David III of Tao
David III Kuropalates or David III the Great known as David II, was a Georgian prince of the Bagratid family of Tao, a historic region in the Georgian–Armenian marchlands, from 966 until his murder in 1001. Kuropalates was a Byzantine courtier title bestowed upon him in 978 and again in 990. David is best known for his crucial assistance to the Byzantine Macedonian dynasty in the 976–9 civil war and his unique role in the political unification of various Georgian polities as well as his patronage of Christian culture and learning. Between 987 and 989, David joined his friend Bardas Phocas in a revolt against the Byzantine emperor Basil II, but was defeated and agreed to cede his lands to the empire on his death, yet he was able to secure for his heir, Bagrat III, an opportunity to become the first ruler of a unified Georgian kingdom. David was the younger son of Adarnase V, a representative of the Second House of Tao, a branch of the Kartli line of the Georgian Bagrationi dynasty which held sway over Tao since the extinction of the original Tao line in the 940s.
He succeeded his brother, Bagrat II, as a duke of Tao in 966, through his expansionist policy and flexible diplomacy began assembling a larger state. In order to enact his ambitious plans, David had to secure his independence from the Byzantine Empire, which would reach its greatest height under the emperor Basil II; the Byzantines' eastern neighbors – the fragmented Armenian and Georgian principalities – threatened the empire directly, but were of particular interest to Constantinople as they controlled strategic international trade routes that ran through their domains. The Byzantines had annexed the Armenian principalities of Taron and Manzikert and posed a potential danger to the constellation of several Georgian Bagratid principalities known as Tao-Klarjeti. However, the integrity of the empire itself was under serious threat after a full-scale rebellion, led by Bardas Skleros, broke out in 976. Following a series of successful battles the rebels swept across Asia Minor and threatened Constantinople itself.
In the urgency of a situation, the young emperor Basil requested aid from David of Tao, who promptly responded and sent 12,000 first-rate cavalry troops under the command of Tornikios to reinforce the defeated loyal Byzantine general Bardas Phokas, thereby contributing to the decisive loyalist victory at the Battle of Pankalia near Caesarea on 24 March 979. David's reward was the lifetime rule of key imperial territories in eastern Asia Minor, known to the contemporary Georgian sources as the "Upper Lands of Greece", consisting chiefly of northwestern Armenian lands: the city of Theodosiopolis or Karin, Hark, Mardali and Chormayri. On this occasion, he was granted the high Byzantine court title of kouropalates. Basil II rewarded the valor of David’s commander Tornikios by funding a Georgian Orthodox monastery on Mount Athos. Although populated now chiefly with Greek monks, it is to this day known as Iviron, "of the Iberians"; these formidable acquisitions made David the most influential ruler in the Caucasus, enabling him to interfere in and arbitrate dynastic disputes in both Georgia and Armenia.
The medieval Georgian authors call him "greatest of all the kings of Tao" and the eleventh-century Armenian chronicler Aristakes Lastivertsi describes him as: a mighty man, a builder of the world honorable, a lover of the poor, the definition of peace. For in his day it was as the prophecy states: everyone reposed under his vine and his fig tree. Being in control of important commercial centers, his principality profited from taxing the major trading routes running through southwestern Caucasus and eastern Anatolia. David invested these revenues in extensive building projects: constructing towns and churches, promoting Georgian monastic communities and cultural activities both in Georgia and abroad. Having no children of his own, David adopted his kinsman, the young prince Bagrat, heir to the Bagratid throne of Kartli, he did so at the request of the energetic Georgian nobleman Iovane Marushis-dze. Through his fortunate bloodlines Bagrat was destined to sit upon two thrones. Furthermore, through his mother Gurandukht, sister of the childless Abkhazian king Theodosius III, Bagrat was a potential heir to the realm of Abkhazia.
