Banff, Macduff and Turriff Junction Railway
The Banff and Turriff Junction Railway connected the Aberdeenshire town of Turriff with the Great North of Scotland Railway's main line at Inveramsay. A separate company, the Banff and Turriff Extension Railway, built extension to a station called Banff and Macduff; the junction railway, together with the junction station at Inveramsay, opened on 5 September 1857 and the extension opened on 4 June 1860. Both railways were absorbed by the Great North of Scotland Railway on 1 August 1866, the line was extended 1⁄2-mile to a new Macduff station in 1872. Following the grouping in 1923, the line became part of London and North Eastern Railway and was nationalised, becoming part of British Railways; the Macduff branch closed to passengers on 1 October 1951 to the north of Turiff on 1 August 1961 and the remaining line on 3 January 1966. This line was built to connect the coastal towns of Banff and Macduff with Aberdeen on the east coast of Scotland, it ran for 29 miles across the open Aberdeenshire countryside.
The railway was opened as far as Turriff in 1857 on to Gellymill, just outside Macduff, in 1860. It was taken into the town of Macduff itself in 1872; the Banff and Turriff Railway Company was absorbed into the Great North of Scotland Railway network in 1866. Following the grouping in 1923, it became part of LNER. On nationalisation, in 1947, LNER itself was taken over by British Railways. While the line was being built the company board walked the line to meet the local population to assure them that the coming of the railway would bring great benefits to them. There was such a hurry to open the line, the board considered running trains before the ballast had been laid, but this did not happen; the station at Macduff was above the town and, such was the gradient, it was not possible to continue the line down to the harbour nor build a bridge across the River Deveron to reach Banff. In spite of the fact that Banff and Macduff are only separated by the river, to travel between the two towns by rail was a distance of 75 miles.
In 1910 this it would have taken 3¼ hours. A year following the opening of the line much of the fencing had rotted. A horse strayed onto the railway and a derailment occurred; the company were forced to renew the fencing at considerable cost. The early locomotives to work the line were Class 1 2-4-0s designed by D. K. Clark and built by William Sons of Manchester; these were fitted with Clark's patent smoke preventing system. They had a series of holes in the sides of the firebox above the fuel, that allowed jets of steam to be projected; the steam circulated air in the firebox. This better combustion is reported to have resulted in improved fuel economy. Class F 4-4-0s were used. One of these employed was the LNER Class D40 Gordon Highlander in preservation owned by Glasgow Museum of Transport and on display at the Scottish Railway Preservation Society, Bo'ness. Coaches used were of the 6 wheeled variety. Various types of trucks were used by the freight trains; this line was never busy. The first timetable showed a freight train each way daily.
This was soon reduced to three mixed trains. Traffic continued to go down; the line suffered competition from the Banff and Strathisla Railway. This route was quicker to the main Inverness to Aberdeen line. Traders in Banff could not be expected to transport their goods across the bridge over the river up the hill to the station, when there was a more convenient station in Banff; the company's directors were incensed with the Post Office. Instead of the mails been carried at a fixed rate they sent the postman up the line with the mailbags, while only purchasing a ticket like an ordinary passenger. By 1951 the line had become uneconomic and British Railways, who now owned the line, closed it to passengers. Freight traffic continued till 1966. While several item of rolling stock have been preserved some of which are in the museum of the Scottish Railway Preservation Society, many of them can be found on farms across the county. Thomas, John Forgotten Railways Scotland Chapter 10 pages 171 - 177 David & Charles ISBN 0-7153-7185-1 Thomas, John & Turnock, David A Regional History of the Railways of Great Britain.
