San Jose, California
San Jose the City of San José, is an economic and political center of Silicon Valley, the largest city in Northern California. With an estimated 2017 population of 1,035,317, it is the third-most populous city in California and the tenth-most populous in United States. Located in the center of the Santa Clara Valley, on the southern shore of San Francisco Bay, San Jose covers an area of 179.97 square miles. San Jose is the county seat of Santa Clara County, the most affluent county in California and one of the most affluent counties in the United States. San Jose is the most populous city in both the San Francisco Bay Area and the San Jose-San Francisco-Oakland Combined Statistical Area, which contain 7.7 million and 8.7 million people respectively. San Jose is a global city, notable as a center of innovation, for its affluence, Mediterranean climate, high cost of living. San Jose's location within the booming high tech industry, as a cultural and economic center has earned the city the nickname "Capital of Silicon Valley".
San Jose is one of the wealthiest major cities in the United States and the world, has the third highest GDP per capita in the world, according to the Brookings Institution. The San Jose Metropolitan Area has the most millionaires and the most billionaires in the United States per capita. With a median home price of $1,085,000, San Jose has the most expensive housing market in the country and the fifth most expensive housing market in the world, according to the 2017 Demographia International Housing Affordability Survey. Major global tech companies including Cisco Systems, eBay, Adobe Systems, PayPal, Samsung, Hewlett Packard Enterprise, Western Digital maintain their headquarters in San Jose, in the center of Silicon Valley. Before the arrival of the Spanish, the area around San Jose was inhabited by the Tamien nation of the Ohlone peoples of California. San Jose was founded on November 29, 1777, as the Pueblo de San José de Guadalupe, the first city founded in the Californias, it became a part of Mexico in 1821 after the Mexican War of Independence.
Following the American Conquest of California during the Mexican–American War, the territory was ceded to the United States in 1848. After California achieved statehood two years San Jose became the state's first capital. Following World War II, San Jose experienced an economic boom, with a rapid population growth and aggressive annexation of nearby cities and communities carried out in the 1950s and 1960s; the rapid growth of the high-technology and electronics industries further accelerated the transition from an agricultural center to an urbanized metropolitan area. Results of the 1990 U. S. Census indicated that San Jose had surpassed San Francisco as the most populous city in Northern California. By the 1990s, San Jose and the rest of Silicon Valley had become the global center for the high tech and internet industries, making it California's fastest-growing economy; the Santa Clara Valley has been home to the Tamyen group of the Ohlone people since around 4,000 BCE. The Tamyen spoke Tamyen language of the Ohlone language family.
With the Spanish colonization of California, the majority of the Tamyen came to inhabit Mission Santa Clara de Asís and Mission San José. California was claimed as part of the Spanish Empire in 1542, when explorer Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo charted the Californian coast. During this time and Baja California were administered together as Province of the California. For nearly 200 years, the Californias were sparsely populated and ignored by the government of the Viceroyalty of New Spain in Mexico City. Only in 1769 was Northern California surveyed by Spanish authorities, with the Portolá Expedition. In 1776, the Californias were included as part of the Captaincy General of the Provincias Internas, a large administrative division created by José de Gálvez, Spanish Minister of the Indies, in order to provide greater autonomy for the Spanish Empire's populated and ungoverned borderlands; that year, King Carlos III of Spain approved an expedition by Juan Bautista de Anza to survey the San Francisco Bay Area, in order to choose the sites for two future settlements and their accompanying mission.
First he chose the site for a military settlement in San Francisco, for the Royal Presidio of San Francisco, Mission San Francisco de Asís. On his way back to Mexico from San Francisco, de Anza chose the sites in Santa Clara Valley for a civilian settlement, San Jose, on the eastern bank of the Guadalupe River, a mission on its western bank, Mission Santa Clara de Asís. San Jose was founded as California's first civilian settlement on November 29, 1777, as the Pueblo de San José de Guadalupe by José Joaquín Moraga, under orders of Antonio María de Bucareli y Ursúa, Viceroy of New Spain. San Jose served as a strategic settlement along El Camino Real, connecting the military fortifications at the Monterey Presidio and the San Francisco Presidio, as well as the California mission network. In 1791, due to the severe flooding which characterized the pueblo, San Jose's settlement was moved a mile south, centered on the Pueblo Plaza. In 1800, due to the growing population in the northern part of the Californias, Diego de Borica, Governor of the Californias split the province into two parts: Alta California, which would become a U.
