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Kinetic theory of gases

The kinetic theory of gases is a significant, but simple model of the thermodynamic behavior of gases with which many principal concepts of thermodynamics were established. The model describes a gas as a large number of identical submicroscopic particles, all of which are in constant, random motion, their size is assumed to be much smaller than the average distance between the particles. The particles undergo random elastic collisions between themselves and with the enclosing walls of the container; the basic version of the model describes the ideal gas, considers no other interactions between the particles and, the nature of kinetic energy transfers during collisions is thermal. The kinetic theory of gases explains the macroscopic properties of gases, such as volume and temperature, as well as transport properties such as viscosity, thermal conductivity and mass diffusivity; the model accounts for related phenomena, such as Brownian motion. In 50 BCE, the Roman philosopher Lucretius proposed that static macroscopic bodies were composed on a small scale of moving atoms all bouncing off each other.

This Epicurean atomistic point of view was considered in the subsequent centuries, when Aristotlean ideas were dominant. In 1738 Daniel Bernoulli published Hydrodynamica, which laid the basis for the kinetic theory of gases. In this work, Bernoulli posited the argument, still used to this day, that gases consist of great numbers of molecules moving in all directions, that their impact on a surface causes the gas pressure that we feel, that what we experience as heat is the kinetic energy of their motion; the theory was not accepted, in part because conservation of energy had not yet been established, it was not obvious to physicists how the collisions between molecules could be elastic. Other pioneers of the kinetic theory were Mikhail Lomonosov, Georges-Louis Le Sage, John Herapath and John James Waterston, which connected their research with the development of mechanical explanations of gravitation. In 1856 August Krönig created a simple gas-kinetic model, which only considered the translational motion of the particles.

In 1857 Rudolf Clausius, according to his own words independently of Krönig, developed a similar, but much more sophisticated version of the theory which included translational and contrary to Krönig rotational and vibrational molecular motions. In this same work he introduced the concept of mean free path of a particle. In 1859, after reading a paper on the diffusion of molecules by Rudolf Clausius, Scottish physicist James Clerk Maxwell formulated the Maxwell distribution of molecular velocities, which gave the proportion of molecules having a certain velocity in a specific range; this was the first-ever statistical law in physics. Maxwell gave the first mechanical argument that molecular collisions entail an equalization of temperatures and hence a tendency towards equilibrium. In his 1873 thirteen page article'Molecules', Maxwell states: "we are told that an'atom' is a material point and surrounded by'potential forces' and that when'flying molecules' strike against a solid body in constant succession it causes what is called pressure of air and other gases."

In 1871, Ludwig Boltzmann generalized Maxwell's achievement and formulated the Maxwell–Boltzmann distribution. The logarithmic connection between entropy and probability was first stated by him. In the beginning of the twentieth century, atoms were considered by many physicists to be purely hypothetical constructs, rather than real objects. An important turning point was Albert Einstein's and Marian Smoluchowski's papers on Brownian motion, which succeeded in making certain accurate quantitative predictions based on the kinetic theory; the theory for ideal gases makes the following assumptions: The gas consists of small particles known as molecules. This smallness of their size is such that the total volume of the individual gas molecules added up is negligible compared to the volume of the smallest open ball containing all the molecules; this is equivalent to stating that the average distance separating the gas particles is large compared to their size. These particles have the same mass; the number of molecules is so large.

The moving particles collide among themselves and with the walls of the container. All these collisions are elastic; this means the molecules are considered to be spherical in shape and elastic in nature. Except during collisions, the interactions among molecules are negligible; this implies: 1. Relativistic effects are negligible. 2. Quantum-mechanical effects are negligible; this means that the inter-particle distance is much larger than the thermal de Broglie wavelength and the molecules are treated as classical objects. 3. Because of the above two, their dynamics can be treated classically; this means. The average kinetic energy of the gas particles depends only on the absolute temperature of the system; the kinetic theory has its own definition of temperature, not identical with the thermodynamic definition. The elapsed time of a collision between a molecule and the container's wall is negligible when compared to the time between successive collisions; because they have mass, gravity will accelerate molecules.