Volume 15 North of Scotland Chapter 5 pages 157 & 168 David & Charles ISBN 0-946537-03-8 Vallance, H. A.. Great North of Scotland railway; the History of the Railways of the Scottish Highlands vol 3. David St John Thomas. ISBN 978-0-946537-60-0. RAILSCOT on Banff and Turriff Junction Railway Locomotive history of the Great North of Scotland Railway Great North of Scotland Railway Association Scottish Railway Preservation Society Museum
Fordyce is a village in Aberdeenshire, Scotland, inland from the point where the Burn of Fordyce meets the sea between Cullen and Portsoy. It has existed since at least the 13th century. Fordyce Castle, a T-plan structure built in 1592 and extended in 1700, lies in the centre of the village; until 1964, the village had a notable secondary school called Fordyce Academy, which although small achieved high standards. Old boys of the school included the physicist and meteorologist Alexander Geddes, the zoologist William Dawson Henderson, the 18th-century antiquary William Robertson; the brothers Robert and James Smith, who both played for Scotland in the first football international of 1872, were educated at the school. Fordyce in the Gazetteer for Scotland. Village website
Memsie Cairn is an ancient cairn in Memsie, near Fraserburgh, Scotland. Historic Scotland believe the burial cairn to be from the Bronze Age, it is an ancient historic monument managed by Historic Scotland
Scottish Gaelic or Scots Gaelic, sometimes referred to as Gaelic, is a Celtic language native to the Gaels of Scotland. A member of the Goidelic branch of the Celtic languages, Scottish Gaelic, like Modern Irish and Manx, developed out of Middle Irish. Most of modern Scotland was once Gaelic-speaking, as evidenced by Gaelic-language placenames. In the 2011 census of Scotland, 57,375 people reported as able to speak Gaelic, 1,275 fewer than in 2001; the highest percentages of Gaelic speakers were in the Outer Hebrides. There are revival efforts, the number of speakers of the language under age 20 did not decrease between the 2001 and 2011 censuses. Outside Scotland, Canadian Gaelic is spoken in Nova Scotia and Prince Edward Island. Scottish Gaelic is not an official language of either the United Kingdom. However, it is classed as an indigenous language under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages, which the British government has ratified, the Gaelic Language Act 2005 established a language development body, Bòrd na Gàidhlig.
Aside from "Scottish Gaelic", the language may be referred to as "Gaelic", pronounced or in English. "Gaelic" may refer to the Irish language. Scottish Gaelic is distinct from Scots, the Middle English-derived language varieties which had come to be spoken in most of the Lowlands of Scotland by the early modern era. Prior to the 15th century, these dialects were known as Inglis by its own speakers, with Gaelic being called Scottis. From the late 15th century, however, it became common for such speakers to refer to Scottish Gaelic as Erse and the Lowland vernacular as Scottis. Today, Scottish Gaelic is recognised as a separate language from Irish, so the word Erse in reference to Scottish Gaelic is no longer used. Gaelic was believed to have been brought to Scotland, in the 4th–5th centuries CE, by settlers from Ireland who founded the Gaelic kingdom of Dál Riata on Scotland's west coast in present-day Argyll.:551:66 However, archaeologist Dr Ewan Campbell has argued that there is no archaeological or placename evidence of a migration or takeover.
This view of the medieval accounts is shared by other historians. Regardless of how it came to be spoken in the region, Gaelic in Scotland was confined to Dál Riata until the eighth century, when it began expanding into Pictish areas north of the Firth of Forth and the Firth of Clyde. By 900, Pictish appears to have become extinct replaced by Gaelic.:238–244 An exception might be made for the Northern Isles, where Pictish was more supplanted by Norse rather than by Gaelic. During the reign of Caustantín mac Áeda, outsiders began to refer to the region as the kingdom of Alba rather than as the kingdom of the Picts. However, though the Pictish language did not disappear a process of Gaelicisation was under way during the reigns of Caustantín and his successors. By a certain point during the 11th century, all the inhabitants of Alba had become Gaelicised Scots, Pictish identity was forgotten. In 1018, after the conquest of the Lothians by the Kingdom of Scotland, Gaelic reached its social, cultural and geographic zenith.:16–18 Colloquial speech in Scotland had been developing independently of that in Ireland since the eighth century.
