King's College London
King's College London is a public research university located in London, United Kingdom, a founding constituent college of the federal University of London. King's was established in 1829 by King George IV and Arthur Wellesley, 1st Duke of Wellington, when it received its first royal charter, claims to be the fourth oldest university institution in England. In 1836, King's became one of the two founding colleges of the University of London. In the late 20th century, King's grew through a series of mergers, including with Queen Elizabeth College and Chelsea College of Science and Technology, the Institute of Psychiatry, the United Medical and Dental Schools of Guy's and St Thomas' Hospitals and the Florence Nightingale School of Nursing and Midwifery. King's has five campuses: its historic Strand Campus in central London, three other Thames-side campuses and one in Denmark Hill in south London. In 2017/18, King's had a total income of £841.1 million, of which £194.4 million was from research grants and contracts.
It is the 12th largest university in the United Kingdom by total enrolment. It has the fifth largest endowment of any university in the United Kingdom, the largest of any in London, its academic activities are organised into nine faculties, which are subdivided into numerous departments and research divisions. King's is considered part of the'golden triangle' of research-intensive English universities alongside the University of Oxford, University of Cambridge, University College London, Imperial College London, The London School of Economics, it is a member of academic organisations including the Association of Commonwealth Universities, European University Association, the Russell Group. King's is home to six Medical Research Council centres and is a founding member of the King's Health Partners academic health sciences centre, Francis Crick Institute and MedCity, it is the largest European centre for graduate and post-graduate medical teaching and biomedical research, by number of students, includes the world's first nursing school, the Florence Nightingale Faculty of Nursing and Midwifery.
Globally, it was ranked 31st in the 2019 QS World University Rankings, 36th in the 2018 CWTS Leiden Ranking, 36th in the 2018 The World University Rankings, 46th in the 2017 ARWU. King's was ranked 42nd in the world for reputation in the annual Times Higher Education survey of academics for 2018. Nationally it was ranked 26th in the 2019 Complete University Guide, 35th in the 2019 Times/Sunday Times University Guide, 58th in the 2019 Guardian University Guide. King's alumni and staff include 12 Nobel laureates. Alumni include heads of states and intergovernmental organisations. King's College, so named to indicate the patronage of King George IV, was founded in 1829 in response to the theological controversy surrounding the founding of "London University" in 1826. London University was founded, with the backing of Utilitarians and Nonconformists, as a secular institution, intended to educate "the youth of our middling rich people between the ages of 15 or 16 and 20 or later" giving its nickname, "the godless college in Gower Street".
The need for such an institution was a result of the religious and social nature of the universities of Oxford and Cambridge, which educated the sons of wealthy Anglicans. The secular nature of London University was disapproved by The Establishment, indeed, "the storms of opposition which raged around it threatened to crush every spark of vital energy which remained". Thus, the creation of a rival institution represented a Tory response to reassert the educational values of The Establishment. More King's was one of the first of a series of institutions which came about in the early nineteenth century as a result of the Industrial Revolution and great social changes in England following the Napoleonic Wars. By virtue of its foundation King's has enjoyed the patronage of the monarch, the Archbishop of Canterbury as its visitor and during the nineteenth century counted among its official governors the Lord Chancellor, Speaker of the House of Commons and the Lord Mayor of London; the simultaneous support of Arthur Wellesley, 1st Duke of Wellington, for an Anglican King's College London and the Roman Catholic Relief Act, to lead to the granting of full civil rights to Catholics, was challenged by George Finch-Hatton, 10th Earl of Winchilsea, in early 1829.