S. state, Baja California, which would become two Mexican states. San Jose became part of the First M
Gorman is an unincorporated community in northwestern Los Angeles County. Tens of thousands of motorists travel through it daily on Interstate 5. Gorman is a historic travel stop in Peace Valley, at the Tejon Pass which links Southern California with the San Joaquin Valley and Northern California. Gorman is 1,530 acres in size, it lies where three Transverse System mountain ranges—the Sierra Pelona Mountains, the Tehachapi Mountains, the San Emigdio Mountains–meet. One of the Mountain Communities of the Tejon Pass, it is southeast of Frazier Park and south of Lebec. Interstate 5 runs through Gorman, State Route 138 connects to the Interstate a few miles south. California poppies and other wildflowers cover the hills in the springtime when there is sufficient rain; the San Andreas fault slices directly through Gorman running below Interstate 5 as it traverses in a southeast/northwest direction. The U. S. Census Bureau does not break out separate population figures for this small place, but in 2005 Gorman had only 15 homes and a dozen registered voters.
Gorman is "one of the oldest continuously used trail and roadside rest stops in California," as the Native Americans of California "would have stopped there when it was the Tataviam village of Kulshra'jek" explains Mountain Communities historian Bonnie Ketterl Kane. The Spanish and Mexican colonial El Camino Viejo passed through the area en route to Old Tejon Pass; the route of the Stockton–Los Angeles Road went through Tejon Pass after 1852. The Gorman area was part of an 1846 Mexican land grant; the first American settler in the area was a man named Charles Johnson, after 1853. The 1853 account of Lt. Robert S. Williamson of the vicinity for the transcontinental railroad survey expedition report makes no mention of any habitations on the east side of the pass, only that a good wagon road passed through it. After Johnson's death his widow, Soledad Girado ran the place, which by 1855 had become known as Rancho la Viuda. Historian Frank F. Latta noted that the Johnsons' daughter, was the only girl to study at the historic Escuela Normal of Los Angeles in the 1860s.
A man named. In 1857 a woman was killed on his ranch when the great Fort Tejon earthquake struck the area and collapsed the roof of his adobe house. Reed built a substantial log house, which became Reed's Station, on the Butterfield Overland Mail 1st Division Stations in 1858. A stop for the postal stagecoach, it was located 8 miles southeast of Fort Tejon and 14 miles west of French John's Station; the Butterfield Overland Mail ceased in 1861, but was replaced by the Telegraph Stage Line, which stopped at most of the former stations, including at renamed Gorman's, where the horses were changed. Six of them were used for the pull up Tejon Pass from Bakersfield to Gorman's, it was next bought by David W. Alexander, the sheriff of Los Angeles County, who sold the place to James Gorman Sr. in 1867 or 1868. The log "public house", which furnished food and liquor, soon became known as Gorman's Station. Gorman was a veteran of the Mexican–American War of 1848 and was at Fort Tejon as a civilian teamster and herder in 1854 while it was being built.
In 1876, Gorman Sr. died. The first post office was established in December 1877 with Henry Gorman James' brother, as the postmaster. Gorman's widow, continued to run the family farm and the roadside rest until she died in 1889. In 1898, the ranch was bought by Oscar Ralphs, whose brother, had begun a business in Los Angeles that became the Ralphs supermarket chain. In 1901, Oscar Ralphs married Mary McKenzie, who, as Mary Ralphs served 57 years on the Gorman School Board and was honored for her service by Vice President Hubert Humphrey at a National School Boards Association convention. Ridge RouteThe Ridge Route road through Gorman was paved in 1919. In 1923, the first gasoline station in California to be located away from a railroad track was established by Standard Oil. Gorman was a stop on the Ridge Route, Highway 99 after 1926, where its Standard service station beckoned travelers, it was a rest stop for the Greyhound bus until 1977, for long-distance truckers, who now use a Pilot Flying J station in Lebec.
"Being located on the busiest highway in California," wrote historian Kane, "the people of Gorman knew well the need for an ambulance, as so many of the injured were brought to their homes. An ambulance service was established in 1932 with the purchase of an old Packard automobile, converted into an emergency unit, equipped with one stretcher; the ambulance could be reached through the switchboard at the motel, whoever was available would drive it."Aviator Charles Lindbergh established a camp in 1930 on the northeast side of the Gorman Hills, where he tested and flew a folded-wing glider called the Albatross. Interstate 5 replaced U. S. Route 99 through Gorman and over Tejon Pass in 1964; the Umbrellas"The Umbrellas," a site specific art installation by Christo and Jeanne-Claude, surrounded Gorman and Tejon Pass in late September and early October 1991. It was created with 1,760 large yellow umbrellas, placed from the roadsides to the mountainsides. A simultaneous installation of blue umbrellas was created in Japan.