Making a plan for the creation of an all-Georgian state, David occupied Kartli for his foster-son in 976 and repulsed the troops from the easternmost Georgian kingdom of Kakheti, which had occupied the western sector of Kartli with its rock-hewn city of Uplistsikhe. Two years in 978, David and Marushis-dze secured the crown of Abkhazia for Bagrat by displacing Theodosius III. David’s good fortunes changed in 987 when he, anxious to make his extensive possessions a hereditary Bagratid domain, joined his long-time friend Bardas Phokas in a rebellion against the emperor Basil. Once the rebels were defeated by the Byzantine-Rus' forces in 989, Basil dispatched a strong force under John of Chaldea to punish the Georgians, David had to submit. Reconciled with the emperor, he was granted, in c. 990, the title of kuropalates again in return for his promise that upon his death the lands placed under his sovereignty would revert to the Byzantine Empire. Another problem arose around the same year, when Bagrat of Abkhazia planned a punitive expedition against the non-submissive duke Rati of Kldekari in Low
King David (film)
King David is a 1985 American epic historical drama film about the life of the second King of the Land of Israel, David. The film was produced by Martin Elfand and written by Andrew Birkin; the film stars Richard Gere in the title role, alongside ensemble cast such as: Edward Woodward, Alice Krige, Denis Quilley, Cherie Lunghi, Hurd Hatfield, Jack Klaff, John Castle, Tim Woodward, George Eastman, Christopher Malcolm, Gina Bellman and James Coombes in supporting roles. King David was released by Paramount Pictures, the production company, on March 29, 1985, while in other countries it was released in 1986 and 1987. Upon release, the film received negative reviews aimed for its screenplay writing, some of the acting and the action sequences. However, Gere's performance and the cinematography were praised. In addition to being a critical failure, the film was a box office failure, grossing $5.9 million worldwide against its $21 million production budget. The film follows the life of David, drawing from biblical accounts I and II Samuel, I Chronicles, the Psalms of David.
It was filmed in 1984 in Matera and Craco both in Basilicata, Campo Imperatore in Abruzzo, the Lanaitto valley in Sardinia, at Pinewood Studios in England. The film was not well received by the critics, with The New York Times calling it "not a good film". Review aggregate Rotten Tomatoes gave the film a'rotten' 8% rating. Richard Gere's performance in the film earned him a Golden Raspberry Award nomination for Worst Actor, which he lost to Sylvester Stallone for Rambo: First Blood Part II and Rocky IV. Years Bruce Beresford said of the film: I think there are a few things in it that are interesting. But, I think. We never liked the script... we never caught the friendship between David and Jonathan. There weren't enough scenes between them, and David, himself – I think Richard Gere was miscast. He is a wonderful actor but he is much better in contemporary pieces. List of historical drama films Kings List of films based on military books Whitewashing in film King David on IMDb King David at Rotten Tomatoes
Clifton George Bailey III, better known by the stage name Capleton, is a Jamaican reggae and dancehall artist. He is referred to as King Shango, King David, The Fireman and The Prophet, his record label is called David House Productions. He is known for his Rastafari movement views expressed in his songs. Bailey was born in Islington in St. Mary in 1967; as a youth, he was given the surname of a popular St. Mary lawyer and friend of the family, Capleton, as a nickname by his relatives and friends. Capleton rejects the name given to him at birth, given its European origin, he now prefers "King Shango", given its roots in the Yoruba language. As a teenager, he sneaked out of his home to catch local dancehall acts leaving St. Mary for Kingston at the age of 18 to work on his career as a dancehall deejay. In 1989, he got his first big international exposure. Stewart Brown, owner of a Toronto-based sound called African Star, gave the untested artist his first break, flying him to Canada for a stage show alongside Ninjaman and Flourgon.
When Capleton first arrived on the scene in the late 1980s, slackness and gun talk were the dominant lyrics in the dancehalls. The pre-Rasta Capleton had a string of hit songs from "Bumbo Red" to "Number One on the Look Good Chart" and "No Lotion Man", he recorded the song that began to establish his significant place in Dancehall, "Alms House" in 1992. The tune became a big hit in the dancehall, followed up by "Music is a Mission" and the massive hit "Tour". By 1993, he was voicing tunes which became conscious, such as "Prophet" and "Cold Blooded Murderer". Tunes such as "Tour" and "Wings of the Morning" earned him a deal with Russell Simmons' Def Jam Recordings, which culminated in the Prophecy and I-Testament albums of the mid-1990s. In 1999, Capleton headlined Reggae Sumfest's dancehall night, to much fanfare; the performance, which led to a subsequent headliner placement the following year, is credited with "re-bussing", or creating a comeback for, his career. The 1999–2000 period elicited a string of hits, many of which can be found on the album More Fire.
