The Asuka period was a period in the history of Japan lasting from 538 to 710, although its beginning could be said to overlap with the preceding Kofun period. The Yamato polity evolved during the Asuka period, named after the Asuka region, about 25 km south of the modern city of Nara; the Asuka period is characterized by its significant artistic and political transformations, having their origins in the late Kofun period but affected by the arrival of Buddhism from China. The introduction of Buddhism marked a change in Japanese society; the Asuka period is distinguished by the change in the name of the country from Wa to Nihon. The term "Asuka period" was first used to describe a period in the history of Japanese fine-arts and architecture, it was proposed by fine-arts scholars Sekino Tadasu and Okakura Kakuzō around 1900. Sekino dated the Asuka period as ending with the Taika Reform of 646. Okakura, saw it as ending with the transfer of the capital to the Heijō Palace of Nara. Although historians use Okakura's dating, many historians of art and architecture prefer Sekino's dating and use the term "Hakuhō period" to refer to the successive period.
The Yamato polity was distinguished by powerful great clans or extended families, including their dependents. Each clan was headed by a patriarch who performed sacred rites for the clan's kami to ensure the long-term welfare of the clan. Clan members were the High Nobility, the Imperial line that controlled the Yamato polity was at its pinnacle; the Asuka period, as a sub-division of the Yamato period, is the first time in Japanese history when the Emperor of Japan ruled uncontested from modern-day Nara Prefecture known as Yamato Province. The Yamato polity was concentrated in the Asuka region and exercised power over clans in Kyūshū and Honshū, bestowing titles, some hereditary, on clan chieftains; the Yamato name became synonymous with all of Japan as the Yamato rulers suppressed other clans and acquired agricultural lands. Based on Chinese models, they developed a central administration and an imperial court attended by subordinate clan chieftains but with no permanent capital. By the mid-seventh century, the agricultural lands had grown to a substantial public domain, subject to central policy.
The basic administrative unit of the Gokishichidō system was the county, society was organized into occupation groups. Most people were farmers; the Soga clan intermarried with the imperial family, by 587 Soga no Umako, the Soga chieftain, was powerful enough to install his nephew as emperor and to assassinate him and replace him with the Empress Suiko. Suiko, the first of eight sovereign empresses, is sometimes considered a mere figurehead for Umako and Prince Regent Shōtoku Taishi; however she wielded power in her own right, the role of Shōtoku Taishi is exaggerated to the point of legend. Shōtoku, recognized as a great intellectual of this period of reform, was a devout Buddhist and was well-read in Chinese literature, he was influenced by Confucian principles, including the Mandate of Heaven, which suggested that the sovereign ruled at the will of a supreme force. Under Shōtoku's direction, Confucian models of rank and etiquette were adopted, his Seventeen-article constitution prescribed ways to bring harmony to a chaotic society in Confucian terms.
In addition, Shōtoku adopted the Chinese calendar, developed a system of trade roads, built numerous Buddhist temples, had court chronicles compiled, sent students to China to study Buddhism and Confucianism, sent Ono no Imoko to China as an emissary. Six official missions of envoys and students were sent to China in the seventh century; some remained twenty years or more. The sending of such scholars to learn Chinese political systems showed significant change from envoys in the Kofun period, in which the five kings of Wa sent envoys for the approval of their domains. In a move resented by the Chinese, Shōtoku sought equality with the Chinese emperor by sending official correspondence, addressed, "From the Son of Heaven in the Land of the Rising Sun to the Son of Heaven of the Land of the Setting Sun." Some would argue that Shōtoku's bold step set a precedent: Japan never again accepted a "subordinate" status in its relations with China, except for Ashikaga Yoshimitsu, who accepted such a relationship with China in the 15th century.