Thousands of visitors flocked to Gorman from all over the world. In January 2006, the Los Angeles County Board of Supervisors unanimously rejected a bid by 32 of the area's 75 property owners to give up Gorman so it could be annexed to Kern C
San Bruno, California
San Bruno is a city in San Mateo County, United States, incorporated in 1914. The population was 41,114 at the 2010 United States Census; the city is located between South San Francisco and Millbrae, adjacent to San Francisco International Airport and Golden Gate National Cemetery, is 12 miles south of downtown San Francisco. The city is located between South San Francisco and Millbrae, adjacent to San Francisco International Airport and Golden Gate National Cemetery, is 12 miles south of downtown San Francisco. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 5.5 square miles, all of it land. The city spreads from the flat lowlands near San Francisco Bay into the foothills of the Santa Cruz Mountains, which rise to more than 600 feet above sea level in Crestmoor and more than 700 feet above sea level in Portola Highlands. San Bruno City Hall sits at an official elevation of 41 feet above sea level. Portions of Mills Park and Rollingwood are hilly, featuring canyons and ravines.
Creeks, many of them now in culverts, flow from springs in the hills toward San Francisco Bay. Just west of Skyline Boulevard and outside of city limits is San Andreas Lake, which got its name from the San Andreas Fault; the lake is one of several reservoirs used by the San Francisco Water Department, providing water to San Francisco and several communities in San Mateo County, including San Bruno west of I-280. San Bruno enjoys a mild Mediterranean climate characterized by mild to warm, dry summers and cool, wet winters. Since 1927, the National Weather Service has maintained a weather station at the nearby San Francisco International Airport. According to the official records, January is the coldest month with an average high of 55.9 °F and an average low of 42.9 °F. Frost occurs during the winter months. Measurable snowfalls occurred on December 11, 1932, February 5, 1976. In recent years, traces of snow have been reported on December 27, 1988. Freezing temperatures occur on an average of only 1.3 days annually.
The coldest winter temperature on record was 20 °F on December 11, 1932, the same day 1.0 inch of snow fell. A week-long cold spell in December 1972 caused hard freezes throughout the area, damaging trees and plants and causing some water pipes to break. September is the warmest month with an average high of 72.7 °F and an average low of 55.1 °F. Temperatures exceed 90 °F on an average of 4.0 days annually. Fog and low overcast are common during the night and morning hours in the summer months, which are very dry except for occasional light drizzle from the fog. On rare occasions moisture moving up from tropical storms has produced thunderstorms or showers in the summer. Gusty westerly winds are common in the afternoon during the summer; the highest summer temperature was 106 °F on June 14, 1961, breaking a record of 104 °F set in June 1960. A high of 105 °F was recorded on July 17, 1988, a high of 104 °F was recorded on September 1, 2017; until August 1, 1993, it had never reached 100 °F in August, one of the foggier months in the area.
Due to thermal inversions, summer temperatures in the higher hills are much higher than at the airport. Thunderstorms occur several times a year during the winter months, but are quite brief. Total annual precipitation, most of which falls from November to April, ranges from 20.11 inches at the nearby National Weather Service station at San Francisco International Airport to over 32 inches in the higher hills. Nylund took temperature observations for several years and published weekly weather reports in the San Bruno Herald from 1966 to 1969, which were included in official reports for the Golden Gate National Cemetery; the annual average days with measurable precipitation is 65.2 days. The most rainfall in a month at the airport was 13.64 inches in February 1998, the most rainfall in 24 hours was 5.59 inches on January 4, 1982. Nylund reported 6.09 inches in Crestmoor during a 24-hour period in January 1967. Winter storms are accompanied by strong southerly winds; the 2010 United States Census reported that San Bruno had a population of 41,114.
