I Have a Dream
"I Have a Dream" is a public speech, delivered by American civil rights activist Martin Luther King Jr. during the March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom on August 28, 1963, in which he called for civil and economic rights and an end to racism in the United States. Delivered to over 250,000 civil rights supporters from the steps of the Lincoln Memorial in Washington, D. C. the speech was a defining moment of the civil rights movement. Beginning with a reference to the Emancipation Proclamation, which freed millions of slaves in 1863, King said "one hundred years the Negro still is not free". Toward the end of the speech, King departed from his prepared text for a improvised peroration on the theme "I have a dream", prompted by Mahalia Jackson's cry: "Tell them about the dream, Martin!" In this part of the speech, which most excited the listeners and has now become its most famous, King described his dreams of freedom and equality arising from a land of slavery and hatred. Jon Meacham writes that, "With a single phrase, Martin Luther King Jr. joined Jefferson and Lincoln in the ranks of men who've shaped modern America".
The speech was ranked the top American speech of the 20th century in a 1999 poll of scholars of public address. The March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom was intended to demonstrate mass support for the civil rights legislation proposed by President Kennedy in June. Martin Luther King and other leaders therefore agreed to keep their speeches calm to avoid provoking the civil disobedience which had become the hallmark of the Civil Rights Movement. King designed his speech as a homage to Abraham Lincoln's Gettysburg Address, timed to correspond with the centennial of the Emancipation Proclamation. King had been preaching about dreams since 1960, when he gave a speech to the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People called "The Negro and the American Dream"; this speech discusses the gap between the American dream and reality, saying that overt white supremacists have violated the dream, that "our federal government has scarred the dream through its apathy and hypocrisy, its betrayal of the cause of justice".
King suggests that "It may well be that the Negro is God's instrument to save the soul of America." In 1961, he spoke of the Civil Rights Movement and student activists' "dream" of equality—"the American Dream... a dream as yet unfulfilled"—in several national speeches and statements, took "the dream" as the centerpiece for these speeches. On November 27, 1962, King gave a speech at Booker T. Washington High School in Rocky Mount, North Carolina; that speech was longer than the version which he would deliver from the Lincoln Memorial. And while parts of the text had been moved around, large portions were identical, including the "I have a dream" refrain. After being rediscovered, the restored and digitized recording of the 1962 speech was presented to the public by the English department of North Carolina State University. King had delivered a "dream" speech in Detroit, in June 1963, when he marched on Woodward Avenue with Walter Reuther and the Reverend C. L. Franklin, had rehearsed other parts.
Mahalia Jackson, who sang "How I Got Over", just before the speech in Washington, knew about King's Detroit speech. The March on Washington Speech, known as "I Have a Dream Speech", has been shown to have had several versions, written at several different times, it has no single version draft, but is an amalgamation of several drafts, was called "Normalcy, Never Again". Little of this, another "Normalcy Speech", ended up in the final draft. A draft of "Normalcy, Never Again" is housed in the Morehouse College Martin Luther King Jr. Collection of the Robert W. Woodruff Library, Atlanta University Center and Morehouse College; the focus on "I have a dream" comes through the speech's delivery. Toward the end of its delivery, noted African American gospel singer Mahalia Jackson shouted to King from the crowd, "Tell them about the dream, Martin." King departed from his prepared remarks and started "preaching" improvisationally, punctuating his points with "I have a dream." The speech was drafted with the assistance of Stanley Levison and Clarence Benjamin Jones in Riverdale, New York City.