Winchilsea and his supporters wished for King's to be subject to the Test Acts, like the universities of Oxford, where only members of the Church of England could matriculate, Cambridge, where non-Anglicans could matriculate but not graduate, but this was not Wellington's intent. Winchilsea and about 150 other contributors withdrew their support of King's College London in response to Wellington's support of Catholic emancipation. In a letter to Wellington he accused the Duke to have in mind "insidious designs for the infringement of our liberty and the introduction of Popery into every department of the State"; the letter provoked a furious exchange of correspondence and Wellington accused Winchilsea of imputing him with "disgraceful and criminal motives" in setting up King's C
King's College London GKT School of Medical Education
King's College London GKT School of Medical Education is the medical school of King's College London. It is the biggest healthcare training facility in Europe; the school has campuses at three institutions, Guy's Hospital, King's College Hospital and St Thomas' Hospital in London. The school in its current guise was formed following a merger with the United Medical and Dental Schools of Guy's and St Thomas' Hospitals on 1 August 1998; the medical school has an annual intake of around 335 places on the standard MBBS Programme, 50 places on the Extended Medical Degree Programme and 28 places on the Graduate/Professional Entry Programme which does not include 2 places for Maxillo Facial Entry. It receives more applications for medicine than any other UK medical school and as of 2016 applicants were required to sit the UKCAT admission test; the medical school is ranked 8th in the world, as adjudged by Times Higher Education in its World University Rankings 2015–2016 by subject, commenting that "...
While the overall strength of these countries has dipped, some of their institutions have moved against the tide. One of these is King's College London, which makes its debut in the top 10." As to QS World University Rankings 2016, the school is ranked 21st globally. The school is ranked 27th in the UK by the Complete University Guide 2018; the School was named the GKT School of Medicine between 1998 and 2005. However, due to confusion over the official name of the institute with regards to research emerging from the university, it was rebranded as the King's College London School of Medicine and Dentistry at Guy's, King's College and St Thomas' Hospitals. In 2015, to reflect the strong history of the multiple institutions that comprise the medical school, the School once again rebranded as the King's College London GKT School of Medical Education; the hospitals associated with King's College London GKT School of Medical Education, i.e. Guy's Hospital, King's College Hospital and St Thomas' Hospital, are: "amongst the oldest hospitals in the world, having endured the Black Death, the plague, the War of the Roses, the Great Fire of London, the Blitz and over 60 years of NHS reforms."Of the three hospitals, St Thomas' Hospital is the oldest and was founded in 1173 but whose roots can be traced to the establishment of St Mary Overie Priory in 1106.
Sir Thomas Guy, a governor of St Thomas', founded Guy's Hospital in 1721 as a place to treat'incurables' discharged from St Thomas'. St Thomas's Hospital Medical School was founded in 1550 and was sited across St Thomas' Hospital and Guy's Hospital. In 1769 it was decided that Guy's would teach medical subjects, whereas St Thomas' would focus on surgery and the joint teaching institution was known as The Borough Hospitals. However, a dispute between the two hospitals regarding the successor to Sir Astley Cooper resulted in Guy's Hospital establishing its own medical school in 1825. After this, students of surgeons attended operations at both hospitals until 1836. A riot between students of the two hospitals broke out in the operating theatre at St. Thomas's in 1836 which ended the arrangement. St Thomas's Hospital Medical School and Guy's Hospital Medical School were two of the oldest and most prestigious medical schools in the UK. In 1982 the two medical schools decided to merge and formed the United Medical and Dental Schools of Guy's and St Thomas' Hospitals, more known as UMDS.
It was enlarged in 1983 when the Royal Dental Hospital of London School of Dental Surgery merged with Guy's Hospital Dental School, again in 1985 with the addition of the Postgraduate Institute of Dermatology. Students of UMDS were allocated to one of the two campuses, with most preclinical teaching and all clinical teaching being separate. With the intake of 1989, students ceased being allocated in this way, teaching for all students was divided between the campuses and their peripheral hospitals. Discussions between King's College London and UMDS regarding a further merger began in 1992. UMDS was subsequently absorbed into King's College London on 1 August 1998, forming the Guy's, King's and St Thomas' School of Medicine, more known as GKT. In 2005, the entity was rebranded King's College London School of Medicine and Dentistry at Guy's, King's College and St Thomas' Hospitals known as KCLMS; however it is still known as GKT amongst current students and consultants who consider themselves affiliated to the hospitals rather than the university.