The population density was 7,505.0 people per square mile. The racial makeup of San Bruno was 20,350 White, 942 African American, 246 Native American, 10,423 Asian, 1,377 Pacific Islander, 5,075 from other races, 2,701 from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 12,016 persons; the Census reported that 40,716 people lived in households, 316 lived in non-institutionalized group quarters, 82 were institutionalized. There were 14,701 households, out of which 4,831 had children under the age of 18 living in them, 7,364 were opposite-sex married couples living together, 1,830 had a female householder with no husband present, 850 had a male householder with no wife present. There were 764 unmarried opposite-sex partnerships, 123 same-sex married coup
New York Herald
The New York Herald was a large-distribution newspaper based in New York City that existed between 1835 and 1924, when it merged with the New-York Tribune to form the New York Herald Tribune. The first issue of the paper was published by James Gordon Bennett, Sr. on May 6, 1835. By 1845, it was the most profitable daily newspaper in the United States. In 1861, it circulated 84,000 copies and called itself "the most circulated journal in the world." Bennett stated that the function of a newspaper "is not to instruct but to startle and amuse." His politics tended to be anti-Catholic and he had tended to favor the Know-Nothing faction, though he was not anti-immigrant as the Know-Nothing party were. During the American Civil War, his policy as expressed by the newspaper was to staunchly support the Democratic Party. Frederic Hudson served as managing editor of the paper from 1846–1866. Bennett turned over control of the paper to his son James Gordon Bennett, Jr. in 1866. Under Gordon Bennett Jr. the paper financed Henry Morton Stanley's expeditions into Africa to find David Livingstone, where they met on November 10, 1871.
The paper supported Stanley's trans-Africa exploration, in 1879 supported the ill-fated expedition of George W. DeLong to the arctic region. In 1874, the Herald ran the infamous New York Zoo hoax, where the front page of the newspaper was devoted to a fabricated story of wild animals getting loose at the Central Park Zoo and attacking numerous people. On October 4, 1887, Bennett Jr. sent Julius Chambers to France to launch a European edition. Bennett himself moved to Paris, but the New York Herald suffered from his attempt to manage its operation in New York by telegram. In 1916 a Saturday issue of the paper reported that a major financier was found dead poisoned, added that in 1901 he was "mysteriously poisoned and narrowly escaped death."In 1924, after Bennett Jr.'s death, the New York Herald was acquired by its smaller rival the New York Tribune, to form the New York Herald Tribune. In 1959, the New York Herald Tribune and its European edition were sold to John Hay Whitney the U. S. ambassador to Britain.
In 1966, the New York paper ceased publication. The Washington Post and The New York Times acquired joint control of the European edition, renaming it the International Herald Tribune. Today, the IHT, renamed The New York Times International Edition, is owned by The New York Times and remains an English language paper, printed at 35 sites around the world and for sale in more than 180 countries; when the Herald was still under the authority of its original publisher Bennett, it was considered to be the most invasive and sensationalist of the leading New York papers. Its ability to entertain the public with timely daily news made it the leading circulation paper of its time; the New York Evening Telegram was founded in 1867 by the junior Bennett, was considered by many to be an evening edition of the Herald. Frank Munsey acquired the Telegram in 1920. New York's Herald Square is named after the New York Herald newspaper; the statue of Minerva, the Bellringers, Owls by Antonin Carles graced the New York Herald building and rang every hour until it was moved to Herald Square.
The chorus of Give My Regards to Broadway includes the phrase, "emember me to Herald Square." North of Herald Square is Times Square, named after rival The New York Times. Porter Cornelius Bliss New York Herald Tribune The New York Herald 1842-1920 Many Editions Digitized Online at The Library of Congress Three months with the New York Herald: or, Old news on board of a homeward... by John Henry Potter Photographs and architectural sketches of the New York Herald Building A winter evening in a crowded Herald Square at the New York Herald Building, oil on board painting
The Tejon Pass known as Portezuelo de Cortes, Portezuela de Castac, Fort Tejon Pass, is a mountain pass between the southwest end of the Tehachapi Mountains and northeastern San Emigdio Mountains, linking Southern California north to the Central Valley. It has been traversed by major roads such as the El Camino Viejo, the Stockton – Los Angeles Road, the Ridge Route, U. S. Route 99, now Interstate 5; the highest point of the pass is near the northwestern-most corner of Los Angeles County, north of Gorman. Its highest point is 4,144 feet or 4,160 feet, 70 miles northwest of downtown Los Angeles and 46 miles south of Bakersfield; the route of Interstate 5 winds through Tejon Pass, connecting the southern part of the state with the San Joaquin Valley and the north. The pass has a gradual rise from its southern approach of 1,362 feet at Santa Clarita, but a precipitous descent through Grapevine Canyon toward the San Joaquin Valley on the north, where it ends at Grapevine at 1,499 feet. On its northward slope lies Fort Tejon State Historic Park, the site of a former U.