Jones has said that "the logistical preparations for the march were so burdensome that the speech was not a priority for us" and that, "on the evening of Tuesday, Aug. 27, Martin still didn't know what he was going to say". Leading up to the speech's rendition at the Great March on Washington, King had delivered its "I have a dream" refrains in his speech before 25,000 people in Detroit's Cobo Hall after the 125,000-strong Great Walk to Freedom in Detroit, June 23, 1963. After the Washington, D. C. March, a recording of King's Cobo Hall speech was released by Detroit's Gordy Records as an LP entitled "The Great March To Freedom". Hailed as a masterpiece of rhetoric, King's speech invokes pivotal documents in American history, including the Declaration of Independence, the Emancipation Proclamation, the United States Constitution. Early in his speech, King alludes to Abraham Lincoln's Gettysburg Address by saying "Five score years ago..." In reference to the abolition of slavery articulated in the Emancipation Proclamation, King says: "It came as a joyous daybreak to end the long night of their captivity."
Anaphora is employed throughout the speech. Early in his speech, King urges his audience to seize the moment; the most cited example of anaphora is found in the quoted phrase "I have a dream", repeated eight times as King paints a picture of an integrated and unified Americ
Los Angeles Times
The Los Angeles Times is a daily newspaper, published in Los Angeles, since 1881. It has the fourth-largest circulation among United States newspapers, is the largest U. S. newspaper not headquartered on the East Coast. The paper is known for its coverage of issues salient to the U. S. West Coast, such as immigration trends and natural disasters, it has won more than 40 Pulitzer Prizes for its coverage of other issues. As of June 18, 2018, ownership of the paper is controlled by Patrick Soon-Shiong, the executive editor is Norman Pearlstine. In the nineteenth century, the paper was known for its civic boosterism and opposition to unions, the latter of which led to the bombing of its headquarters in 1910; the paper's profile grew in the 1960s under publisher Otis Chandler, who adopted a more national focus. In recent decades, the paper's readership has declined and it has been beset by a series of ownership changes, staff reductions, other controversies. In January 2018, the paper's staff voted to unionize, in July 2018 the paper moved out of its historic downtown headquarters to a facility near Los Angeles International Airport.
The Times was first published on December 4, 1881, as the Los Angeles Daily Times under the direction of Nathan Cole Jr. and Thomas Gardiner. It was first printed at the Mirror printing plant, owned by Jesse Yarnell and T. J. Caystile. Unable to pay the printing bill and Gardiner turned the paper over to the Mirror Company. In the meantime, S. J. Mathes had joined the firm, it was at his insistence that the Times continued publication. In July 1882, Harrison Gray Otis moved from Santa Barbara to become the paper's editor. Otis made the Times a financial success. Historian Kevin Starr wrote that Otis was a businessman "capable of manipulating the entire apparatus of politics and public opinion for his own enrichment". Otis's editorial policy was based on civic boosterism, extolling the virtues of Los Angeles and promoting its growth. Toward those ends, the paper supported efforts to expand the city's water supply by acquiring the rights to the water supply of the distant Owens Valley; the efforts of the Times to fight local unions led to the October 1, 1910 bombing of its headquarters, killing twenty-one people.
Two union leaders and Joseph McNamara, were charged. The American Federation of Labor hired noted trial attorney Clarence Darrow to represent the brothers, who pleaded guilty. Otis fastened a bronze eagle on top of a high frieze of the new Times headquarters building designed by Gordon Kaufmann, proclaiming anew the credo written by his wife, Eliza: "Stand Fast, Stand Firm, Stand Sure, Stand True." Upon Otis's death in 1917, his son-in-law, Harry Chandler, took control as publisher of the Times. Harry Chandler was succeeded in 1944 by his son, Norman Chandler, who ran the paper during the rapid growth of post-war Los Angeles. Norman's wife, Dorothy Buffum Chandler, became active in civic affairs and led the effort to build the Los Angeles Music Center, whose main concert hall was named the Dorothy Chandler Pavilion in her honor. Family members are buried at the Hollywood Forever Cemetery near Paramount Studios; the site includes a memorial to the Times Building bombing victims. The fourth generation of family publishers, Otis Chandler, held that position from 1960 to 1980.
