Selwyn College Boat Club
Selwyn College Boat Club is the official rowing club for members of Selwyn College, Cambridge, a constituent college of the University of Cambridge. The Selwyn College Boat Club has one of the highest participation rates of novice rowers of any Oxbridge college, has performed well in the May Bumps and Lent Bumps in recent years. Notable alumni of the Selwyn College Boat Club include Hugh Laurie, Tom Hollander, Richard Budgett. In 2014, Selwyn College constructed a new combined boathouse on the River Cam; the new facility provides training and rowing facilities for members of Selwyn and the University of Cambridge. The combined boathouse was designed by RHP Architects at a cost of £2.20 million and was the winner of the 2017 RIBA East Award for outstanding architecture. Selwyn College rowers have not taken a headship of the two bumps races; the Selwyn College lower boats have had more success over the past several years, with the 3rd Men's VIII earned blades in both 2006 bumps, more the 1st Women's VIII earned blades in the 2009 Lent Bumps.
Selwyn College, Cambridge was named for Bishop George Augustus Selwyn, himself a Cambridge scholar and a rower for St John's College, Cambridge. Selwyn is the only College to be named after a scholar, a Rowing Blue. George Selwyn was a member of the Cambridge crew which competed in the inaugural Boat Race in 1829. Despite being an underdog going up against larger and wealthier Oxbridge colleges, Selwyn College Boat Club has always relied on training up novices to be outstanding oarsmen. In the early days of the Lent and May Bumps, Selwyn spent a lot of time in the 2nd division, but rose from the mid-1920s, reaching 3rd in the May Bumps throughout the early 1930s and 2nd in the Lent Bumps in 1933. By 1958, Selwyn's 1st VIII had found its way back into the 2nd division. Selwyn once again gained 2nd place in the Lent Bumps in 1974 and 4th in the May Bumps in 1979, but has since fallen; the men's 1st VIII lies 7th in the 2nd Division of Lent Bumps, 10th in the 1st Division in the May Bumps. A women's crew first appeared in 1977.
The women's 1st VIII reached 3rd in the Lent Bumps by 1981 and the 1st women's IV reached 6th in the May Bumps in 1979. Since the most successful season was May Bumps 2016, when their men's 1st VIII achieved super-blades and went up 6 places. A history of the Selwyn College Boat Club has been published by Dr A. P. McEldowney, a former student and rowing blue of the college; the book traces the complete history of the college rowing club beginning with its origins in Michaelmas term 1883. The SCBC was established after the May Bumps were moved to June, instead of the previous month, it is unknown why this was done, but it is believed to pay homage to the Cambridge tradition of scholars publishing during the Lent Term. In the late 1990s the college digitised and released the Personal History of the Selwyn College Boat Club through its website. Hard copies of the original remain rare, however a signed original version of the monograph remains in the Selwyn College archives; the Selwyn College Boat Club moved into its first boathouse during Michaelmas 1883.
The old boat house was rented from the town-rowing club and purchased. It was a beautiful but cluttered old building made from shaped wood and iron with no access to the road. Given that all material and supplies had to carried in or taken by coat, it fell into a state of serious disrepair. Young Selwyn men produced a fine tradition of rowing from this humble boathouse, Selwynites continued to fall in love with its ramshackle quality; the old town boathouse produced team which achieved a second in the Lent Bumps of 1934 and third in the May Bumps 1931. An impressive result, all the more because of the facilities the rowers had to train in; the Selwyn Boat Club during this period trained several men who would go on to become Olympic Rowers and University Blues in the annual boat race against Oxford. This was all the more fitting given that the namesake of the college, George Selwyn, had rowed for the Cambridge team that went up against Oxford in the first Boat Race at Henley-on-Thames in 1829.
Despite these early successes, the fellows of the college decided that the Boat Club should move to a new, more adequately equipped facility. This became a reality in the 1960s when one of the college's benefactors stepped forward and donated funds that allowed Selwyn College to join with King's College, Churchill College to build a new combined boathouse. In 1968, the combined boathouse opened on the River Cam to great fanfare as the three colleges, plus the Leys School, celebrated their new facilities; this new combined boathouse was somewhat further away from Selwyn and King's, being located on the north end of the River Cam near Jesus Green. The combined boathouse proved to be a major advantage for the Selwyn College Boat Club, able to properly train and exercise inside its doors; the boathouse back right onto the river. In 2014, Selwyn College, King's College and Churchill College announced plans for a new, state-of-the-art combined boathouse located on the River Cam, near to the majority of the colleges.