In 2005 the dental school became the Dental Institute and the remainder was renamed the King's College School of Medicine. The dean, Robert Lechler, oversees the running of both the Medical and Dental schools, as well as the School of Biomedical Sciences. Before the start of the 2010/11 academic year, Physiotherapy became a part of the School of Medicine, having been run by the School of Biomedical and Health Sciences. King's College London GKT School of Medical Education is associated with the following hospitals: Guy's Hospital St Thomas' Hospital King's College Hospital Maudsley Hospital University Hospital Lewisham Bethlem Royal Hospital Evelina London Children's HospitalIt is associated with several peripheral hospitals around the South East of the UK, including Medway Maritime Hospital, William Harvey Hospital and Queen Elizabeth The Queen Mother Hospital. Students are required to spend at least part of their training at these peripheral locations. Guy's Camp
Academic health science centre
An academic health science centre is defined by the Association of Academic Health Centers as: "an educational institution that includes a medical school and at least one allied health professional school and either owns or is affiliated with a teaching hospital or healthcare system". AHSCs are intended to ensure that medical research breakthroughs lead to direct clinical benefits for patients; the organisational structures that comprise an AHSC can take a variety of forms, ranging from simple partnerships to, less fully integrated organisations with a single management board. There are AHSCs operating in a number of countries including Australia, the Republic of Ireland, the Netherlands, Singapore, the United Kingdom and the United States. In Australia, AHSCs are referred to as Advanced Health Research & Translation Centres. AHSCs in operation in Australia include: Brisbane Diamantina Health Partners Melbourne Academic Centre for Health Monash Partners Academic Health Science Centre South Australian Academic Health Science and Translation Centre Sydney Health Partners Sydney Partnership for Health, Research & Enterprise Western Australian Health Translation Network In Canada, AHSCs are referred to as Academic Healthcare Organizations.
AHSCs in operation in Canada include: Hamilton Health Sciences Health Sciences North Only trauma center in Northern Ontario and the neighbouring province of Manitoba. London Health Sciences Centre McGill University Health Centre The Ottawa Hospital Thunder Bay Regional Health Sciences Centre University Health Network Vancouver Hospital and Health Sciences Centre Winnipeg Health Sciences Centre In 2007 a review of healthcare in London led by Professor Lord Darzi, A Framework for Action, recommended the creation of a number of AHSCs. In October 2007 Imperial College Healthcare became the first AHSC to be established in the UK when the Imperial College London Faculty of Medicine merged with the Hammersmith Hospital and St Mary's NHS trusts. Four more AHSCs have subsequently been established in the UK and one is planned. Funding comes from NHS and work was "in hand to identify the funding" when expressions of interest were solicited; when contracts were signed with NHS in 2013, AHSCs shared among themselves around £60 million of funding.
With a clear purpose and approach of individual AHSCs is a matter for local decision with the contrasting approaches adopted as well as the differences in opinions voiced out by network founders. In recent years, broader academic health science networks have been created attached to original health science centres, although cumulatively providing national coverage; the following AHSCs are in operation in the UK: Cambridge University Health Partners, Cambridge Imperial College Academic Health Science Centre, London King's Health Partners, London Manchester Academic Health Science Centre, Manchester Oxford Academic Health Science Centre, Oxford UCL Partners, London Health Science Scotland AHSCs in operation in the United States include: Albany Medical Center, Albany Medical College, New York Anschutz Medical Campus, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Colorado BJC HealthCare, St. Louis, Missouri Boston Medical Center, Boston University, Massachusetts Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, California Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland Clinic Lerner College of Medicine, Ohio Dartmouth-Hitchcock Medical Center, Geisel School of Medicine, New Hampshire Duke University Medical Center Greenville Health System Clinical University Intermountain Medical Center Johns Hopkins Hospital Loma Linda University Health Massachusetts General Hospital and Women's Hospital, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School Mayo Clinic, Mayo Clinic College of Medicine and Science Medical University of South Carolina, South Carolina Memorial Medical Center and St. John's Hospital National Academy of Medicine National Institutes of Health New York–Presbyterian Hospital, Columbia University and Cornell University, New York, New York NYU Langone Medical Center, New York University, New York, NY Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center, Ohio State University OSF Saint Francis Medical Center and the Children's Hospital of Illinois Providence Alaska Medical Center Robert Wood Johnson University Hospital, Robert Wood Johnson Medical School Stony Brook University Hospital, Stony Brook University- State University of New York, Stony Brook, NY Temple University Hospital, Temple University, Pennsylvania Texas Medical Center Thomas Jefferson University Hospital, Thomas Jefferson University, Pennsylvania Tufts Medical Center UCLA Health System UC San Diego Health UCSF Medical Center Uniformed Services University, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Alabama University of Chicago Medical Cent