Otis Chandler sought legitimacy and recognition for his family's paper forgotten in the power centers of the Northeastern United States due to its geographic and cultural distance. He sought to remake the paper in the model of the nation's most respected newspapers, notably The New York Times and The Washington Post. Believing that the newsroom was "the heartbeat of the business", Otis Chandler increased the size and pay of the reporting staff and expanded its national and international reporting. In 1962, the paper joined with The Washington Post to form the Los Angeles Times–Washington Post News Service to syndicate articles from both papers for other news organizations, he toned down the unyielding conservatism that had characterized the paper over the years, adopting a much more centrist editorial stance. During the 1960s, the paper won four Pulitzer Prizes, more than its previous nine decades combined. Writing in 2013 about the pattern of newspaper ownership by founding families, Times reporter Michael Hiltzik said that: The first generations bought or founded their local paper for profits and social and political influence.
Their children enjoyed both profits and influence, but as the families grew larger, the generations found that only one or two branches got the power, everyone else got a share of the money. The coupon-clipping branches realized that they could make more money investing in something other than newspapers. Under their pressure the companies split apart, or disappeared. That's the pattern followed over more than a century by the Los Angeles Times under the Chandler family; the paper's early history and subsequent transformation was chronicled in an unauthorized history Thinking Big, was one of four organizations profiled by David Halberstam in The Powers That Be. It has been the whole or partial subject of nearly thirty dissertations in communications or social science in the past four decades; the Los Angeles Times began a decline with Los Angeles itself with the decline in military production at the end of the Cold War. It faced hiring freezes in 1991-1992. Another major decision at the same time was to cut the range of circulation.
They cut circulation in California's Central Valley, Nevada and the San Diego ed
March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom
The March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom, the March on Washington, or The Great March on Washington, was held in Washington, D. C. on Wednesday, August 28, 1963. The purpose of the march was to advocate for the economic rights of African Americans. At the march, Martin Luther King Jr. standing in front of the Lincoln Memorial, delivered his historic "I Have a Dream" speech in which he called for an end to racism. The march was organized by A. Philip Randolph and Bayard Rustin, who built an alliance of civil rights and religious organizations that came together under the banner of "jobs and freedom." Estimates of the number of participants varied from 200,000 to 300,000. Observers estimated; the march was one of the largest political rallies for human rights in United States history. The march is credited with helping to pass the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and preceded the Selma Voting Rights Movement which led to the passage of the Voting Rights Act of 1965. Although African Americans had been freed from slavery, elevated to the status of citizens and the men given full voting rights at the end of the American Civil War, many continued to face social and political repression over the years and into the 1960s.
In the early 1960s, a system of legal discrimination, known as Jim Crow laws, were pervasive in the American South, ensuring that Black Americans remained oppressed. They experienced discrimination from businesses and governments, in some places were prevented from voting through intimidation and violence. Twenty-one states prohibited interracial marriage; the impetus for a march on Washington developed over a long period of time, earlier efforts to organize such a demonstration included the March on Washington Movement of the 1940s. A. Philip Randolph—the president of the Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters, president of the Negro American Labor Council, vice president of the AFL-CIO—was a key instigator in 1941. With Bayard Rustin, Randolph called for 100,000 black workers to march on Washington, in protest of discriminatory hiring by U. S. military contractors and demanding an Executive Order. Faced with a mass march scheduled for July 1, 1941, President Franklin D. Roosevelt issued Executive Order 8802 on June 25.
The order established the Committee on Fair Employment Practice and banned discriminatory hiring in the defense industry. Randolph called off the March. Randolph and Rustin continued to organize around the idea of a mass march on Washington, they envisioned several large marches during the 1940s. Their Prayer Pilgrimage for Freedom, held at the Lincoln Memorial on May 17, 1957, featured key leaders including Adam Clayton Powell, Martin Luther King Jr. and Roy Wilkins. Mahalia Jackson performed; the 1963 march was an important part of the expanding Civil Rights Movement, which involved demonstrations and nonviolent direct action across the United States. 1963 marked the 100th anniversary of the signing of the Emancipation Proclamation by Abraham Lincoln. Members of The National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, the Southern Christian Leadership Conference put aside their differences and came together for the march. Many whites and blacks came together in the urgency for change in the nation.