As a result, Japan in this period received no title from Chinese dynasties, while they did send tribute. From the Chinese point of view, the class or position of Japan was demoted from previous centuries in which the kings received titles. On the other hand, Japan loosened its political relationships with China and established extraordinary cultural and intellectual relationships. About twenty years after the deaths of Shōtoku Taishi, Soga no Umako, Empress Suiko, court intrigues over succession led to a palace coup in 645 against the Soga clan's monopolized control of the government; the revolt was led by Prince Naka no Ōe and Nakatomi no Kamatari, who seized control of the court from the Soga family and introduced the Taika Reform. The Japanese era corresponding to the years 645–649 was thus named Taika, referring to the Reform, meaning "great change"; the revolt leading to the Taika Reform is called the Isshi Incident, referring to the Chinese zodiac year in which the coup took place
Hida Province was a province of Japan in the area, today the northern portion of Gifu Prefecture in the Chūbu region of Japan. Hida bordered on Echizen, Shinano, Etchū, Kaga Provinces, it was part of Tōsandō Circuit. Its abbreviated form name was Hishū. Under the Engishiki classification system, Hida was ranked as a "inferior country" and a middle country in terms of its importance and distance from the capital; the entire area of the former Hida Province consists of the cities of Hida and most of the city of Gero, the village of Shirakawa, in Ōno District. "Hida" indicates the west side of the Hida Mountains. The climate similar to that of the provinces of the Sea of Japan, with heavy snow in winter. Hida traditionally had strong economic and cultural ties with the neighboring Etchū Province due to the ease of transportation and poor connections to the Pacific coast, from which it was blocked by mountain ranges and poor transportation; the region was written as "Yota" or "Wita". This notation stil is present and it can be seen in titles such as "Yuta High School" etc.
Hida existed as a political entity before the Ritsuryō system and the implementation of the Taihō Code of the Nara period. Ancient Hida was governed by a Kuni no miyatsuko, but the area was so depopulated, a tax exception was granted. By the Nara period, the area was so noted for its carpentry that the official court position of Hida-no-takumi consisting of two craftsmen from Hida Province was established; the ruins of the provincial capital of the province have been located in "Kokufu-cho" of the city of Takayama, the provincial temple, Hida Kokubun-ji is located in the city, as is the province's ichinomiya, the Minashi Shrine. During the Heian and Kamakura period, Hida's extensive forests was a major source of timber and metals for other provinces. River traffic from Hida down to Owari Province was heavy. By the Muromachi period, the Kyōgoku clan held the position of shugo for many generations; the Ikkō-ikki movement from neighbouring Kaga and Etchū Provinces added to the instability. During the Sengoku period, the Miki clan changed its name to Anenokōji and temporarily unified Hida area.
After the Honnō-ji Incident, Kanamori Nagachika, one of Oda Nobunaga's and Toyotomi Hideyoshi's generals, was sent to occupy Hida Province and became its daimyō. He built Takayama Castle and fought on the side of Tokugawa Ieyasu at the Battle of Sekigahara; as a result, he was reconfirmed as daimyō of Takayama Domain under the Tokugawa shogunate with a kokudaka of 38,000 koku. His heirs ruled Takayama for six generations, until Kanamori Yoritoki was transferred to Kaminoyama Domain in Dewa Province in 1692. From 1692 until the end of the Edo period, Hida Province was tenryō territory ruled directly by the Tokugawa shogunate; the official in charge of Hida was the Hida Gundai. This was a daikon-level position located at a daikansho built on the site of the shimoyashiki of Takayama Castle and was held by 11 men from 1692-1765; the daikansho was elevated to that of a jin'ya and the final 14 holders of the office were styled Gundai rather than Daikan. The Takayama jin'ya has the distinction of being the only jin'ya on tenyrō territory.