S. Army post, first garrisoned on August 10, 1854. Historians speak of the area around Gorman, California, as "one of the oldest continuously used roadside rest stops in California." This is because pre-Columbian indigenous Californians "would have stopped there when it was the Tataviam village of Kulshra'jek", a trading crossroads for hundreds to thousands of years. In 1772, Lieutenant Pedro Fages crossed the pass in pursuit of military deserters, named it Portezuelo de Cortes. Fages named the canyon beyond the pass leading down into the Tulare Basin, Cañada de las Uvas for all the grape vines growing in it. In the late 18th century, El Camino Viejo, a road between Los Angeles and the Mission Santa Clara de Asis began to be used for travel north and south along the western San Joaquin Valley, it crossed over the pass and turned westward up Cuddy Canyon, descended San Emigdio Creek into the San Joaquin Valley. In 1806, Father Jose Maria Zalvidea, diarist for the expedition of First Lieutenant Francisco Ruiz into the San Joaquin Valley, named the canyon and pass, discovered in 1776 by the explorer priest, Father Francisco Garces.
He recorded the name as "Tejon" —after a dead badger found at the canyon's mouth. This original Tejon Pass, was situated 15 miles to the northeast of; the old pass went through the Tehachapi Mountains, at the top of the divide between Tejon Creek Canyon in the San Joaquin Valley and Cottonwood Creek Canyon in Antelope Valley. Before 1854, the main route of travel into the San Joaquin Valley had come directly north from Elizabeth Lake across the Antelope Valley, over this original Tejon Pass, down into Tejon Canyon, proceeded west along Tejon Creek—into the lands of the Rancho Tejon, granted in 1843; this route to the pass diverted from the El Camino Viejo at Elisabeth Lake, from 1849 to before 1854 it was the main road connecting the southern part of the state to the trail along the eastern side of the San Joaquin Valley to the goldfields to the north. In 1843, Rancho Castac was established in La Cañada de las Uvas. During that same year, the first grant of Rancho Los Alamos y Agua Caliente included the pass, now called Portezuela de Castac.
After the establishment of Fort Tejon and the Stockton - Los Angeles Road, the Portezuela de Castac began to be called the "Fort Tejon Pass." The rather poor wagon route of the old Tejon Pass route was abandoned, the Fort Tejon Pass took the shortened name it has today. In 1858 the Butterfield Overland Mail stagecoach line ran through the pass on the Stockton - Los Angeles Road; the Butterfield Overland was discontinued in 1861 but was replaced by the Telegraph Stage Line, which stopped at all the former stations, including Gorman's, where the horses were changed. Six of them were used for the pull up from Bakersfield to Gorman's; the Ridge Route was the first automobile highway linking the Central Valley with the Los Angeles Basin. It was laid in a sinuous fashion through the ridges and gullies of the Sierra Pelona Mountains to the Tejon Pass around 1910; the northern portion of this highway, which became a part of U. S. Route 99, was known as "The Grapevine." The Ridge Route was replaced by a three-lane alternate highway in 1933, a four-lane expressway in 1947, by the eight-lane Interstate 5 Freeway in 1970.
The pass is sunny in summer and autumn, but is subject to severe weather and closure to traffic in winter. The 40-mile stretch of Interstate 5 between Grapevine and Castaic is sometimes closed by the California Highway Patrol because of the icy conditions combined with the steep grade of the pass, the high traffic during the winter holidays; the Highway Patrol is concerned with the number of big-rigs that pass through, that one accident in the snowy conditions might force traffic to slow down or come to a complete stop, leaving hundreds of vehicles stalled at once. Whenever there is such a closure, traffic must either wait for it to reopen, or endure a multi-hour detour running between Bakersfield and Los Angeles via CA 58; this historic gap has given its name to the Mountain Communities of the Tejon Pass. Beginning on the south at Santa Clari
San Fernando Valley
The San Fernando Valley is an urbanized valley in Los Angeles County, California in the Los Angeles metropolitan area, defined by the mountains of the Transverse Ranges circling it. Home to 1.77 million people, it is north of the more populous Los Angeles Basin. Nearly two thirds of the valley's land area is part of the city of Los Angeles; the other incorporated cities in the valley are Glendale, San Fernando, Hidden Hills, Calabasas. The San Fernando Valley is about 260 square miles bound by the Santa Susana Mountains to the northwest, the Simi Hills to the west, the Santa Monica Mountains and Chalk Hills to the south, the Verdugo Mountains to the east, the San Gabriel Mountains to the northeast; the northern Sierra Pelona Mountains, northwestern Topatopa Mountains, southern Santa Ana Mountains, Downtown Los Angeles skyscrapers can be seen from higher neighborhoods and parks in the San Fernando Valley. The Los Angeles River begins at the confluence of Calabasas Creek and Bell Creek, between Canoga Park High School and Owensmouth Ave. in Canoga Park.