The college features double-length beams and extensive gym and training facilities for all Selwyn College rowers and student athletes. This facility was completed in 2015-16 and now provides world class rowing and training facilities for Selwyn College Boat Club rowers and students across the University of Cambridge; the project was funded by donations and contributions from alumni and the Hermes Club. The two-storey combined boathouse is larger than its 1968 predecessor and
The United Kingdom the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, sometimes referred to as Britain, is a sovereign country located off the north-western coast of the European mainland. The United Kingdom includes the island of Great Britain, the north-eastern part of the island of Ireland, many smaller islands. Northern Ireland is the only part of the United Kingdom that shares a land border with another sovereign state, the Republic of Ireland. Apart from this land border, the United Kingdom is surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean, with the North Sea to the east, the English Channel to the south and the Celtic Sea to the south-west, giving it the 12th-longest coastline in the world; the Irish Sea lies between Great Ireland. With an area of 242,500 square kilometres, the United Kingdom is the 78th-largest sovereign state in the world, it is the 22nd-most populous country, with an estimated 66.0 million inhabitants in 2017. The UK is constitutional monarchy; the current monarch is Queen Elizabeth II, who has reigned since 1952, making her the longest-serving current head of state.
The United Kingdom's capital and largest city is London, a global city and financial centre with an urban area population of 10.3 million. Other major urban areas in the UK include Greater Manchester, the West Midlands and West Yorkshire conurbations, Greater Glasgow and the Liverpool Built-up Area; the United Kingdom consists of four constituent countries: England, Scotland and Northern Ireland. Their capitals are London, Edinburgh and Belfast, respectively. Apart from England, the countries have their own devolved governments, each with varying powers, but such power is delegated by the Parliament of the United Kingdom, which may enact laws unilaterally altering or abolishing devolution; the nearby Isle of Man, Bailiwick of Guernsey and Bailiwick of Jersey are not part of the UK, being Crown dependencies with the British Government responsible for defence and international representation. The medieval conquest and subsequent annexation of Wales by the Kingdom of England, followed by the union between England and Scotland in 1707 to form the Kingdom of Great Britain, the union in 1801 of Great Britain with the Kingdom of Ireland created the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
Five-sixths of Ireland seceded from the UK in 1922, leaving the present formulation of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. There are fourteen British Overseas Territories, the remnants of the British Empire which, at its height in the 1920s, encompassed a quarter of the world's land mass and was the largest empire in history. British influence can be observed in the language and political systems of many of its former colonies; the United Kingdom is a developed country and has the world's fifth-largest economy by nominal GDP and ninth-largest economy by purchasing power parity. It has a high-income economy and has a high Human Development Index rating, ranking 14th in the world, it was the world's first industrialised country and the world's foremost power during the 19th and early 20th centuries. The UK remains a great power, with considerable economic, military and political influence internationally, it is sixth in military expenditure in the world. It has been a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council since its first session in 1946.
It has been a leading member state of the European Union and its predecessor, the European Economic Community, since 1973. The United Kingdom is a member of the Commonwealth of Nations, the Council of Europe, the G7, the G20, NATO, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development and the World Trade Organization; the 1707 Acts of Union declared that the kingdoms of England and Scotland were "United into One Kingdom by the Name of Great Britain". The term "United Kingdom" has been used as a description for the former kingdom of Great Britain, although its official name from 1707 to 1800 was "Great Britain"; the Acts of Union 1800 united the kingdom of Great Britain and the kingdom of Ireland in 1801, forming the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. Following the partition of Ireland and the independence of the Irish Free State in 1922, which left Northern Ireland as the only part of the island of Ireland within the United Kingdom, the name was changed to the "United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland".