The area under its control consisted of 414 villages with a total kokudaka of 57,182 koku. Following the Meiji Restoration and the abolition of the han system in 1871, the post of Hida Gundai was abolished; the area was divided into three districts and was renamed "Hida Prefecture" on July 12, 1868. Ten days it was renamed "Takayama Prefecture" and on December 31, 1871 became "Chikuma Prefecture". On August 21, 1876, Chikuma was merged with the former Mino Province to become Gifu Prefecture. In this era the Hida region became a centre for the nationally important silk-making industry, leading to many women to travel there from the surrounding regions for work. Gifu Prefecture Mashita District - dissolved Ōno District Yoshiki District - dissolved Nussbaum, Louis-Frédéric and Käthe Roth.. Japan encyclopedia. Cambridge: Harvard University Press. ISBN 978-0-674-01753-5. Historical and Geographic Dictionary of Japan. Tokyo: Librarie Sansaisha. OCLC 77691250 Media related to Hida Province at Wikimedia Commons Murdoch's map of provinces, 1903
Shima Province was a province of Japan which consisted of a peninsula in the southeastern part of modern Mie Prefecture. Its abbreviated name was Shishū. Shima bordered on Ise Province to the west, on Ise Bay on the north and south. Shima is classified as one of the provinces of the Tōkaidō, was the smallest of all provinces. Under the Engishiki classification system, Shima was ranked as a "inferior country" and a "near country", in terms of its distance from the capital. Shima was an autonomous district of Ise Province, noted as a prosperous fishing region, during the Nara period governors of the district were responsible for providing annual gifts of fish and abalone to the Emperor, it was separated from Ise Province during early 8th centuries. During the Asuka period and Nara period it was dominated by the Takahashi clan; as the arable land area of Shima Province was small, portions of the rice lands of Ise Province, as well as Mikawa Province and Owari Province were considered as part of the taxable revenues of Shima Province for the purpose of upkeep of its provincial capital and temples.
The exact location of the provincial capital is not known, but is traditionally believed to have been in Ago part of the city of Shima where the ruins of the Kokubun-ji of Shima Province have been discovered. The Ichinomiya of the province is the Izawa-no-miya, one of the subsidiary shrines within the Ise Grand Shrine complex. During the Kamakura period Shima came under the control of Hōjō clan, followed by the Kitabatake clan for much of the Muromachi period, although the Kuki clan pirates in Ise Bay based at Toba Castle dominated much of the coastal areas by the end of the Sengoku period. Ohama Kagetaka was a pirate operating in the Ise Bay area of Shima Province during the 16th century. With the establishment of the Tokugawa shogunate, Kuki Moritaka was confirmed as daimyō of Toba with revenues of 35,000 koku, growing to 55,000 koku under his son Kuki Hisataka, transferred to Sanda Domain in Settsu Province; the Kuki were replaced by the tozama Naitō clan, which ruled Toba to 1680. The domain reverted to tenryō status under the direct control of the Shogunate for one year.
It came under the control of the Doi clan, Ogyu-Matsudaira clan, Itakura clan, Toda-Matsudaira clan before coming under the Inagaki clan, where it remained until the Meiji Restoration. During the Boshin War, Inagaki Nagayuki remained loyal to the Shogunate, as a result was fined by the Meiji government and forced into retirement, his son, Inagaki Nagahiro became domain governor, after the abolition of the han system in July 1871, Toba Domain became "Toba Prefecture", which merged with the short lived "Watarai Prefecture" of former Ise Province in November 1871, which became part of Mie Prefecture. Mie Prefecture Ago District - merged with Tōshi District to become Shima District on March 29, 1896 Tōshi District - merged with Ago District to become Shima District on March 29, 1896 Nussbaum, Louis-Frédéric and Käthe Roth.. Japan encyclopedia. Cambridge: Harvard University Press. ISBN 978-0-674-01753-5. Historical and Geographic Dictionary of Japan. Tokyo: Librarie Sansaisha. OCLC 77691250 Media related to Shima Province at Wikimedia Commons Murdoch's map of provinces, 1903
Heian-kyō was one of several former names for the city now known as Kyoto. It was the official capital of Japan for over one thousand years, from 794 to 1868 with an interruption in 1180. Emperor Kanmu established it as the capital in 794, moving the Imperial Court there from nearby Nagaoka-kyō at the recommendation of his advisor Wake no Kiyomaro and marking the beginning of the Heian period of Japanese history; the city was modelled after the Tang dynasty Chinese capital of Chang'an. It remained the chief political center until 1185, when the samurai Minamoto clan defeated the Taira clan in the Genpei War, moving administration of national affairs to Kamakura and establishing the Kamakura shogunate. Though political power would be wielded by the samurai class over the course of three different shogunates, Heian remained the site of the Imperial Court and seat of Imperial power, thus remained the official capital. In fact after the seat of Imperial power was moved to Tokyo in 1868, since there is no law which makes Tokyo the capital, there is a view that Kyoto or remains the capital today.