These creeks' headwaters are in the Santa Monica Calabasas foothills, the Simi Hills' Hidden Hills, Santa Susana Field Laboratory, Santa Susana Pass Park lands. The river flows eastward along the southern regions of the Valley. One of the river's two unpaved sections can be found at the Sepulveda Basin. A seasonal river, the Tujunga Wash, drains much of the western facing San Gabriel Mountains and passes into and through the Hansen Dam Recreation Center in Lake View Terrace, it flows south along the Verdugo Mountains through the eastern communities of the valley to join the Los Angeles River in Studio City. Other notable tributaries of the river include Dayton Creek, Caballero Creek, Bull Creek, Pacoima Wash, Verdugo Wash; the elevation of the floor of the valley varies from about 600 ft to 1,200 ft above sea level. Most of the San Fernando Valley is within the jurisdiction of the city of Los Angeles, although a few other incorporated cities are located within the valley as well: Burbank and Glendale are in the southeastern corner of the valley, Hidden Hills and Calabasas are in the southwestern corner, San Fernando, surrounded by Los Angeles, is in the northeastern valley.
Universal City, an enclave in the southern part of the valley, is unincorporated land housing the Universal Studios filming lot and theme park. Mulholland Drive, which runs along the ridgeline of the Santa Monica Mountains, marks the boundary between the valley and the communities of Hollywood and the Los Angeles Westside; the valley's natural habitat is a "temperate grasslands and shrublands biome" of grassland, oak savanna, chaparral shrub forest types of plant community habitats, along with lush riparian plants along the river and springs. In this Mediterranean climate, post-1790s European agriculture for the mission's support consisted of grapes, figs and general garden crops; the San Fernando Valley contains five incorporated cities—Glendale, San Fernando, Hidden Hills, Calabasas—and part of a sixth, Los Angeles, which governs a majority of the valley. The unincorporated communities are governed by the County of Los Angeles; the Los Angeles city section of the valley is divided into seven city council districts: 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 12.
Of the 95 neighborhood councils in the city, 34 are in the valley. The valley is represented in the California State Legislature by seven members of the State Assembly and five members of the State Senate; the valley falls into four congressional districts: the 28th, 29th, 30th, 33rd, represented by Adam Schiff, Tony Cárdenas, Brad Sherman, Ted Lieu. In the Los Angeles County board of supervisors, it is represented by two supervisorial districts, with the western portion represented by Sheila Kuehl and the eastern portion by Kathryn Barger; the San Fernando Valley, for the most part, tends to support Democrats in state and national elections. This is true in the southern areas, which include Sherman Oaks and the city of Burbank; the Los Angeles satellite administrative center for the valley, The Civic Center Van Nuys, is in Van Nuys. The area in and around the Van Nuys branch of Los Angeles City Hall is home to a police station and superior courts and Los Angeles city and county administrative offices.