For the first time, the entire region of modern-day Scotland was called Scotia in Latin, Gaelic was the lingua Scotica.:276:554 In southern Scotland, Gaelic was strong in Galloway, adjoining areas to the north and west, West Lothian, parts of western Midlothian. It was spoken to a lesser degree in north Ayrshire, the Clyde Valley and eastern Dumfriesshire. In south-eastern Scotland, there is no evidence that Gaelic was widely spoken. Many historians mark the reign of King Malcom Canmore as the beginning of Gaelic's eclipse in Scotland, his wife Margaret of Wessex spoke no Gaelic, gave her children Anglo-Saxon rather than Gaelic names, brought many English bishops and monastics to Scotland.:19 When Malcolm and Margaret died in 1093, the Gaelic aristocracy rejected their anglicised sons and instead backed Malcolm's brother Donald Bàn. Donald had spent 17 years in Gaelic Ireland and his power base was in the Gaelic west of Scotland, he was the last Scottish monarch to be buried on Iona, the traditional burial place of the Gaelic Kings of Dàl Riada and the Kingdom of Alba.
However, during the reigns of Malcolm Canmore's sons, Alexander I and David I, Anglo-Norman names and practices spread throughout Scotland south of the Forth–Clyde line and along the northeastern coastal plain as far north as Moray. Norman French displaced Gaelic at court; the establishment of royal burghs throughout the same area under David I, attracted large numbers of foreigners speaking Old English. This was the beginning of Gaelic's status as a predominantly rural language in Scotland.:19-23 Clan chiefs in the northern and western parts of Scotland continued to support Gaelic bards who remained a central feature of court life there. The semi-independent Lordship of the Isles in the Hebrides and western coastal mainland remained Gaelic since the language's recovery there in the 12th century, providing a political foundation for cultural prestige down to the end of the 15th century.:553-6By the mid-14th century what came to be called Scots emerged as the official language of government and law.:139 Scotland's emergent nat
Banff is a town in the Banff and Buchan area of Aberdeenshire, Scotland. Banff is situated on Banff Bay and faces the town of Macduff across the estuary of the River Deveron. Banff is a former royal burgh, is the county town of the historic county of Banffshire; the origin of the name is uncertain. It may be derived from the Scottish Gaelic banbh meaning "piglet". William J. Watson writes: "It is true that Banff is Banb in the Book of Deer and Banbh in modern Gaelic — one syllable. On the other hand, banbh, a suckling pig, is not appropriate — one might say it is impossible — as the name of a place or district." Banff's first castle was built to repel Viking invaders and a charter of 1163 AD shows that Malcolm IV was living there at that time. During this period the town was a busy trading centre in the "free hanse" of Northern Scottish burghs, despite not having its own harbour until 1775; the first recorded Sheriff of Banff was Richard de Strathewan in 1264, in 1372 Royal Burgh status was conferred by King Robert II.
By the 15th century Banff was one of three principal towns exporting salmon to the continent of Europe, along with Aberdeen and Montrose. There was a great deal of lawlessness in seventeenth-century Scotland, some of the worst offenders were members of the nobility. According to records kept by historian William Cramond, the tolbooth of Banff was, in 1628, the site of an altercation between Lord Banff and James Ogilvie, his relative, he struck James Ogilvie upon the head with a baton during a court hearing. Twenty of his friends and followers attacked Ogilvie with swords before chasing him into the street and finishing him off with a pistol shot. Banff and Macduff are separated by the valley of the River Deveron; this unpredictable river was tamed by the seven arched bridge completed in 1779 by John Smeaton. An earlier bridge had been built in 1765, but was swept away in 1768; the old ferry was brought back into use, until it was lost in a flood in 1773. A public meeting was held in 1800 and passed a resolution for the building of a turnpike road between Turiff and Banff as the existing road was in a sad state of repair.