In 1994, Kyoto City held various events commemorating the 1200th anniversary. Heian-kyō was built in what is now the central part of Kyoto city covering an area spanning the Kadono and Otagi Districts of Yamashiro Province; the city boundaries formed a rectangle measuring 4.5 km from east to west and 5.2 km from north to south. The city layout followed Heijō-kyō with the Imperial palace, placed in the centre of the northern city limits and the Suzaku Avenue, the main thoroughfare extending from the palace down through the centre of the city, dividing it into the Right and Left Capitals The design followed Sui and Tang dynasty Changan with the exception that Heian-kyō had no city walls, it is thought that the site for the city was selected according to the principles of Shijinsōō based on Chinese Feng shui and relating to the Four Symbols of Chinese astrology. The boundaries of Heian-kyō were smaller than those of modern Kyoto, with Ichijō-ōji at the northern limit corresponding to present-day Ichijō-dōri, between Imadegawa-dōri and Marutamachi-dōri, Kyūjō-ōji in the south corresponding to Kujō-dōri to the south of the present-day JR Kyōto Station and Higashi-kyōgoku-ōji in the east corresponding to present-day Teramachi Street.
The location of Nishi-kyōgoku-ōji at the western limit is estimated as a line running north to south from Hanazono Station on the JR San'in Main Line to Nishi-Kyōgoku Station on the Hankyu Kyoto Line. The layout of Heian-kyō was plotted in accordance with the principles of geomancy as a square city. Jō was the basic unit of measurement. 40 sq. jō made a chō. The city was further divided by major streets called ōji and minor streets called koji. Four lines of chō running east to west were together called a jō and four lines of chō running from north to south were called a bō The Cho which shared the same Jo and Bo were each given a number from 1 to 16. In this way addresses could be identified as follows: "Right Capital, Jō Five, Bō Two, Chō Fourteen"; the width of the minor streets was 4 Jō and for the major streets over 8 Jō. All of the streets in present-day Kyoto have become narrower. Suzaku-ōji for example was 28 Jō wide. In addition a river ran alongside Nishi Horikawa-koji. In 784 AD emperor Kammu constructed Nagaoka-kyō, moving the capital from Heijō-kyō.
It is thought that he wished to build a new, Emperor Tenji faction capital far from Yamato Province, the power base for the temples and aristocrats who supported the Emperor Tenmu faction. However, only 9 years in January 793 AD, Emperor Kammu assembled his retainers and announced another relocation of the capital The location for the new capital was to be Kadono located between two rivers in the north of Yamashiro, ten kilometres to the northeast of Nagaoka-kyō, it is said that the Emperor Kammu had looked out on Kadono from the Shōgun Tsuka in Higashiyama Ward of Kyoto City, deciding that it was a suitable location for the capital. Emperor Kammu's words are recorded in the Nihon Kiryaku as follows: "Kadono has beautiful mountains and rivers as well as good transport links by sea and land making it convenient for people to assemble there from all four corners of the country." It is thought that the construction of Heian-kyō began from the palace, with the construction of the remainder of the city following afterwards.