By 2004, some argued the quality of Capleton's music had been downgraded by over-proliferation on numerous riddims, while Capleton himself argued his continued recording over both dancehall and roots reggae riddims created balance in his musical output. Nonetheless, he scored hit singles over one of the most popular riddims of 2004, "That Day Will Come" over the Hard Times riddim. After a hiatus from the label, Capleton returned to VP Records in 2010 with the release of I-Ternal Fire. After headlining a U. S. tour which included Romain Virgo, Munga Honorable, Kulcha Knox in the fall of 2010, Capleton embarked upon a tour of the African continent for late 2010 and early 2011. Stops included Gambia, South Africa and multiple dates in Zimbabwe. In December 2012 the music Unite Cape Town International Reggae Festival saw Capleton and dancehall artists like Black Dillinger, Blak Kalamawi. Capleton's annual'A St Mary Mi Come From' live show has raised funds for several charities since it was first staged in 2000, including local schools and hospitals.
Capleton makes reference to one of the various mansions of the Rastafari movement. Yet he mentions there's no separation between the mansions of Rastafari as he sees it, he stated in an interview on TraceTV that he doesn't eat meat of any kind, consume dairy in any form, or eat anything from soya. "Not an ordinary vegetarian..." he stated, "I'm vegan." He touches on the subject of his lyrics regarding fire, saying they are metaphoric references of purification, not violence or murder. His wellknown hits include Jah By My Side,Boost No War,Gallong Gallong,Cooya Cooya and Ganja Capleton has faced criticism for anti-gay lyrics in some of his songs though homosexuality remains illegal in his native Jamaica, his manager has argued that some of the controversial lyrics have been mistranslated and do not refer to gays. Capleton himself has admitted that through his Rastafari faith he believes that a homosexual lifestyle is not right, but has insisted that terms such as "burn" and "fire" are not to be understood in the literal sense "to go out and burn and kill people", but as a metaphor for "purification" and cleansing.
As part of an agreement to end the Stop Murder Music campaign and other artists signed the Reggae Compassionate Act in 2007. However, Capleton has continued to sing songs that some claim violate the RCA, causing the cancellation of a concert in Switzerland in 2008 and a United States tour in 2010, Official website Capleton's profile at VP Records' website History of Capleton Capleton Biography
King David Hotel
The King David Hotel is a 5-star hotel in Jerusalem and a member of The Leading Hotels of the World. Opened in 1931, the hotel was built with locally quarried pink limestone and was founded by Ezra Mosseri, a wealthy Egyptian Jewish banker, it is located on King David Street in the centre of Jerusalem, overlooking the Old City and Mount Zion. The hotel and operated by the Dan Hotels group, has traditionally been the chosen venue for hosting heads of state and other personalities during their visits to Jerusalem, it is famous for having been targeted by a terrorist bombing in 1946 undertaken by the Zionist paramilitary group Irgun, in which 91 people died. In 1929, Palestine Hotels Ltd. purchased 4.5 acres on Jerusalem's Julian’s Way, today King David Street. Half the construction costs were paid by Ezra Mosseri, an affluent Egyptian Jewish banker and director of the National Bank of Egypt, another 46% by other wealthy Cairo Jews; the 4% remaining was paid by the National Bank, which purchased 693 shares of the company between 1934 and 1943.
From its earliest days, the King David Hotel hosted royalty: the dowager empress of Persia, queen mother Nazli of Egypt, King Abdullah I of Jordan stayed at the hotel, three heads of state forced to flee their countries took up residence there: King Alfonso XIII of Spain, forced to abdicate in 1931, Emperor Haile Selassie of Ethiopia, driven out by the Italians in 1936, King George II of Greece, who set up his government in exile at the hotel after the Nazi occupation of his country in 1942. During the British Mandate, the southern wing of the hotel was turned into a British administrative and military headquarters. On July 22, 1946, the southwestern corner of the hotel was bombed during an attack led by the Zionist paramilitary group Irgun. 91 people died and 45 people were injured. An earlier attempt by the Irgun to attack the hotel had been foiled when the Haganah learned of it, warned the British authorities. On May 4, 1948, when the British flag was lowered as the British Mandate ended, the building became a Jewish stronghold.