Although the United Kingdom is a sovereign country, Scotland and Northern Ireland are widely referred to as countries. The UK Prime Minister's website has used the phrase "countries within a country" to describe the United Kingdom; some statistical summaries, such as those for the twelve NUTS 1 regions of the United Kingdom refer to Scotland and Northern Ireland as "regions". Northern Ireland is referred to as a "province". With regard to Northern Ireland, the descriptive name used "can be controversial, with the choice revealing one's political preferences"; the term "Great Britain" conventionally refers to the island of Great Britain, or politically to England and Wales in combination. However, it is sometimes used as a loose synonym for the United Kingdom as a whole; the term "Britain" is used both as a synonym for Great Britain, as a synonym for the United Kingdom. Usage is mixed, with the BBC preferring to use Britain as shorthand only for Great Britain and the UK Government, while accepting that both terms refer to the United K
British Rowing the Amateur Rowing Association, is the governing body for the sport of rowing. It is responsible for the training and selection of individual rowers and crews representing Great Britain and for participation in and the development of rowing and indoor rowing in England. Scottish Rowing and Welsh Rowing oversee governance in their respective countries, organise their own teams for the Home International Regatta and input to the GB team organisation. British Rowing is a member of the British Olympic Association and the International Rowing Federation known as FISA; the ARA had it roots in the desire to form crews drawn from the leading English clubs'for the purpose of defeating the foreign or colonial invader' although in fact this aim was not fulfilled until much later. A series of meetings were held in Putney from 1877 culminating in the formation of the Metropolitan Rowing Association in 1879 by Cambridge University Boat Club, Dublin University Boat Club, Kingston Rowing Club, Leander Club, London Rowing Club, Oxford University Boat Club, Royal Chester Rowing Club, Thames Rowing Club and Twickenham Rowing Club.
Molesey Boat Club joined soon afterward. In 1882 the Metropolitan Rowing Association changed its name to the Amateur Rowing Association, having gained additional member clubs from outside London, began its evolution into the governing body of rowing. In 1886 the ARA issued General Rules for Regattas; the ARA adopted Henley Royal Regatta's restrictive definition of "amateur" which not only excluded those who made their living as profession oarsmen but anyone "who is or has been by trade or employment for wages a mechanic, artisan or labourer." Moreover, the new rules stated that only clubs affiliated to the ARA could compete in regattas held under ARA rules, that ARA affiliated clubs could not compete under any other rules, nor against crews not affiliated to the ARA. This ruling was socially divisive excluding any club with a mixed membership, it resulted in the formation of a breakaway organisation in 1890, the National Amateur Rowing Association, whose clubs could draw their membership from all social classes and occupations.
The schism in English rowing was to remain for over half a century as a regular cause of controversy and bad feeling. Change only came after the Australian national eight, preparing for the Berlin Olympics in 1936, was excluded from the Grand Challenge Cup at Henley because the crew, who were all policemen, were deemed to be ‘manual workers’; the embarrassment caused persuaded the ARA and the Stewards of Henley Royal Regatta of the need for change, on 9 June 1937, the offending references to manual labourers, mechanics and menial duties were deleted from the ARA rules, with Henley following suit the following day. The ARA and NARA amalgamated in 1956. David Lunn-Rockliffe, Executive Secretary of the ARA from 1976–1987 and co-founder of the River and Rowing Museum at Henley-on-Thames, oversaw the transition to a more professional organization. In 1998, the ARA followed FISA in removing all references to amateurism from its rules. Professional rowers are now permitted; the name Amateur Rowing Association remained because of its heritage and because no agreement could be reached on alternatives.
In 2009, a decision was taken to rename the organisation as'British Rowing'. Five English rowing clubs retained the right to appoint representatives directly to the Council of British Rowing, they were: London Rowing Club, Leander Club, Thames Rowing Club, Oxford University Boat Club and Cambridge University Boat Club. This right was, removed from the five clubs in September 2012. Sir Steve Redgrave, multiple Olympic Gold medallist in rowing, was the Honorary President of British Rowing from 2001 until 2013. Dame Di Ellis, former chairman of British Rowing, succeeded him as Honorary President. British Rowing operates a points system to allow rowers to compete with those of a similar standard. Competitors gain points in both sculling by winning a qualifying race; when first joining British Rowing, all members begin at zero points. Points are increased by members winning qualifying regattas; the current status levels are Elite, Intermediate 1, Intermediate 2, Intermediate 3, Novice. Each crew members' points are added up and this determines the status of the crew.