As a display of the emperor's authority the Daigokuden was constructed at the far north of the central thoroughfare, Suzaku-oji, making the building visible from anywhere in the city. Ports such as Yodonotsu and Ōitsu were set up along the river next to the city; these ports acted as a transit base for collecting in goods from all over the country and for forwarding them on to the city. The goods which arrived in Heian-kyō reached the people by way of one of the two large markets This arrangement provided a stable supply of food and goods which encouraged population growth. Measures were taken to guard against the flooding which had plagued the residents of Nagaoka-kyō. Although there was no natural river in th
Izu Province was a province of Japan in the area of Shizuoka Prefecture. Izu bordered on Suruga Provinces, its abbreviated form name was Zushū. The mainland portion of Izu Province, comprising the Izu Peninsula, is today the eastern portion of Shizuoka Prefecture and the Izu Islands are now part of Tokyo. In 680 A. D. two districts of Suruga Province, Tagata District and Kamo District, were separated into the new Izu Province. At some point between the year 701 and 710, Naka District was added; the capital of the new province was established at Mishima, which had the Kokubun-ji and the Ichinomiya of the province. Under the Engishiki classification system, Izu was ranked as a "lesser country". Under the ritsuryō legal system, Izu was one of the preferred locations for exile for those convicted of political crimes by the Heian period court. In the Kamakura period, Izu was ruled by the Hōjō clan. During the Muromachi period, Izu was ruled nominally by the Uesugi clan due to their position as Kantō Kanrei.
By the Sengoku period, this was the Later Hōjō clan based in Odawara. After the Battle of Odawara, Toyotomi Hideyoshi changed the fief of Tokugawa Ieyasu from his domains in the Tōkai region for the Kantō region instead, Izu was one of the provinces that came under Tokugawa rule. After the establishment of the Tokugawa shogunate, Izu remained as a tenryō territory administered directly by the Shōgun. Much of the province was ruled by a daikan established in Nirayama, although portions were assigned to various hatamoto and to Odawara Domain. During the Edo period, Kimisawa District was added to the three ancient districts of Izu. During the Edo period, the Tōkaidō road from Edo to Kyoto passed through northern Izu, with a post station at Mishima-shuku; the port of Shimoda at the southern end of Izu was a required port-of-call for all vessels approaching Edo from the east. During the Bakumatsu period, Shimoda was chosen by the Tokugawa government as a port to be opened to American trade under the conditions of the Convention of Kanagawa, negotiated by Commodore Matthew Perry and signed on March 31, 1854.
Shimoda was the site of Yoshida Shōin's unsuccessful attempt to board Perry's "Black Ships" in 1854. The first American Consulate in Japan was opened at the temple of Gyokusen-ji in Shimoda under Consul General Townsend Harris. Harris negotiated the Treaty of Amity and Commerce between the two countries, signed at nearby Ryōsen-ji in 1858. Japan's relations with Imperial Russia were negotiated in Shimoda, in 1855 the Treaty of Shimoda was signed at Chōraku-ji. After the start of the Meiji period, the districts of Naka and Kimisawa were merged with Kamo District, Izu Province was merged into the short-lived Ashigaru Prefecture in 1871. Ashigaru Prefecture was divided between Shizuoka Prefecture and Kanagawa Prefecture on April 18, 1876, the Izu Islands were subsequently transferred from Shizuoka Prefecture to Tokyo in 1878. Shizuoka Prefecture Kamo District – absorbed Naka District to become an expanded Kamo District. Japan encyclopedia. Cambridge: Harvard University Press. ISBN 978-0-674-01753-5.