More modern develop

Matthew Lee (lawyer)

Matthew Lee is an American public interest lawyer and founder of two non-profit organizations, Inner City Press and Fair Finance Watch. Both are known for their investigations of the banking industry's treatment of low-income communities of color around the world. Lee produces weekly reports on, advocates concerning, such global banks as HSBC, Royal Bank of Scotland and others. In 2005-2006, Lee was engaged in litigation to deem the "citizens-only" provision of the Freedom of Information Act of Delaware to be unconstitutional. Lee and Fair Finance Watch in October 2013 raised fair lending concerns regarding Mercantile Bank and its proposed acquiring of FirstBank. On November 26, 2013, Michigan Live reported on the challenge and Mercantile telling the Security & Exchange Commission the issues Lee and FFW raised would result in a delay of the merger. Lee is the author of the non-fiction book Predatory Lending: Toxic Credit in the Global Inner City and the novel Predatory Bender. Lee is an accredited journalist at the United Nations.

In mid-2006, Lee's investigative journalism at the UN, published online in Inner City Press uncovered and led to the United Nations Development Programme halting its disarmament programs in the Karamoja region of Uganda in response to human rights abuses exposed in the parallel forcible disarmament programs carried out by the Uganda People's Defense Force. For another view, see the Ugandan newspaper The New Vision, critical of UNDP's halt of funding. Lee is a frequent video discussion guest on, discussing things related to United Nations internal operations. In 2008, Lee appeared on the ninth episode of the sixth season of the show Penn & Teller: Bullshit!. The show went on a tour that Lee led most of in the UN building. Besides leading the tour, he discussed some of the actions that the UN takes which are hypocritical, or make little sense. In 2009, Lee reported extensively on the conflict in Sri Lanka from New York, including critically covering UN Secretary General Ban Ki-moon's visit to the internally displaced persons' camps in Vavuniya in May 2009.

In early 2010, Lee was invited to speak on the topic of Sri Lanka at the Rebellious Lawyers' conference at Yale Law School. Inner City Press' questioning of the UN on when it asked the Syrian government for access to al Ghouta was played on Democracy Now on August 28, from Minute 18:30. Lee was born in Washington, D. C. to parents of Chinese and Anglo descent. His father was in the U. S. Foreign Service. After finishing middle school overseas, Lee attended high school in the US. Inner City Press Fair Finance Watch "A Citizen of the World, At Home in The Bronx," Washington Post, April 17, 2006 "HSBC'overcharging' US troops," The Observer, December 18, 2005 "Wading through the Home Mortgage Disclosure Act Muck," US Banker, November 2005 Review of Predatory Bender Another review of Predatory Bender Video discussions/debates involving Matthew Lee on The Beat by Eric Konigsberg, The New Yorker What is Inner City Press? by Tom McGregor, UN Post Trouble in the UN Press Core by Richard Armstrong'World Policy Review'

Li Han (aviator)

Li Han was a MiG-15 pilot of the People's Republic of China. He was a flying ace during the Korean War, with 8 victories. A member of the 4th Fighter Aviation Division He was the first Chinese pilot credited with shooting down a U. S. aircraft. Although all Chinese aces have received the title Combat Hero in acknowledgement of their services little information is known of the Chinese pilots during the war due to the lack of published records. List of Korean War flying aces Varhola, Michael J. Fire and Ice: The Korean War, 1950–1953, Mason City, Iowa: Da Capo Press, ISBN 978-1-882810-44-4 Zhang, Xiao Ming, Red Wings Over the Yalu: China, the Soviet Union, the Air War in Korea, College Station, Texas: Texas A&M University Press, ISBN 1-58544-201-1

Nicholas Moore

Nicholas Moore was an English poet, associated with the New Apocalyptics in the 1940s, whose reputation stood as high as Dylan Thomas’s. He dropped out of the literary world. Moore was born in Cambridge, the elder child of the philosopher G. E. Moore and Dorothy Ely, his paternal uncle was the poet and critic Thomas Sturge Moore, his maternal grandfather was OUP editor and author George Herbert Ely and his brother was the composer Timothy Moore. He was educated at the Dragon School in Oxford, Leighton Park School in Reading, the University of St Andrews, Trinity College, Cambridge. Moore was editor and co-founder of a literary review, while still an undergraduate. Seven, Magazine of People's Writing, had a complex history: Moore edited it with John Goodland. While in Cambridge Moore became involved with literary London, in particular Tambimuttu, he published pamphlets under the Poetry London imprint in 1941. This led to Moore becoming Tambimuttu's assistant. Moore worked for the Grey Walls Press.