At the end of the 1948 Arab–Israeli War, the hotel found itself overlooking "no-man’s land" on the armistice line that divided Jerusalem into Israeli and Jordanian territory. The hotel was purchased by the Dan Hotels chain in 1958. Multiple scenes in the 1960 film Exodus were shot at the hotel, both outside and inside, in the main lobby and on the terrace; when East Jerusalem was annexed by Israel following the 1967 Six-Day War, the hotel was expanded, with two additional floors. King David accommodated many foreign heads of state and diplomats visiting Israel. Among the hotel's more famous guests were King George V. S. Presidents Richard Nixon, Gerald Ford, Jimmy Carter, Bill Clinton, George W. Bush, Barack Obama, Donald Trump; the design for the hotel was commissioned from a Swiss architect, Emile Vogt, with the actual construction supervised by Jerusalem architect Benjamin Chaiken. According to Hebrew University professor Ruth Kark, Vogt's approach was typical of European architects who, commissioned to design buildings in Jerusalem, incorporated "Eastern-style domes, various kinds of different-colored stone, interior decorations with religious symbols and inscriptions," in buildings whose strict symmetry marks them indelibly as European.
The public rooms were decorated by G. G. Hufschmid in motifs taken from Assyrian, Hittite and Muslim buildings in an effort to evoke a "Biblical" style. Hufschmid Swiss, stated that his intention was "to evoke by reminiscence the ancient Semitic style and the ambiance of the glorious period of King David." The hotel includes four dining options: La Régence – fine dining King's Garden The Oriental Bar Poolside Snack BarLa Régence and King's Garden are run by executive chef David Biton. “Hotel Design in British Mandate Palestine: Modernism and the Zionist Vision,” Journal of Israel History 29 King David Hotel Jerusalem Official site
David VII of Georgia
Davit VII redirects here. There was a Caucasian Albanian Catholicos Davit VII, who ruled in 965–971. David VII known as David Ulu, from the Bagrationi dynasty, was king of Georgia from 1247 to 1270, jointly with his namesake cousin, David VI, from 1247 to 1259, when David VI, revolting from the Mongol hegemony, seceded in the western moiety of the kingdom, while David VII was relegated to the rule of eastern Georgia. During his reign, Georgia went into further decline under the Mongol overlordship. David was an illegitimate son of King Giorgi IV Lasha by a non-noble woman. Fearing that he would pretend to the throne, his aunt, Queen Rusudan held him prisoner at the court of her son-in-law, the sultan Kaykhusraw II for nearly seven years, sent her son David to the Mongol court to get his official recognition as heir apparent. Following Kaykhusraw’s defeat by the Mongols, son of Giorgi, was set free in 1242. In 1246, he was selected as king by the Georgian nobles who believed that his cousin David VI, son of Rusudan, had died in 1244.
Following the coronation at Svetitskhoveli Cathedral, Mtskheta, he was sent to the Great Khan Güyük Khan to receive an official recognition. Held at Karakorum for five years, he met his cousin David there. Güyük Khan recognized David as senior joint sovereign and appointed another David junior co-ruler. Thereafter known as David VII Ulu and David VI Narin, the cousins ruled jointly for years. In 1256, David Ulu with the Georgian auxiliaries took part in Mongol conquest of Alamut. In 1259, David Narin rose, against the Mongol yoke and fled to Kutaisi, from whence he reigned over western Georgia as an independent ruler. In 1260, Hulagu Khan requested. David, remembering the Georgian losses at Baghdad revolted. A huge army of Mongols led by Arghun Noyan attacked the southern Georgian province of Samtskhe, defeated the king and his spasalar Sargis Jakeli of Samtskhe, but could not capture the rebels’ main strongholds and left the country in June 1261; the forces were unequal and David Ulu had to take refuge at his cousin, David VI Narin’s court at Kutaisi.
His family was captured and David’s wife Gvantsa killed by the Mongols. In 1262, he had to make peace with the Mongols and returned to Tbilisi splitting the country into two parts with both rulers titled as kings of Georgia. By the Ilkhan request, David Ulu’s army was dispatched to defend the fortifications of Siba against the Golden Horde in 1263. In 1265, the Georgian forces serving as a vanguard of the Ilkhanid army, defeated Berke, Khan of the Golden Horde, expelled his troops from Shirvan. A heavy burden of Mongol dominance led to a economic crisis in the kingdom; as a result of a dispute with the royal court, the province of Samtskhe seceded and submitted directly to the Ilkhan rule in 1266. Thus, Georgia further disintegrated to form three separate political entities. David VII Ulu died of a bowel infection at the age of 55 in the spring of 1270, he was buried at Mtskheta. He was succeeded by his son Demetre II, he was married four times. His first wife, Jigda-Khatun, either a Mongol woman or a daughter of the Sultan of Rum, died in 1252.