Northridge is home to Northridge. Many branches of the Los Angeles Public Library are located in the valley. For independent libraries see "Incorporated Cities" in the "Municipalities and districts" list below. Los Angeles Police Department, Los Angeles County Sheriff's Department, independent valley city departments. Los Angeles Fire Department, Los Angeles County Fire Department, Burbank Police Department, independent valley city departments. City of Los Angeles neighborhood councils The Tongva known as the Gabrieleño Mission Indians after colonization, the Tataviam to the north and Chumash to the west, had lived and thrived in the valley and its arroyos for over 8,000 years, they had numerous settlements, trading and hunting camps, before the Spanish arrived in 1769 to settle in the Valley. The first Spanish land grant in the San Fernando Valley was called "Rancho Encino", in the northern part of the San Fernando Valley. Juan Francisco Reyes built an adobe dwelling beside a Tongva village or rancheria at natural springs, but the land was soon taken from him so that a mission could be built there
Los Banos, California
Los Banos, alternatively Los Baños with the tilde of the ñ, is a city in Merced County, central California. It is located in the San Joaquin Valley, near the junction of State Route 152 and Interstate 5; the population was 35,972 at the 2010 census, up from 25,869 at the 2000 census. The city is served by Los Banos Municipal Airport for air transport access; the town's Spanish name Los Baños means "the baths".. Its official spelling, reflected in the name of its post office, omits the tilde of the ñ, though some signs in town show its name as Los Baños. Los Banos is located on the west side of the San Joaquin Valley, 26 miles southwest of Merced, at 118 ft elevation, its coordinates are 37°03′30″N 120°51′00″W. The city is at the intersection of California State Route 152 and California State Route 165. To the west is Interstate 5, which runs north-to-south between the Bay Area and Los Angeles, the San Luis Reservoir, the Diablo Range. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 10.1 square miles, of which 10.0 square miles is land and 0.1 square miles is water.
Los Banos sits on the southwestern edge of extensive national and state game refuges. The San Luis National Wildlife Refuge Complex includes San Luis National Wildlife Refuge which includes the Kesterson Unit, East Bear Creek, West Bear Creek and the Blue Goose Unit. Nearby are the Merced National Wildlife Refuge and the San Joaquin River National Wildlife Refuge. Fishers, hunters and other recreational users flock to Los Banos year round. Los Banos has a Mediterranean climate with hot summers. Most of the precipitation falls in the winter months. Gusty winds are common in the late afternoon in the vicinity of nearby Pacheco Pass. There is an average of 96.9 days with highs of 90 °F or higher, an average of 29.4 days with lows of 32 °F or lower. The record high temperature of 116 °F was on July 25, 1931. A record low temperature of 14 °F was on January 11, 1949, again on December 22, 1990; the average annual rainfall is 9.95 inches. There is an average of 46 days with measurable precipitation; the wettest year recorded was 1998 with 21.08 inches and the driest year was 1947 with 4.61 inches.
The most rainfall in one month was 8.08 inches in March 1998. The most rainfall in 24 hours was 2.40 inches on January 18, 1914. Although snow is rare, 3 in fell in January 1916 and 1.5 inches fell in January 1962. The 2010 United States Census reported that Los Banos had a population of 35,972; the population density was 3,555.6 people per square mile. The racial makeup of Los Banos was 20,846 White, 1,354 African American, 512 Native American, 1,162 Asian, 134 Pacific Islander, 10,123 from other races, 1,841 from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 23,346 persons; the Census reported that 35,791 people lived in households, 103 lived in non-institutionalized group quarters, 78 were institutionalized. There were 10,259 households, out of which 5,451 had children under the age of 18 living in them, 6,018 were opposite-sex married couples living together, 1,474 had a female householder with no husband present, 838 had a male householder with no wife present. There were 791 unmarried opposite-sex partnerships, 78 same-sex married couples or partnerships.
1,551 households were made up of individuals and 653 had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 3.49. There were 8,330 families; the population was spread out with 12,102 people under the age of 18, 3,703 people aged 18 to 24, 9,596 people aged 25 to 44, 7,494 people aged 45 to 64, 3,077 people who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 29.8 years. For every 100 females, there were 99.2 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 96.0 males. There were 11,375 housing units at an average density of 1,124.4 per square mile, of which 6,197 were owner-occupied, 4,062 were occupied by renters. The homeowner vacancy rate was 4.1%. 20,687 people lived in owner-occupied housing units and 15,104 people lived in rental housing units. As of the census of 2000, there were 25,869 people, 7,721 households, 6,223 families residing in the city; the population density was 3,218.7 people per square mile. There were 8,049 housing units at an average density of 1,001.5 per square mile.
The racial makeup of the city was 58.61% White, 4.25% African American, 1.35% Native American, 2.34% Asian, 0.33% Pacific Islander, 26.90% from other races, 6.21% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 50.44% of the population. There were 7,721 households out of which 48.9% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 62.5% were married couples living together, 12.4% had a female householder with no husband present, 19.4% were non-families. 15.8% of all households were made up of individuals and 7.0% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 3.33 and the average family size