In the meantime he had registered as a conscientious objector. The Glass Tower, a selected poems collection from 1944, appeared with illustrations by the young Lucian Freud. In 1945 he edited The PL Book of Modern American Short Stories, won Contemporary Poetry's Patron Prize for Girl with a Wine Glass. In 1947 he won the Harriet Monroe Memorial Prize for various other poems. Moore encountered difficulty in publishing, his association with the "romantics" of the 1940s was, in fact, rather an inaccurate reflection of his style. In the 1950s he worked as a horticulturist. In 1968 he entered 31 separate pseudonymous translations of a single Baudelaire poem, in a competition for the Sunday Times, run by George Steiner; each translation focused on a different element of the poem: rhyme, tropes, etc. producing vastly different results, to illustrate the inadequacies and lacunae produced in translation. This work was published in 1973 as Spleen. Longings of the Acrobats, a selected poems volume, was edited by Peter Riley and published in 1990 by Carcanet Press.

An interview with Riley concerning Moore's rediscovery and years appears as a documentary element within the "Guilty River" chapter of Iain Sinclair's novel Downriver. According to Riley, Moore was prolific and left behind many unpublished poems. An example of one of Moore's "pomenvylopes" – idiosyncratic documents consisting of poems and comments typed onto envelopes and posted to friends and acquaintances – appears online at The Fortnightly Review, his Selected Poems was published by Shoestring Press in 2014. A Book for Priscilla A Wish in Season The Island and the Cattle Buzzing Around with a Bee, Other Poems, etc The Cabaret, the Dancer, the Gentlemen The Glass Tower Thirty-Five Anonymous Odes The War of the Little Jersey Cows The Anonymous Elegies and other poems Recollections of the Gala: Selected Poems 1943–48 The Tall Bearded Iris Anxious To Please Identity Resolution and Identity Spleen Lacrimae Rerum Longings of the Acrobats: Selected Poems Dronkhois Malperhu and Other Poems The Orange Bed Selected Poems Francis Nenik: The Marvel of Biographical Bookkeeping.

Translated from German by Katy Derbyshire, Readux Books 2013, Sample. Nicholas Moore, Touched by Poetic Genius, an article by John Yau in Hyperallergic Spleen: Thirty-one versions of Baudelaire's Je suis comme le roi... by Nicholas Moore was first published in book form as Spleen 1973 by Blacksuede Boot Press and Menard Press. "A Pomenvylope by Nicholas Moore", an essay with an example, by Martin Sorrell in The Fortnightly Review

St. Charles Avenue

St. Charles Avenue is a thoroughfare in New Orleans, Louisiana, U. S. and the home of the St. Charles Streetcar Line, it is famous for the dozens of mansions that adorn the tree-lined boulevard for much of the uptown section of the boulevard. The Southern live oak trees, plentiful in the historic Garden District, were planted during the early twentieth century. Similar additions were made on other major New Orleans streets, such as Carrollton Avenue, Napoleon Avenue, part of Canal Street, becoming one of the city's most memorable features. St. Charles Avenue is one of the chief Mardi Gras parade routes; the "downriver" end meets Canal Street. On the other side of Canal Street in the French Quarter, the corresponding street is Royal Street. From Canal Street, St. Charles runs up through the New Orleans Central Business District the length of Uptown New Orleans, reflecting the crescent curve of the Mississippi River but at a distance inland, it continues to the Carrollton neighborhood, ending one block past Carrollton Avenue where it intersects with Leake Street/River Road at the foot of the Mississippi River levee.

From Canal Street to Lee Circle, St. Charles Avenue is properly called St. Charles Street and is one way in the upriver direction with two lanes of traffic, with the streetcar track sharing right-of-way with one lane of motor vehicle traffic. From Lee Circle to Louisiana Avenue it has two lanes of traffic in each direction with two streetcar rail lines on the grassy tree-lined median. From Louisiana Avenue to Carrollton Avenue it has one lane of traffic in each direction plus the streetcar neutral ground; the streetcar line turns inland at Carrollton Avenue to follow the thoroughfare, while the final stretch continues the final short block to River Road. Major intersections, from east to west, include: Canal Street, Poydras Street, Lee Circle/Howard Avenue, Martin Luther King Jr. Boulevard/Melpomene Avenue, Jackson Avenue, Washington Avenue, Louisiana Avenue, Napoleon Avenue, Jefferson Avenue, Nashville Avenue, Broadway Street, Carrollton Avenue, Leake Avenue. For the first half of the 19th century, the portion of St. Charles above Lee Circle was known as Nyades Street.