In the meantime, he bigamously contracted a union with an Alan woman, whom he repudiated in 1252. His third wife Gvantsa, widow of the Georgian noble Avag Mkhargrdzeli and daughter of Kakhaber, eristavi of Racha and Takveri, was executed on the orders of Hulagu Khan in 1262. In 1263, David married daughter of the Mongol noyan Chormaqan, he had two sons and two daughters, including: Giorgi, heir apparent, died before his father’s death in 1268, Tamar was married twice: a son of Arghun noyan in c. 1273, the Georgian noble Sadun of Mankaberdi, regent of the kingdom in 1269-1278. Demetre succeeded him in 1270. History of Georgia – XIII-XV centuries Kings of Georgia
Le Roi David
Le Roi David was composed in Mézières, Switzerland, in 1921 by Arthur Honegger, as incidental music for a play in French by René Morax. It was called dramatic psalm, but has been performed as oratorio, without staging; the plot, based on biblical narration, tells the story of King David, first a shepherd boy, his victories in battle, relationship to Saul, rise to power, mourning of his son's death, his own death. The work has some instrumental, most for voices and orchestra. A narrator connects the scenes, soloists take different roles. Arthur Honegger was commissioned to write incidental music to accompany René Morax’s play Le Roi David in 1921. Honegger was given the nearly impossible deadline of 2 months to complete the work and was rewarded with much acclaim at the premiere. In 1923 he combined Morax’s narrative with his music and created a "symphonic psalm," the form, familiar today, titled his work Le Roi David. Original 1921 version: Honegger wrote his Le Roi David music for the forces that were available at Morax's Mézières village theatre group, creating a score for the resources available.
It was premiered there on 11 June 1921. In 1923, bolstered by the success of the original version, Honegger re-scored the work for a standard orchestra of 2 flutes, 2 oboes, 2 clarinets, 2 bassoons, 4 horns, 2 trumpets, 3 trombones, timpani, snare drum, bass drum, tambourine, tam-tam, celesta and strings) accompanying a chorus, alto and boy soprano soloists, a narrator and an actress for nº 12 – Incantation Scene; the music is separated into 27 brief sections and features many individual instruments. The work is structured in three parts, the movements numbered to 27 in the 1952 edition. Le Roi David tells the biblical story of King David. In the first part, the Lord directs the prophet Samuel to choose Saul as the ruler of the people of Israel. However, when Saul does not follow the Lord’s instructions, Samuel is told to place David as ruler; the first part continues to tell the story of David’s battles against the Philistines as well as Saul’s growing jealousy of David. The second part covers David's unification of Israel.
The third and final part tells of his punishment for adultery. In this final section of the piece, David flees Jerusalem, loses his power, manages to restore his position as king offends God by censuring the people. An epidemic disease afflicts Jerusalem, David appoints his son Solomon to succeed him and dies. At the end of the piece an angel tells of Isaiah’s prophecy of a flower blooming from David’s stem; the most significant element of Le Roi David is the combination of different styles of music in one complete work. Honegger uses compositional techniques ranging from Gregorian chant to Baroque to jazz. Honegger’s utilization of all of these concepts allowed him to make a serious contribution to the neoclassical era; the music is full of with thematic gestures and is most performed in French. Texts and English language translations Michael Steinberg: The Symphony: A Listener's Guide Oxford University Press 1995 Honegger / King David Gramophone 2014 Robert S. Hines: Arthur Honegger's Three Versions of "King David" Choral Journal 2006
Kalākaua, born David Laʻamea Kamananakapu Mahinulani Naloiaehuokalani Lumialani Kalākaua and sometimes called The Merrie Monarch, was the last king and penultimate monarch of the Kingdom of Hawaiʻi. Succeeding Lunalilo, he was elected to the vacant throne of Hawaiʻi against Queen Emma, he reigned from February 12, 1874, until his death in San Francisco, California, on January 20, 1891. Kalākaua had a convivial personality and enjoyed entertaining guests with his singing and ukulele playing. At his coronation and his birthday jubilee, the hula, banned from public in the kingdom became a celebration of Hawaiian culture. During his reign, the Reciprocity Treaty of 1875 brought great prosperity to the kingdom, its renewal continued the prosperity but allowed the United States to have exclusive use of Pearl Harbor. In 1881, he took a trip around the world to encourage the immigration of contract sugar plantation workers. Kalākaua wanted Hawaiians to broaden their education beyond their nation, he instituted a government-financed program to sponsor qualified students to be sent abroad to further their education.