19th century transport improvements included the building of two railway lines, from Macduff to Turiff in 1860 and the Banff and Strathisla Railway in 1859 which connected to the main Aberdeen to Inverness line. During the 19th Century the Banff Fishery District was important to the herring trade, with production peaking in 1853 at more than sixty-thousand barrels, of which nearly thirty-four thousand were exported, however by 1912 production had declined to just over eight thousand barrels; the languages spoken in the town and in its vicinity tend to be the Doric dialect of Scots, English. Banff has an oceanic climate, with mild temperatures year round; the modern-day town has a golf course and was home to the Colleonard Sculpture Park, now relocated in Aviemore. COAST Festival of the Visual Arts is an annual festival of weekend-long events and attractions in both Banff and Macduff, it runs over the bank holiday weekend at the end of May each year. The townscape, one of the best-preserved in Scotland, has many historic buildings including fragments of the former royal Banff Castle, a pre-Reformation market cross, a fine tolbooth, many vernacular townhouses, a museum donated by Andrew Carnegie.
Close by is Duff House, designed by William Adam in 1730, one of Scotland's finest classical houses. It is open to the public as an out-station of the National Gallery of Scotland. Open to the public are the Wrack Woods, due south of Duff House; the woods contain an old ice house, a mausoleum, a walk to the secluded Bridge of Alvah, a single-arch bridge spanning the river Deveron. The Deveron is known for its salmon and trout fishing. Many of the nearby villages contribute to tourism in the area. Banff's Tourist Information Centre opens during the summer and can be found by St Mary's car park adjacent to St Mary's Parish Church on Banff's High Street, their audio tours provide an insight into its history and architecture. Though no longer a commercial port, the harbour has been subject to redevelopment during the latter half of 2006 and now has a marina which serves leisure traffic and small fishing boats; the newly constructed marina was only accessible +3 hrs mlw due to rapid siltation. By 2012 the silting problem had been resolved and the entrance is kept dredged to Chart Datum which makes it accessible over longer periods of the tide to boats of a metre or less draft.
The Canadian town of Banff, Alberta with its National Park are named after Banff. Banff was served by the Banff and Strathisla Railway from 1857, the Banff and Turriff Junction Railway belonging to the Great North of Scotland Railway from 1860; the latter went to Banff & Macduff station a mile from Banff. The GNSR took over operation and ownership of the older BPSR line. In 1872 the line to Banff & Macduff station benefited from replacement stations closer to the town centre of Macduff; the original Banff & Macduff station closed on 1 July 1872. All the lines suffered from mid-20th century railway cuts, with Banff Bridge station closing by the end of 1951, Banff Harbour closing on 6 July 1964; the nearest open stati
A small 19th century planned village, New Aberdour lies just south of the Moray Firth Coast, 7 miles west of Fraserburgh. One of the earliest churches in Scotland, is said to have been founded here in 580 AD by Saint Drostan and Saint Columba. During World War II, a German Heinkel HE115 crashed near a farm on Windyheads Hill. Local people assisted an injured airman; the story is captured in a 2018 book "North East Scotland at War - Events and facts 1939-1945" which corrects the belief the aircraft came from Norway and ran out of fuel, it was from Germany and it crashed in bad weather. New Aberdour World 66 Beta New Aberdour St Drostan St Drostan's Church, New Aberdour
New Byth is a small inland planned village in the Banff and Buchan committee area of Aberdeenshire, Scotland that lies a few miles northeast of Cuminestown. It was founded in 1764 by the Laird of Byth, James Urquhart; the village has few facilities, the former primary school having closed in 2005, followed by the Post Office in 2006, the village pub in 2008. There are two former church buildings, the larger affiliated to the Church of Scotland and now derelict, the smaller associated with the United Free Church of Scotland until 1929 and still administered by the Church of Scotland though it is no longer used for church activities, instead being hired out as a general community hall; the village had an active branch of the Scottish Women's Rural Institute for 50 years to 2011, when it merged with the Monquhitter branch. The village hosts an annual steam and vintage rally on the Sunday closest to 1 July. New Byth in the Gazetteer for Scotland