesh and fat to be well marbled together. An animal thus characterised has been slaughtered, but the breeder has gone with confidence to the stock and has succeeded. In this passage the family and stock stand for a kin group and these passages and others by Darwin about kin selection are highlighted in D. J. Futuymas textbook of reference Evolutionary Biology and in E. O. Wilsons Sociobiology, the earliest mathematically formal treatments of kin selection were by R. A. Fisher in 1930 and J. B. S. Haldane fully grasped the basic quantities and considerations in kin selection, but Haldane also joked that he would truly die only to save more than a single identical twin of his or more than two full siblings. If the childs your own child or your brother or sister, there is a chance that this child will also have this gene. If you save a grandchild or a nephew, the advantage is only two and a half to one, if you only save a first cousin, the effect is very slight. If you try to save your first cousin once removed the population is likely to lose this valuable gene than to gain it
The co-operative behaviour of social insects like the honey bee can be explained by kin selection.
Kin recognition: theory predicts that bearers of a trait (like the fictitious 'green beard') will behave altruistically towards others with the same trait.
Families are important in human behaviour, but kin selection may be based on closeness and other cues.