Violent confrontations broke out in the South: in Maryland. Most of these incidents involved white people retaliating against nonviolent demonstrators. Many people disagreed over how the march should be conducted; some called for a complete shutdown of the city through civil disobedience. Others argued that the movement should remain nationwide in scope, rather than focus its energies on the nation's capital. There was a widespread perception that the Kennedy administration had not lived up to its promises in the 1960 election, King described Kennedy's race policy as "tokenism". On May 24, 1963, Attorney General Robert F. Kennedy invited African-American novelist James Baldwin, along with a large group of cultural leaders, to a meeting in New York to discuss race relations. However, the meeting became antagonistic, as black delegates felt that Kennedy did not have an adequate understanding of the race problem in the nation; the public failure of the meeting, which came to be known as the Baldwin–Kennedy meeting, underscored the divide between the needs of Black America and the understanding of Washington politicians.
However, the meeting provoked the Kennedy administration to take action on the civil rights for African-Americans. On June 11, 1963, President John F. Kennedy gave his famous civil rights address on national television and radio, announcing that he would begin to push for civil rights legislation—the law which became the Civil Rights Act of 1964; that night, Mississippi activist Medgar Evers was murdered in his own driveway, further escalating national tension around the issue of racial inequality. A. Philip Randolph and Bayard Rustin began planning the march in December 1961, they envisioned two days of protest, including sit-ins and lobbying followed by a mass rally at the Lincoln Memorial. They wanted to call for a public works program that would employ blacks. In early 1963 they called publicly for "a massive March on Washington for jobs", they received help from Amalgamated Clothing Workers unionist Stanley Aronowitz, who gathered support from radical organizers who could be trusted not to report their plans to the Kennedy administration.
The unionists offered tentative support for a march that would be focused on
Library of Congress
The Library of Congress is the research library that serves the United States Congress and is the de facto national library of the United States. It is the oldest federal cultural institution in the United States; the Library is housed in three buildings on Capitol Hill in Washington, D. C.. The Library's functions are overseen by the Librarian of Congress, its buildings are maintained by the Architect of the Capitol; the Library of Congress has claimed to be the largest library in the world. Its "collections are universal, not limited by subject, format, or national boundary, include research materials from all parts of the world and in more than 450 languages."The Library of Congress moved to Washington in 1800 after sitting for 11 years in the temporary national capitals in New York City and Philadelphia. The small Congressional Library was housed in the United States Capitol for most of the 19th century until the early 1890s. Most of the original collection had been destroyed by the British in 1814 during the War of 1812, the library sought to restore its collection in 1815.
They bought Thomas Jefferson's entire personal collection of 6,487 books. After a period of slow growth, another fire struck the Library in its Capitol chambers in 1851, again destroying a large amount of the collection, including many of Jefferson's books. After the American Civil War, the Library of Congress grew in both size and importance, which sparked a campaign to purchase replacement copies for volumes, burned; the Library received the right of transference of all copyrighted works to deposit two copies of books, maps and diagrams printed in the United States. It began to build its collections, its development culminated between 1888 and 1894 with the construction of a separate, extensive library building across the street from the Capitol; the Library's primary mission is to research inquiries made by members of Congress, carried out through the Congressional Research Service. The Library is open to the public, although only high-ranking government officials and Library employees may check out books and materials.
James Madison is credited with the idea of creating a congressional library, first making such a proposition in 1783. The Library of Congress was subsequently established April 24, 1800 when President John Adams signed an act of Congress providing for the transfer of the seat of government from Philadelphia to the new capital city of Washington. Part of the legislation appropriated $5,000 "for the purchase of such books as may be necessary for the use of Congress... and for fitting up a suitable apartment for containing them." Books were ordered from London, the collection consisted of 740 books and three maps which were housed in the new United States Capitol. President Thomas Jefferson played an important role in establishing the structure of the Library of Congress. On January 26, 1802, he signed a bill that allowed the president to appoint the Librarian of Congress and establishing a Joint Committee on the Library to regulate and oversee it; the new law extended borrowing privileges to the President and Vice President.