The crew is only allowed to race at higher. The table below indicates the maximum number of points that may be held by a crew at each status level. Anyone who has competed for the Senior, Lightweight or U23 international squads will be given 12 points; those representing GB at the World Rowing Junior Championships have their points topped up to 6. There are a number of junior categories; the number represents the age competitors must be younger than, before the first day of September preceding the event. Sweep oar rowing is only allowed at J15 and older for both boys and for girls, due to possible issues of asymmetric muscle development. British Rowing has an awards scheme for coaching that up until 2005 consisted of the Instructor's Award, Bronze Award, Silver Award and the Gold Award; these were overhauled in 2006 as qualifications were brought in line with the Sportscoach UK system that many other sports in the UK have adopted. British Rowing now offers the Level 2, Level 3 and Level 4 coaching awards and other related workshops and training cou
First and Third Trinity Boat Club
The First and Third Trinity Boat Club is the rowing club of Trinity College in Cambridge, England. The club formally came into existence in 1946 when the First Trinity Boat Club and the Third Trinity Boat Club merged, although the 2 clubs had been rowing together for several years before that date; the first boat club associated with Trinity was formed in 1825 and came to be known as First Trinity in 1833 when the Third Trinity Boat Club was formed. Membership of Third Trinity was confined to Old Etonians and Old Westminsters. Members of Third Trinity were allowed to be members of First or Second Trinity and were; the boat club gives its name to Trinity college's May Ball, the oldest such event in Cambridge and originates from the club's celebrations after the victories in the May Bumps. In the nineteenth century the various Trinity boat clubs were strong and won events in Cambridge, at various regattas around the country, notably the Henley Royal Regatta, contributed rowers to the Cambridge boat for the Oxford and Cambridge Boat Race.
Indeed, in the 1849 Boat Race, all members of the crew were from Trinity, seven from Third Trinity and two, the cox included, from First Trinity. Boats from the three clubs could be found at, or near, the top of the Bumps and they sometimes combined their resources in races against the rest of the University. In 1876 Second Trinity was disbanded due to insufficient members. However, a legend claims that during the Bumps in that year, the rowers of Trinity's arch-rivals, St John's College, attached a sword to the front of one of their boats such that if they bumped the boat in front, it would be holed and sink; the plan worked in the sense that the Trinity boat did sink, but in the process the sword hit and killed Second Trinity's cox, which of course wasn't intended So the legend claims that this is the reason why Second Trinity Boat Club was dissolved, why St. John's College is no longer allowed a boat club under its own name. Though a wonderful legend, there is no traceable record of a crew from St. John's attaching a sword to their bow, while a St John's College Boat Club was disbanded in 1876, the original boat club at St. John's was the Lady Margaret Boat Club.
However, a somewhat similar incident occurred in 1888, 12 years after the dissolution of Second Trinity, after which bow balls became mandatory. In his History of the First Trinity Boat Club, Walter Rouse Ball notes: " The third day was the occasion of a sad tragedy. Clare bumped Queens', drew into the bank by Grassy. Behind these boats was the Trinity Hall third boat. This, instead of rounding First Post Corner, ran, by some mishap, across the river, the nose of the boat struck number 4 in the Clare boat just over his heart, killing him on the spot; the further races were at once stopped. Since this dreadful incident small india-rubber knobs have been fixed on the bows of all the racing boats"; the more prosaic explanation for 2nd Trinity's demise is that membership was restricted to Theology scholars, which over time proved to be an unreliable source of oarsmen. In the twentieth century the clubs remained competitive and continued to achieve success in various events; the 2nd World War forced the 2 clubs to combine resources and after the war they formally merged in order to remain competitive with the now larger boat clubs of other colleges.
In the same year First and Third won the Visitors' Challenge Cup at the Henley Royal Regatta and the following year won the Ladies' Challenge Plate. They repeated this feat by winning the Ladies Plate again in 1954 and 1967, the last year that a college crew from either Cambridge or Oxford has won the event; the difference in the standard of rowing between Oxbridge colleges and non-University clubs has changed over the twentieth century due to standards within college clubs falling or to the quality of rowing in other clubs improving, but a combination of the two. For example and Third, like all other Oxbridge college crews, now have difficulty achieving a standard of rowing to qualify for events at the Henley Royal Regatta, let alone to win these events. In spite of this, rowing within Cambridge remains popular and the Bumps, the main inter-college event, see well over a thousand students competing around a hundred from Trinity; the Trinity Boat Club, the original rowing club of Trinity College, dates from 1825 and was called First Trinity Boat Club after 1833.