Historical and Geographic Dictionary of Japan. Tokyo: Librarie Sansaisha. OCLC 77691250 Media related to Izu Province at Wikimedia Commons Murdoch's map of provinces, 1903
Owari Province was a province of Japan in the area that today forms the western half of Aichi Prefecture, including the modern city of Nagoya. The province was created in 646. Owari bordered on Mikawa and Ise Provinces. Owari and Mino provinces were separated by the Sakai River, which means "border river." The province's abbreviated name was Bishū. Owari is classified as one of the provinces of the Tōkaidō. Under the Engishiki classification system, Owari was ranked as a "superior country" and a "near country", in relation to its distance from the capital. Owari is mentioned in records of the Nara period, including the Kujiki, although the area has been settled since at least the Japanese Paleolithic period, as evidenced by numerous remains found by archaeologists. Early records mention a powerful “Owari clan”, vaguely related to, or allied with the Yamato clan, who built massive kofun burial mounds in several locations within the province, from which archaeologists have recovered bronze artifacts and mirrors dating from the 4th century.
Atsuta Shrine is of ancient origin, ranking with Ise Shrine in importance, is the repository of one of the Imperial Regalia of Japan, the Kusanagi-no-Tsurugi. Under the Engishiki classification system, Owari was divided into eight counties, which persisted as administrative units into the Edo period; the exact location of the provincial capital is not known, but is traditionally considered to have been located in what is now the city of Inazawa, although the Ichinomiya of the province is located in what is now Ichinomiya. During the Heian period, the province was divided into numerous shōen controlled by local samurai clans. However, by the Sengoku period, the province had fragmented into many small territories dominated by the Oda clan. Under Oda Nobunaga, the province was reunified. Nobunaga began his campaign to reunify Japan from his stronghold at Kiyosu Castle. and many of his retainers were natives of Owari, including Toyotomi Hideyoshi and Katō Kiyomasa. Under Tokugawa Ieyasu, the province was assigned as a feudal domain to his ninth son, Tokugawa Yoshinao with official revenues of 619,500 koku, the largest domain in the Tokugawa clan holdings outside of the shogunate itself.
Yoshinao was founder of the Owari Tokugawa clan, one of the Gosanke, which had the hereditary right of succession to the position of shōgun should the main line fail. The castle town of Nagoya prospered during this period, Owari Province was known for its ceramics industry. Following the abolition of the han system in 1871 after the Meiji Restoration, former Owari Domain and Inuyama Domain were transformed into short-lived prefectures, which were joined with Nukata Prefecture, the former Mikawa Province, to form the new Aichi Prefecture in January 1872. At the same time, the province continued to exist for some purposes. For example, Owari is explicitly recognized in treaties in 1894 between Japan and the United States and between Japan and the United Kingdom. Aichi Prefecture Aichi District Chita District Haguri District – dissolved Kasugai District Higashikasugai District – dissolved Nishikasugai District Kaisei District – merged with Kaitō District to Ama District on April 4, 1913 Kaitō District – merged with Kaisei District to Ama District on April 4, 1913 Nakashima District – dissolved Niwa District Yana District Nussbaum, Louis-Frédéric and Käthe Roth..
Japan encyclopedia. Cambridge: Harvard University Press. ISBN 978-0-674-01753-5. Historical and Geographic Dictionary of Japan. Tokyo: Librarie Sansaisha. OCLC 77691250 Media related to Owari Province at Wikimedia Commons Murdoch's map of provinces, 1903
Dewa Province was a province of Japan comprising modern-day Yamagata Prefecture and Akita Prefecture, except for the city of Kazuno and the town of Kosaka. Dewa bordered on Echigō Provinces, its abbreviated form name was Ushū. Prior to the Asuka period, Dewa was inhabited by Ainu or Emishi tribes, was outside of the control of the Yamato dynasty. Abe no Hirafu conquered the native Emishi tribes at what are now the cities of Akita and Noshiro in 658 and established a fort on the Mogami River. In 708 AD Dewa District was created within Echigō Province; the area of Dewa District was that of the modern Shōnai area of Yamagata Prefecture, was extended to the north as the Japanese pushed back the indigenous people of northern Honshū. Dewa District was promoted to the status of a province in 712 AD, gained Okitama and Mogami Districts part of Mutsu Province. A number of military expeditions were sent to the area, with armed colonists forming settlements with wooden palisades across central Dewa in what is now the Shōnai area of Yamagata Prefecture.