The lower portion is an important corridor in the Central Business District. Historically-significant buildings include Gallier Hall, City Hall until the 1950s; the street was laid out atop a slight rise, the remains of an old natural levee, in connection with the construction of the New Orleans and Carrollton Railroad, which became the St. Charles Streetcar Line; the long traffic avenue used for horse-drawn buggies and wagons, with public rail transit running down the center, helped fuel the development of Uptown in the 19th century. In 1889, writer Martha R. Field observed that "St. Charles Avenue is seven miles long, is paved with asphalt its entire length" and was lined "with beautiful homes." St. Charles Avenue was the favored site for construction of mansions by the wealthy from the mid 19th century through the early years of the 20th century. A number of the old mansions were torn down in the mid- and late 20th century, until the area was declared an historic district. Many of the surviving ones have been divided into rental apartments.

In early 1999, an effort by the New Orleans Police Department was made to clean up the Avenue and the blocks north, which were beginning to show signs of seediness. The illegal drug industry was pushed back into Central City. During the 2005 flooding of the majority of New Orleans due to levee failures caused by Hurricane Katrina, St. Charles Avenue and the portion of Uptown closer to the Mississippi River escaped significant flooding. Notable buildings along St. Charles Avenue include several hotels the most famous still in business being the Pontchartrain Hotel, in business since 1927; the Columns Hotel is a small hotel in a 19th-century mansion. The St. Charles Hotel, near Canal Street, was one of the city's two most well-known hotels through most of the 19th and early 20th centuries; the former Bienville Hotel on Lee Circle is now an apartment building. The headquarters of the United Fruit Company was on St. Charles Avenue in the Central Business District; the former mansion of silent-film star Marguerite Clark is now the Milton Latter Memorial branch of the New Orleans Public Library.

The facades of both Tulane University and Loyola University New Orleans are located on St. Charles Avenue, opposite Audubon Park. Buildings and architecture of New Orleans History of New Orleans List of streets of New Orleans Neighborhoods in New Orleans Streetcars in New Orleans St. Charles Streetcar Line Uptown New Orleans Brock, Eric J.. New Orleans, pp 108–109, Arcadia Publishing, Charleston, SC Hogan, C. Michael and Marc Papineau, Earth Metrics Incorporated, Phase I Environmental Site Assessment for the Pontchartrain Hotel, New Orleans, Report Number 10456, March 19, 1990 Southeastern Architectural Archive, Special Collections Division, Tulane University Libraries


Spuul offers an over-the-top service across Web, mobile/tablets, smart TVs, Chromecast to stream and download feature-length movies, short films, TV shows in Hindi, Tamil, Malayalam and other Indian regional languages. The service is available worldwide; as of 2018, Spuul has incorporated Live Indian, Nepali and Pakistani TV Channels in their offering while providing users with an option to DVR and watch the earlier aired episodes of the shows. As of early 2016, Spuul had a catalogue of over 1,000 films and TV shows, as well as partnerships across several production companies such as Yash Raj Films, Balaji Telefilms, Shemaroo Entertainment, Viacom 18, Reliance Entertainment, Phantom Films, UTV Motion Pictures. In addition to a large selection of free movies, Spuul offers a premium subscription option in monthly and multiple smaller packages, along with pay-per-view movies. Spuul is headquartered with an office in Mumbai. Spuul Blog provides gossip for movie buffs to read. According to a review by PCQuest, “Overall, the experience was pretty good and we can say the app is quite the right destination for movie fanatics.”

Spuul was founded in 2012 by Sudesh Iyer, S. Mohan, Subin Subaiah. Sudesh Iyer serves as Spuul's chairman. Subin Subaiah has worked in banking across several companies such as Deutsche Bank and Standard Chartered, serves as Spuul CEO. Official website