The invading British army burned Washington in August 1814 during the War of 1812 and destroyed the Library of Congress and its collection of 3,000 volumes. These volumes had been left in the Senate wing of the Capitol. One of the few congressional volumes to survive was a government account book of receipts and expenditures for 1810, it was taken as a souvenir by British Admiral George Cockburn, whose family returned it to the United States government in 1940. Within a month, Thomas Jefferson offered to sell his personal library as a replacement. Congress accepted his offer in January 1815; some members of the House of Representatives opposed the outright purchase, including New Hampshire Representative Daniel Webster who wanted to return "all books of an atheistical and immoral tendency." Jefferson had spent 50 years accumulating a wide variety of books in several languages and on subjects such as philosophy, law, architecture, natural sciences, studies of classical Greece and Rome, modern inventions, hot air balloons, submarines, fossils and meteorology.
He had collected books on topics not viewed as part of a legislative library, such as cookbooks. However, he believed, he remarked: I do not know that it contains any branch of science which Congress would wish to exclude from their collection. Jefferson's collection was unique in that it was the working collection of a scholar, not a gentleman's collection for display. With the addition of his collection, the Library of Congress was transformed from a specialist's library to a more general one, his original collection was organized into a scheme based on Francis Bacon's organization of knowledge. He grouped his books into Memory and Imagination, which broke down into 44 more subdivisions; the Library followed Jefferson's organization scheme until the late 19th century, when librarian Herbert Putnam began work on a more flexible Library of Congress Classification structure that now applies to more than 138 million items. In 1851, a fire destroyed two thirds of the Jefferson collection, with only 2,000 books remaining.
By 2008, the Librarians of Congress had found replacements for all but 300 of the works that were in Jefferson's original collection. On December 22, 1851 the largest fire in the Library's history destroyed 35,000 books, about two–thi
Biagio Anthony Gazzarra, known as Ben Gazzara, was an American film and television actor and director. His best known films include Anatomy of a Murder, Voyage of the Damned, Road House, The Big Lebowski, Buffalo'66, The Thomas Crown Affair, Summer of Sam and Paris, je t'aime, he was a recurring collaborator with John Cassavetes, working with him on Husbands, The Killing of a Chinese Bookie and Opening Night. As the star of the television series Run for Your Life, Gazzarra was nominated for three Golden Globe Awards and two Emmy Awards, he won his first, only, Emmy Award for his role in the television film Hysterical Blindness. Gazzara was born in New York City, the son of Italian immigrants Angelina and Antonio Gazzarra, a laborer and carpenter, each of Sicilian origin – Angelina from Castrofilippo and Antonio from Canicattì in the province of Agrigento. Gazzara grew up in New York's Kips Bay neighborhood, he attended New York City's Stuyvesant High School, but graduated from Saint Simon Stock in the Bronx.
Years he said that the discovery of his love for acting saved him from a life of crime during his teen years. He went to City College of New York to study electrical engineering. After two years, he relented, he took classes in acting at the Dramatic Workshop of The New School in New York with the influential German director Erwin Piscator and afterward joined the Actors Studio. Gazzara guest starred on shows like Treasury Men in Danger, he received acclaim for his off-Broadway performance in End as a Man in 1953. The production was transferred to Broadway and ran until 1954. In 1954, Gazzara made several appearances on NBC's legal drama Justice, based on case studies from the Legal Aid Society of New York, he guest starred on shows such as Medallion Theatre, The United States Steel Hour. Gazzara became a Broadway sensation when he created the role of Brick in Tennessee Williams' Cat On A Hot Tin Roof opposite Barbara Bel Geddes, directed by Elia Kazan, although he lost out to Paul Newman when the film version was cast.