It was open to all members of the College. In 1946, the club amalgamated with the other remaining boat club of the College, Third Trinity Boat Club, to form First and Third Trinity Boat Club, in this form continues to compete today; the Club was successful throughout its history, but in the 19th century. Its early history is well covered by Walter Rouse Ball's 1908 book, A History of The First Trinity Boat Club, available online in its entirety. Of particular note is that in 1839 First Trinity won the Grand Challenge Cup in the first Henley Regatta; the crew rowed in a boat named the Black Prince, the bow section of, still owned by the First and Third Trinity Boat Club but, on loan to the River & Rowing Museum in Henley. They defeated the other three entries, who were Wadham College Oxford, Brasenose College Oxford and the Oxford Etonian Club. First and Third Trinity Boat Club still names its higher quality men's eight-oared boats as'Black Prince'; as new boats are purchased, older boats are demoted to lower boat use and are referred to as'Black Prince II','Black Prince III' and
Cambridge University Boat Club
The Cambridge University Boat Club is one of the rowing clubs of the University of Cambridge, England. The club was founded in 1828 and has been located at the Goldie Boathouse on the River Cam, Cambridge since 1882. Nowadays, training takes place on the River Great Ouse at Ely; the prime constitutional aim of CUBC is to beat Oxford University Boat Club in the annual Oxford and Cambridge Boat Race. CUBC lead OUBC in the series by 83 races to 80, with 1 dead heat in The Boat Race 1877; the inaugural meeting of Cambridge University Boat Club took place at Gonville and Caius College on 9 December 1828. Following this meeting, it was agreed that a challenge be sent to the University of Oxford to organise a race between representatives of the two universities. A letter was sent to Oxford in which they were challenged "to row a match at or near London, each in an eight-oared boat during the ensuing Easter vacation"; the first Boat Race took place at Henley-on-Thames in June 1829. CUBC was one of five clubs which retained the right until 2012 to appoint representatives to the Council of British Rowing.
The others were Leander Club, London Rowing Club, Thames Rowing Club and Oxford University Boat Club. CUBC has produced numerous Olympic-level rowers in its history. During the Boat Race period both the Blue Boat and Goldie crews boat from King's College School's Boat House on the Putney embankment. Notes Bibliography Dodd, Christopher; the Oxford & Cambridge Boat Race. Stanley Paul. ISBN 978-0-09-151340-5. CUBC website
Downing College Boat Club
Downing College Boat Club is the rowing club for members of Downing College, Cambridge. Downing men have not been below the top 9 boats for over 3 decades, on occasion being the only boat club with a second boat in the first division, ahead of other college first boats. Downing men and women have rowed internationally, winning World Rowing Championship medals, Olympic medals. Despite the college admitting undergraduates in 1821, Downing's boat club did not form until 1863, with their first race being in the spring of 1864; the men's 1st VIII did not feature in the 1st division of the Lent and May Bumps until the 1960s. The club first became Head of the Mays in 1982, a position it lost in 1983 and regained in 1984; the head crew was coached by Downing alumnus Graeme Hall, the stroke of the Cambridge crew which won The Boat Race 1969, coached the British Men's VIII to win the silver medal in Rowing at the 1980 Summer Olympics. Downing women formed in 1981 and held their first headship of the Lent Bumps from 2004–2005, regaining it in 2011, attained their first headship of the May Bumps in 2011.
They retained both headships in 2012. The club has now held 15 headships in total, including a double-headship in 1996. In 2018, the first indoor rowing training tank in the East of England was built in the Club's boathouse. CUCBC/ Cambridge University Combined Boat Club Downing College Boat Club
Henry VI of England
Henry VI was King of England from 1422 to 1461 and again from 1470 to 1471, disputed King of France from 1422 to 1453. The only child of Henry V, he succeeded to the English throne at the age of nine months upon his father's death, succeeded to the French throne on the death of his maternal grandfather Charles VI shortly afterwards. Henry inherited the long-running Hundred Years' War, in which his uncle Charles VII contested his claim to the French throne, he is the only English monarch to have been crowned King of France, in 1431. His early reign, when several people were ruling for him, saw the pinnacle of English power in France, but subsequent military and economic problems had endangered the English cause by the time Henry was declared fit to rule in 1437, he found his realm in a difficult position, faced with setbacks in France and divisions among the nobility at home. Unlike his father, Henry is described as timid, passive, well-intentioned, averse to warfare and violence, his ineffective reign saw the gradual loss of the English lands in France.