A hospital is a health care institution providing patient treatment with specialized medical and nursing staff and medical equipment. The best-known type of hospital is the general hospital, which has an emergency department to treat urgent health problems ranging from fire and accident victims to a sudden illness. A district hospital is the major health care facility in its region, with a large number of beds for intensive care and additional beds for patients who need long-term care. Specialized hospitals include trauma centers, rehabilitation hospitals, children's hospitals, seniors' hospitals, hospitals for dealing with specific medical needs such as psychiatric treatment and certain disease categories. Specialized hospitals can help reduce health care costs compared to general hospitals. Hospitals are classified as general, specialty, or government depending on the sources of income received. A teaching hospital combines assistance to people with teaching to medical nurses; the medical facility smaller than a hospital is called a clinic.
Hospitals have a range of departments and specialist units such as cardiology. Some hospitals have outpatient departments and some have chronic treatment units. Common support units include a pharmacy and radiology. Hospitals are funded by the public sector, health organisations, health insurance companies, or charities, including direct charitable donations. Hospitals were founded and funded by religious orders, or by charitable individuals and leaders. Hospitals are staffed by professional physicians, surgeons and allied health practitioners, whereas in the past, this work was performed by the members of founding religious orders or by volunteers. However, there are various Catholic religious orders, such as the Alexians and the Bon Secours Sisters that still focus on hospital ministry in the late 1990s, as well as several other Christian denominations, including the Methodists and Lutherans, which run hospitals. In accordance with the original meaning of the word, hospitals were "places of hospitality", this meaning is still preserved in the names of some institutions such as the Royal Hospital Chelsea, established in 1681 as a retirement and nursing home for veteran soldiers.
During the Middle Ages, hospitals served different functions from modern institutions. Middle Ages hospitals were hostels for pilgrims, or hospital schools; the word "hospital" comes from the Latin hospes, signifying a foreigner, hence a guest. Another noun derived from this, hospitium came to signify hospitality, the relation between guest and shelterer, hospitality and hospitable reception. By metonymy the Latin word came to mean a guest-chamber, guest's lodging, an inn. Hospes is thus the root for the English words host hospitality, hospice and hotel; the latter modern word derives from Latin via the ancient French romance word hostel, which developed a silent s, which letter was removed from the word, the loss of, signified by a circumflex in the modern French word hôtel. The German word'Spital' shares similar roots; the grammar of the word differs depending on the dialect. In the United States, hospital requires an article; some patients go to a hospital just for diagnosis, treatment, or therapy and leave without staying overnight.
Hospitals are distinguished from other types of medical facilities by their ability to admit and care for inpatients whilst the others, which are smaller, are described as clinics. The best-known type of hospital is the general hospital known as an acute-care hospital; these facilities handle many kinds of disease and injury, have an emergency department or trauma center to deal with immediate and urgent threats to health. Larger cities may have several hospitals of facilities; some hospitals in the United States and Canada, have their own ambulance service. A district hospital is the major health care facility in its region, with large numbers of beds for intensive care, critical care, long-term care. In California, "district hospital" refers to a class of healthcare facility created shortly after World War II to address a shortage of hospital beds in many local communities. Today, district hospitals are the sole public hospitals in 19 of California's counties, are the sole locally-accessible hospital within nine additional counties in which one or more other hospitals are present at substantial distance from a local community.