The capital of the new province was established at Dewanosaku, a fortified settlement in what is now part of Sakata, which served as a vital military stronghold in the expansion of Yamato control and settlement in the region. In 733, the capital was moved north, a new military settlement named “Akita Castle”, was built what is now in the Takashimizu area of the city of Akita. Abe no Yakamaro was sent as Chinjufu-shōgun. In 737, a major military operation began to connect Akita Castle with Taga Castle on the Pacific Coast. Over the next 50 years, additional fortifications were erected at Okachi in Dewa Province and Monofu in Mutsu Province involving a force of over 5000 men; the road was resented by the Emishi tribes, after an uprising in 767, pacification expeditions were carried out in 776, 778, 794, 801 and 811. During the Nara period, under the Engishiki classification system, Dewa was ranked as a "greater country". Under the ritsuryō system, Dewa was classed as a “far country”; the name of the province was pronounced “Idewa”.
The Ichinomiya of Dewa Province was the Chōkaisan Omonoimi Jinja in what is now Yamagata. During the Heian period, in 878, a major rebellion known as the Ganki Disturbance erupted in the region against Yamato rule. Another major uprising occurred as part of East Japan war Tengyō no Ran. Towards the end of the Heian period, the province was organized into eleven districts, it was the Former Nine Years War. Following the destruction of the Northern Fujiwara clan by the forces of the Kamakura shogunate in 1189, many Fujiwara partisans fled to the mountains of Dewa and continued to resist central authority; the area was divided into numerous shōen during the Kamakura period, which developed into the centers of numerous rival samurai clans. In 1335, Shiba Kaneyori received the Dewa Province as a fief from Ashikaga Takauji, but ruled it only in name. By the end of the Sengoku period, the Mogami clan had emerged as the strongest local force in the southern portion of the province, whereas the Akita clan dominated the northern portion of the province.
Both clans sided with Tokugawa Ieyasu at the Battle of Sekigahara, were thus secured in their holdings at the start of the Tokugawa shogunate. During the early Edo period, both the Mogami and the Akita were dispossessed, their territories broken up into smaller domains, the largest of which were held by the Sakai clan and Uesugi clans. During the Bakumatsu period, all of the domains in the area joined the Ōuetsu Reppan Dōmei supporting the Tokugawa shogunate. Following the defeat of the pro-Tokugawa forces, the new Meiji government reorganized Dewa province into Ugo Province in the north, Uzen Province in the south in 1868; these provinces became Akita Prefecture and Yamagata Prefecture on August 2, 1876. Ugo Province Akumi District Akita District Hiraka District Kawabe District Ogachi District Semboku District Yamamoto District Yuri District Uzen Province Tagawa District Kubiki District Mogami District Murayama District Okitama District Ushū Kaidō – a subroute of the Ōshū Kaidō and Sendaidō with 57 post stations connecting what is now Koori, Fukushima with Aomori Yonezawa Kaidō – connecting what is now Aizuwakamatsu, Fukushima with Yamagata.
Sendai Kaidō – connecting what is now Sakata, Yamagata with Sendai. Ushū Hamakaidō – connecting Sakata with Niigata. Kōdansha.. Japan: an Illustrated Encyclopedia. Tokyo: Kōdansha. Japan encyclopedia. Cambridge: Harvard University Press. ISBN 978-0-674-01753-5. Terry's Japanese Empire: including Korea and Formosa, with Chapters on Manchuria, the Trans-Siberian Railway, the Chief Ocean Routes to Japan: a Guidebook for Travelers. New York: Houghton Mifflin. OCLC 123254449 Titsingh, Isaac.. Annales des empereurs du Japon. Paris: Royal Asiatic Society, Oriental Translation Fund of Great Britain and Ireland. OCLC 5850691. Media related to Dewa Province at Wikimedia Commons Murdoch's map of provinces, 1903