He followed it with another long run in A Hatful of Rain He joined other Actors Studio members in the 1957 film The Strange One produced by Sam Spiegel. He had a Broadway flop with The Night Circus and continued to guest star on shows like Playhouse 90, Kraft Theatre, Armchair Theatre and The DuPont Show of the Month, his second film was a high-profile performance as a soldier on trial for avenging his wife's rape in Otto Preminger's courtroom drama Anatomy of a Murder. Gazzara told Charlie Rose in 1998 that he went from being a stage actor who would turn up his nose at film roles in the mid-1950s to, much a ubiquitous character actor who turned little down. "When I became hot, so to speak, in the theater, I got a lot of offers," he said. "I won't tell you the pictures I turned down because you'll say,'You are a fool,' and I was a fool." He went to Italy to make a comedy The Passionate Thief with Anna Magnani and Totò. Back in the US he did a TV movie Cry Vengeance! ( and was second billed in The Young Doctors.
He starred in Convicts 4. He returned to Italy to make The Captive City with David Niven. Gazzara was in the 1963 Actors Studio production of Strange Interlude on Broadway. Gazzara became well known in several television series, beginning with Arrest and Trial, which ran from 1963 to 1964 on ABC, he appeared in the TV special A Carol for Another Christmas and had a short Broadway run in A Traveller without Luggage in 1964. He guest starred on Kraft Suspense Theatre. Gazzara was the male lead in A Rage to Live with Suzanne Pleshette, he gained fame in the TV series Run for Your Life which ran from 1965 to 1968 on NBC, in which he played a terminally ill man trying to get the most out of the last two years of his life. For his work in the series, Gazzara received two Emmy nominations for "Outstanding Lead Actor in a Drama Series" and three Golden Globe nominations for "Best Performance by an Actor in a Television Series - Drama."When the series ended Gazzara had a cameo in If It's Tuesday, This Must Be Belgium and a lead in the wartime action film The Bridge at Remagen.
Some of the actor's most formidable characters were those he created with his friend John Cassavetes in the 1970s. They collaborated for the first time on Cassavetes's film Husbands, in which he appeared alongside Peter Falk and Cassavetes himself. Gazzara starred in a TV movie, the directorial debut of Michael Crichton, he made the TV movies When Michael Calls, Fireball Forward, The Family Rico. He made The Sicilian Connection in Italy, did a science fiction film The Neptune Factor. There were more TV films You'll Never See Me Maneater, he starred in the television miniseries QB VII. The six-and-a-half hour series was based on a book by Leon Uris and co-starred Anthony Hopkins played gangster Al Capone in the biographical film Capone. Cassevetes was in the support cast. Gazzara appeared on Broadway in Hughie worked again for Cassavetes as director in The Killing of a Chinese Bookie, in which Gazzara took the leading role of the hapless strip-joint owner, Cosmo Vitelli, he starred in an action movie, High Velocity and was one of many stars in Voyage of the Damned (19
Burton Stephen Lancaster was an American actor and producer. Known for playing "tough guys", he went on to achieve success with more complex and challenging roles, he was nominated four times for Academy Awards, won once for his work in Elmer Gantry in 1960. He won a Golden Globe Award for that performance and BAFTA Awards for Birdman of Alcatraz and Atlantic City. During the 1950s his production company Hecht-Hill-Lancaster was successful, making films such as Trapeze, Sweet Smell of Success, Run Silent, Run Deep, Separate Tables; the American Film Institute ranks Lancaster as #19 of the greatest male stars of classic Hollywood cinema. Burton Stephen Lancaster was born on November 2, 1913, in Manhattan, New York, at his parents' home at 209 East 106th Street, the son of Elizabeth and mailman James Henry Lancaster. Both of his parents were Protestants of working-class origin. All four of his grandparents were British immigrants to the United States, from the province of Ulster. Lancaster grew up in East Harlem and spent much of his time on the streets, where he developed a great interest and skill in gymnastics while attending DeWitt Clinton High School, where he was a basketball star.