Twenty-eight of California's rural hospitals and 20 of its critical-access hospitals are district hospitals. They are formed by local municipalities, have boards that are individually elected by their local communities, exist to serve local needs, they are a important provider of healthcare to uninsured patients and patients with Medi-Cal. In 2012, district hospitals provided $54 million in uncompensated care in California. Types of specialised hospitals incl
In biology, immunity is the balanced state of multicellular organisms having adequate biological defenses to fight infection, disease, or other unwanted biological invasion, while having adequate tolerance to avoid allergy, autoimmune diseases. Immunity is the capability of multicellular organisms to resist harmful microorganisms from entering it. Immunity involves both nonspecific components; the nonspecific components act as barriers or eliminators of a wide range of pathogens irrespective of their antigenic make-up. Other components of the immune system adapt themselves to each new disease encountered and can generate pathogen-specific immunity. An immune system may contain adaptive components; the innate system in mammalians, for example, is composed of primitive bone marrow cells that are programmed to recognise foreign substances and react. The adaptive system is composed of more advanced lymphatic cells that are programmed to recognise self-substances and don't react; the reaction to foreign substances is etymologically described as inflammation, meaning to set on fire.
The non-reaction to self-substances is described as immunity, meaning to exempt or as immunotolerance. These two components of the immune system create a dynamic biological environment where "health" can be seen as a physical state where the self is immunologically spared, what is foreign is inflammatorily and immunologically eliminated. "Disease" can arise what is self is not spared. Innate immunity called native immunity, exists by virtue of an organisms constitution, its genetic make-up, without an external stimulation or a previous infection, it is divided into two types: Non-Specific innate immunity, a degree of resistance to all infections in general. Specific innate immunity, a resistance to a particular kind of microorganism only; as a result, some races, particular individuals or breeds in agriculture do not suffer from certain infectious diseases. Adaptive immunity can be sub-divided depending on how the immunity was introduced in'naturally acquired' through chance contact with a disease-causing agent, whereas'artificially acquired immunity' develops through deliberate actions such as vaccination.
Both and artificially acquired immunity can be further subdivided depending on whether the host built up immunity itself by antigen as'active immunity' and lasts long-term, sometimes lifelong.'Passive immunity' is acquired through transfer of antibodies or activated T-cells from an immune host. The diagram below summarizes these divisions of immunity. Adaptive immunity can be divided by the type of immune mediators involved. Humoral immunity is called active when the organism generates its antibodies, passive when antibodies are transferred between individuals or species. Cell-mediated immunity is active when the organisms’ T-cells are stimulated, passive when T cells come from another organism; the concept of immunity has intrigued mankind for thousands of years. The prehistoric view of disease was that supernatural forces caused it, that illness was a form of theurgic punishment for "bad deeds" or "evil thoughts" visited upon the soul by the gods or by one's enemies. Between the time of Hippocrates and the 19th century, when the foundations of the scientific methods were laid, diseases were attributed to an alteration or imbalance in one of the four humors.
Popular during this time before learning that communicable diseases came from germs/microbes was the miasma theory, which held that diseases such as cholera or the Black Plague were caused by a miasma, a noxious form of "bad air". If someone were exposed to the miasma in a swamp, in evening air, or breathing air in a sickroom or hospital ward, they could get a disease; the modern word "immunity" derives from the Latin immunis, meaning exemption from military service, tax payments or other public services. The first written descriptions of the concept of immunity may have been made by the Athenian Thucydides who, in 430 BC, described that when the plague hit Athens: "the sick and the dying were tended by the pitying care of those who had recovered, because they knew the course of the disease and were themselves free from apprehensions. For no one was attacked a second time, or not with a fatal result"; the term "immunes", is found in the epic poem "Pharsalia" written around 60 B. C. by the poet Marcus Annaeus Lucanus to describe a North African tribe's resistance to snake venom.