Two of Kalākaua's projects, the statue of Kamehameha I and the rebuilding of ʻIolani Palace, were expensive endeavors but are popular tourist attractions today. Extravagant expenditures and his plans for a Polynesian confederation played into the hands of annexationists who were working towards a United States takeover of Hawaiʻi. In 1887, he was pressured to sign a new constitution that made the monarchy little more than a figurehead position, he had faith in his sister Liliʻuokalani's abilities to rule as regent when he named her as his heir-apparent following the death of their brother, William Pitt Leleiohoku, in 1877. After his death, she became the last monarch of Hawaiʻi. Kalākaua was born at 2:00 a.m. on November 16, 1836, to Caesar Kaluaiku Kapaʻakea and Analea Keohokālole in the grass hut compound belonging to his maternal grandfather ʻAikanaka, at the base of Punchbowl Crater in Honolulu on the island of Oʻahu. Of the aliʻi class of Hawaiian nobility, his family were considered collateral relations of the reigning House of Kamehameha, sharing common descent from the 18th-century aliʻi nui Keaweʻīkekahialiʻiokamoku.
From his biological parents, he descended from Keaweaheulu and Kameʻeiamoku, two of the five royal counselors of Kamehameha I during his conquest of the Kingdom of Hawaiʻi. Kameʻeiamoku, the grandfather of both his mother and father, was one of the royal twins alongside Kamanawa depicted on the Hawaiian coat of arms. However, Kalākaua and his siblings traced their high rank from their mother's line of descent, referring to themselves as members the "Keawe-a-Heulu line", although historians would refer to the family as the House of Kalākaua; the second surviving child of a large family, his biological siblings included his elder brother James Kaliokalani, younger siblings Lydia Kamakaʻeha, Anna Kaʻiulani, Kaʻiminaʻauao, Miriam Likelike and William Pitt Leleiohoku II. Given the name Kalākaua, which translates into "The Day Battle", the date of his birth coincided with the signing of the unequal treaty imposed by British Captain Lord Edward Russell of the Actaeon on Kamehameha III, he and his siblings were hānai to other family members in the Native Hawaiian tradition.
Prior to birth, his parents had promised to give their child in hānai to Kuini Liliha, a high-ranking chiefess and the widow of High Chief Boki. However, after he was born, High Chiefess Haʻaheo Kaniu took the baby to Honuakaha, the residence of the king. Kuhina Nui Elizabeth Kīnaʻu, who disliked Liliha and decreed his parents to give him to Haʻaheo and her husband Keaweamahi Kinimaka; when Haʻaheo died in 1843 she bequeathed all her properties to him. After Haʻaheo's death, his guardianship was entrusted in his hānai father, a chief of lesser rank. Kinimaka would marry Pai, a subordinate Tahitian chiefess, who treated Kalākaua as her own until the birth of her own son. At the age of four, Kalākaua returned to Oʻahu to begin his education at the Chiefs' Children's School, he and his classmates had been formally proclaimed by Kamehameha III as eligible for the throne of the Kingdom of Hawaii. His classmates included his siblings James Kaliokalani and Lydia Kamakaʻeha and their thirteen royal cousins including the future kings Kamehameha IV, Kamehameha V and Lunalilo.
They were taught by his wife, Juliette Montague Cooke. At the school, Kalākaua became fluent in English and the Hawaiian language and was noted for his fun and humor rather than his academic prowess; the strong-willed boy defended his less robust elder brother Kaliokalani from the older boys at the school. In October 1840, their paternal grandfather Kamanawa II requested his grandsons to visit him on the night before his execution for the murder of his wife Kamokuiki; the next morning the Cookes allowed the guardian of the royal children John Papa ʻĪʻī to bring Kaliokalani and Kalākaua to see Kamanawa for the last time. It is not know if their sister was taken to see him. Sources in biographies of Kalākaua indicated that the boys witnessed the public hanging of their grandfather at the gallows. Historian Helena G. Allen noted the indifference the Cookes' had toward the request and the traumatic experience it must have been for the boys. After the Cookes retired and closed the school in 1850, he studied at Joseph Watt's English school for native children at Kawaiahaʻo and joined the relocated day school run by Reverend Edward G. Beckwith.
Illness prevented him from finishing his schooling and he was sent back t