In the hope of achieving peace, in 1445 Henry married Charles VII's niece, the ambitious and strong-willed Margaret of Anjou. The peace policy failed, leading to the murder of one of Henry's key advisers, the war recommenced, with France taking the upper hand; as the situation in France worsened, there was a related increase in political instability in England. With Henry unfit to rule, power was exercised by quarrelsome nobles, while factions and favourites encouraged the rise of disorder in the country. Regional magnates and soldiers returning from France formed and maintained increasing numbers of private armed retainers, with which they fought one another, terrorised their neighbors, paralysed the courts, dominated the government. Queen Margaret did not remain unpartisan, took advantage of the situation to make herself an effective power behind the throne. Amidst military disasters in France and a collapse of law and order in England, the queen and her clique came under criticism, coming from Henry VI's popular cousin Richard of the House of York, of misconduct of the war in France and misrule of the country.
Starting in 1453, Henry began suffering a series of mental breakdowns, tensions mounted between Margaret and Richard of York over control of the incapacitated king's government, over the question of succession to the throne. Civil war broke out in 1455, leading to a long period of dynastic conflict known as the Wars of the Roses. Henry was deposed on 29 March 1461 after a crushing defeat at the Battle of Towton by Richard's son, who took the throne as Edward IV. Despite Margaret continuing to lead a resistance to Edward, he was captured by Edward's forces in 1465 and imprisoned in the Tower of London. Henry was restored to the throne in 1470, but Edward retook power in 1471, killing Henry's only son and heir in battle and imprisoning Henry once again. Having "lost his wits, his two kingdoms, his only son", Henry died in the Tower during the night of 21 May killed on the orders of Edward. Miracles were attributed to Henry after his death, he was informally regarded as a saint and martyr until the 16th century.
He left a legacy of educational institutions, having founded Eton College, King's College and All Souls College, Oxford. Shakespeare wrote a trilogy of plays about his life, depicting him as weak-willed and influenced by his wife, Margaret. Henry was the only child and heir of King Henry V, he was born on 6 December 1421 at Windsor Castle. He succeeded to the throne as King of England at the age of nine months on 1 September 1422, the day after his father's death. A few weeks on 21 October 1422 in accordance with the Treaty of Troyes of 1420, he became titular King of France upon his grandfather Charles VI's death, his mother, Catherine of Valois, was 20 years old. As Charles VI's daughter, she was viewed with considerable suspicion by English nobles and was prevented from playing a full role in her son's upbringing. On 28 September 1423, the nobles swore loyalty to Henry VI, not yet two years old, they summoned Parliament in the King's name and established a regency council to govern until the King should come of age.
One of Henry V's surviving brothers, Duke of Bedford, was appointed senior regent of the realm and was in charge of the ongoing war in France. During Bedford's absence, the government of England was headed by Henry V's other surviving brother, Duke of Gloucester, appointed Lord Protector and Defender of the Realm, his duties were limited to summoning Parliament. Henry V's half-uncle Henry Beaufort, Bishop of Winchester, had an important place on the Council. After the Duke of Bedford died in 1435, the Duke of Gloucester claimed the Regency himself, but was contested in this by the other members of the Council. From 1428, Henry's tutor was Richard de Beauchamp, Earl of Warwick, whose father had been instrumental in the opposition to Richard II's reign. Henry's half-brothers and Jasper, the sons of his widowed mother and Owen Tudor, were given earldoms. Edmund Tudor was the father of Henry Tudor, who became Henry VII. In reaction to Charles VII's coronation as French King in Reims Cathedral on 17 July 1429, Henry was soon crowned King of England at Westminster Abbey on 6 November 1429, followed by his own coronation as King of France at Notre Dame de Paris on 16 December 1431, at age 10.
He was the only English king to be crow