The first clinical description of immunity which arose from a specific disease-causing organism is Kitab fi al-jadari wa-al-hasbah written by the Islamic physician Al-Razi in the 9th century. In the treatise, Al Razi describes the clinical presentation of smallpox and measles and goes on to indicate that exposure to these specific agents confers lasting immunity; the first scientist who developed a full theory of immunity was Ilya Mechnikov after he revealed phagocytosis in 1882. With Louis Pasteur's germ theory of disease, the fledgling science of immunology began to explain how bacteria caused disease, how, following infection, the human body gained the ability to resist further infections; the birth of active immunotherapy may have begun with Mithridates VI of Pontus. To induce active immunity for snake venom, he recommended using a method similar to modern toxoid serum therapy, by drinking the blood of animals which fed on venomous snakes. According to Jean de Male
Guy's Hospital is an NHS hospital in the borough of Southwark in central London. It is part of Guy's and St Thomas' NHS Foundation Trust and one of the institutions that comprise the King's Health Partners, an academic health science centre, it is a large teaching hospital and is, with St Thomas' Hospital and King's College Hospital, the location of King's College London GKT School of Medical Education. The Tower Wing is the world's second tallest hospital building, standing at 148.65 metres with 34 floors. It is one of the tallest buildings in London; the hospital dates from 1721, when it was founded by philanthropist Thomas Guy, who had made a fortune from the South Sea Bubble and as a publisher of unlicensed Bibles. It was established as a hospital to treat "incurables" discharged from St Thomas' Hospital. Guy had been a Governor and benefactor of St Thomas' and his fellow Governors supported his intention by granting the south-side of St Thomas' Street for a peppercorn rent for 999 years.
Following his death in 1724, Thomas Guy was entombed at the hospital's chapel, in a tomb featuring a marble sculpture by John Bacon. The original buildings formed a courtyard facing St Thomas Street, comprising the hall on the east side and the Chapel, Matron's House and Surgeon's House on the west-side. A bequest of £180,000 by William Hunt in 1829, one of the largest charitable bequests in England in historic terms, allowed for a further hundred beds to be accommodated. Hunt's name was given to the southern expansion of the hospital buildings which took place in 1850. Two inner quadrangles were divided by a cloister, restyled and dedicated to the hospital's members who fell in the First World War; the east side comprised the care wards and the'counting house' with the governors'Burfoot Court Room'. The north-side quadrangle is dominated by a statue of Lord Nuffield, the chairman of governors for many years and a major benefactor. In 1974, the hospital added the 34-storey Guy's Tower and 29-storey Guy's House: this complex was designed by Watkins Gray.
The Wolfson Centre for Age-Related Diseases, dedicated to improving outcomes of conditions such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease and spinal cord injury, was opened by the Princess Royal in December 2004. In October 2005 children's departments moved to the Evelina London Children's Hospital in the grounds next to St Thomas's close to the Palace of Westminster. A new cancer centre, built by Laing O'Rourke at a cost of £160 million, was completed in April 2016. Medical services at the Guy's site are now concentrated in the buildings to the east of Great Maze Pond: these buildings, which are connected, are known as Tower Wing, Bermondsey Wing, Southwark Wing and Borough Wing; the Cancer Centre is in a separate building just to the south. To the west of the Great Maze Pond is Guy's Campus. At 148.65 metres high, Guy's Tower regained its tallest hospital building in the world status in 2014. It has since been surpassed by the Outpatient Center at the Houston Methodist Hospital, in Houston, USA at 156.05 metres.
Healthcare in London List of hospitals in England King's Health Partners Francis Crick Institute Tall buildings in London Guy's and St Thomas' NHS Foundation Trust Guy's and St Thomas' Charity Wolfson Centre for Age Related Diseases Lists of Guy's Hospital students
Francis Crick Institute
The Francis Crick Institute is a biomedical research centre in London, which opened in 2016. The institute is a partnership between Cancer Research UK, Imperial College London, King's College London, the Medical Research Council, University College London and the Wellcome Trust; the institute has 1,500 staff, including 1,250 scientists, an annual budget of over £100 million, making it the biggest single biomedical laboratory in Europe. The institute is named after the Cambridge molecular biologist and neuroscientist Francis Crick, co-discoverer of the structure of DNA, who shared the 1962 Nobel Prize for Physiology and Medicine with James Watson and Maurice Wilkins. Unofficially, the Crick has been called Sir Paul's Cathedral, a reference to Sir Paul Nurse and St Paul's Cathedral in London; the institute defines its research programme as exploring "seven high-level science questions reflecting both major issues of interest in biomedical research and the current research strategies of its six founders".