Before he graduated from DeWitt Clinton, his mother died of a cerebral hemorrhage. Lancaster was accepted by New York University with an athletic scholarship, but subsequently dropped out. At 19, Lancaster met Nick Cravat. Together they learned to act in local theatre productions and circus arts at Union Settlement, one of the city's oldest settlement houses, they formed the acrobat duo Lang and Cravat in the 1930s, soon joined the Kay Brothers circus. However, in 1939, an injury forced Lancaster to give up the profession, with great regret, he found temporary work, first as a salesman for Marshall Fields and as a singing waiter in various restaurants. With the United States having entered World War II, Lancaster joined the United States Army in 1942 and performed with the Army's 21st Special Services Division, one of the military groups organized to follow the troops on the ground and provide USO entertainment to keep up morale, he served with General Mark Clark's Fifth Army in Italy from 1943 to 1945.
Lancaster returned to New York after his Army service. Although unenthusiastic about acting, Lancaster was encouraged to audition for a Broadway play by a producer who saw him while he was visiting his then-girlfriend at work; the audition was successful and Lancaster was cast in Harry Brown's A Sound of Hunting. The show only ran three weeks, but his performance attracted the interest of a Hollywood agent, Harold Hecht. Lancaster had other offers but Hecht promised him the opportunity to produce their own movies within five years of hitting Hollywood. Through Hecht, Lancaster was brought to the attention of producer Hal B. Wallis, who signed him to a non-exclusive eight-movie contract. Lancaster's first filmed movie was Desert Fury for Wallis, where Lancaster was billed after John Hodiak and Lizabeth Scott, it was directed by Lewis Allen. Producer Mark Hellinger approached him to star in The Killers, completed and released prior to Desert Fury. Directed by Robert Siodmak it was a great critical success, launched Lancaster and his co-star Ava Gardner to stardom.
It has since come to be regarded as a classic. Hellinger used Lancaster again on Brute Force, a prison drama written by Richard Brooks and directed by Jules Dassin, it was well received. Wallis released his films through Paramount, so Lancaster and other Wallis contractees made cameos in Variety Girl. Lancaster's next film was for Wallis, I Walk Alone, a thriller co-starring Scott and a young Kirk Douglas, under contract to Wallis, it was a minor hit. Lancaster had a change of pace with the film adaptation of Arthur Miller's All My Sons, made at Universal with Edward G. Robinson, his third film for Wallis was an adaptation of Wrong Number with Barbara Stanwyck. Hecht kept to his promise to Lancaster to turn producer; the two of them formed a company, Norma Productions, did a deal with Universal to make a thriller in England, Kiss the Blood Off My Hands with Joan Fontaine and directed by Norman Foster. It was critically acclaimed. Back in Hollywood, Lancaster did another film noir with Criss Cross.
It was going to be produced by Hellinger and when Hellinger died another took over. Tony Curtis made an early appearance. Lancaster did a fourth for Rope of Sand. Norma Productions signed a three-picture deal with Warner Bros; the first was The Flame and the Arrow, a swasbuckler movie, in which Lancaster drew on his circus skills. Nick Cravat had a support role and the film was a huge commercial success, making of $6 million, it was Warners' most popular film of the year and established an new image for Lancaster. Lancaster was borrowed by a comedy with Edmund Gwenn. MGM put him in a popular Western, Vengeance Valley he went to Warners to pay the title role in the biopic Jim Thorpe -- All-American. Norma signed a deal with Columbia to make two films through Halburt; the first film was Ten Tall Men. Robert Aldrich worked on the movie as a production manager; the second was a comedy The First Time, a comedy, the directorial debut of Frank Tashlin. It was meant to star Lancaster but he wound up not appearing