According to the institute, these questions are: How does a living organism acquire form and function? How do organisms maintain health and balance throughout life and as they age? How can we use biological knowledge to better understand and treat human disease? How does cancer start and respond to therapy? How does the immune system know whether and how to react? How do microbes and pathogens function and interact with their hosts? How does the nervous system detect and respond to information and retain that information throughout life? In July 2015 GlaxoSmithKline was announced as the institute's first commercial partner; the deal involves contribution of personnel to joint projects. In 2015, Tomas Lindahl, Emeritus group leader at the Francis Crick Institute and Emeritus director of Cancer Research UK at Clare Hall Laboratory, was awarded the Nobel Prize in Chemistry together with Paul Modrich and Aziz Sancar. In 2016, Professor Tim Bliss, from the Crick, Professors Graham Collingridge and Richard Morris were awarded The Brain Prize.
The Francis Crick Institute is located in a state-of-the-art building, opened in 2016, built next to St Pancras International railway station in the Camden area of Central London. It consists of four reinforced concrete blocks up to eight storeys high plus four basement levels; the total internal floor area is 82,578m2 including 29,179m2 of laboratories with 4 km of laboratory benching and 21,839m2 of associated write up space. As well as state of the art scientific equipment, much of it sensitive to vibration and electromagnetic emissions, requiring advanced methods of air handling, over a third of the building is given over to plant rooms and services distribution; the facility incorporates a combined heat and power plant in order to provide low-carbon onsite power. Solar panels installed in the roof provide extra renewable power and all light fittings are energy-efficient; the roof hides the heating and cooling units. A third of the building is below ground to reduce its visible size and provide further protection to sensitive equipment.
Laboratories within the building are arranged over four floors, made up of four interconnected blocks, designed to encourage interaction between scientists working in different research fields. The institute includes a public exhibition/gallery space, an educational space, a 450-seat auditorium and a community facility.‘Paradigm’, a 14-metre high sculpture made of weathered steel and designed by the British artist Conrad Shawcross, was installed outside the main entrance to the institute in 2016. It is one of the largest public sculptures in London; the Crick is a registered charity led by a board of trustees, an executive committee, a scientific management committee and a scientific advisory board. As of 2018 the board is chaired by Lord Browne of Madingley and includes Maggie Dallman, Sir Harpal Kumar, Lord Willetts, David Lomas, Sir Robert Lechler, Philip Yea, Kate Bingham, Jeremy Farrar and Doreen Cantrell; the executive committee is staffed by Sir Paul Nurse and includes Sam Barrell, Sir Richard Treisman, Steven J. Gamblin, Malcolm Irving, John Macey, Stephane Maikovsky, Katie Matthews and Jane Hughes.
In 2003 the Medical Research Council decided that its National Institute for Medical Research would need to relocate from Mill Hill. A Task Force, one of whose external members was Sir Paul Nurse, was established to consider options. Sites rejected included Addenbrooke's and the National Temperance Hospital. On 11 February 2005 it was announced that NIMR would relocate to UCL, but this was dependent on funding from the government’s Large Facilities Capital Fund and did not proceed. In December 2006 the Cooksey Review, commissioned by the Chancellor Gordon Brown in March, was published, it assessed the strategic priorities of UK health research, highlighting in particular the importance of translating basic research into health and economic benefits. The creation of the UK Centre for Medical Research and Innovation was announced by the British Prime Minister, Gordon Brown, on 5 December 2007. On 13 June 2008 the 3.5 acre eventual site on Brill Place was bought for UKCMRI for £85m, of which £46.75m was provided by MRC.
On 15 July 2010 it was announced that Nobel laureate Sir Paul Nurse would be the first director and chief executive of the UKCMRI. He took up his post on 1 January 2011. On 20 October 2010 the Chancellor of the Exchequer, George Osborne, confirmed that the British Government would be contributing £220 million over four years towards the capital cost of the Centre. On 11 Novemb