Ethiopian aristocratic and court titles
Until the end of the Ethiopian monarchy in 1974, there were two categories of nobility in Ethiopia. The Mesafint, the hereditary nobility, formed the upper echelon of the ruling class; the Mekwanint were the appointed nobles of humble birth, who formed the bulk of the aristocracy. Until the 20th century, the most powerful people at court were members of the Mekwanint appointed by the monarch, while regionally, the Mesafint enjoyed greater influence and power. Emperor Haile Selassie curtailed the power of the Mesafint to the benefit of the Mekwanint, who by were coterminous with the Ethiopian government; the Mekwanint were officials, granted specific offices in the Abyssinian government or court. Higher ranks from the title of Ras through to Balambaras were bestowed upon members of the Mekwanint. A member of the Mesafint, would traditionally be given precedence over a member of the Mekwanint of the same rank. For example, Ras Mengesha Yohannes, son of Emperor Yohannes IV and thus a member of the Mesafint, would have outranked Ras Alula Engida, of humble birth and therefore a member of the Mekwanint though their ranks were equal.
There were parallel rules of precedence seniority based on age, on offices held, on when they each obtained their titles, which made the rules for precedence rather complex. Combined with the ambiguous position of titled heirs of members of the Mekwanint, Emperor Haile Selassie, as part of his program of modernising reforms, in line with his aims of centralising power away from the Mesafint, replaced the traditional system of precedence with a simplified, Western-inspired system that gave precedence by rank, by seniority based when the title had been assumed – irrespective of how the title was acquired; the Negusa Nagast was the Emperor of Ethiopia. Although several kings of Aksum used this style, until the restoration of the Solomonic dynasty under Yekuno Amlak, rulers of Ethiopia used the style of Negus, although "King of Kings" was used as far back as Ezana; the full title of the Emperor of Ethiopia was Seyoume Igziabeher. The title Moa Anbessa Ze Imnegede Yehuda always preceded the titles of the Emperor.
It was not a personal title but rather referred to the title of Jesus and placed the office of Christ ahead of the Emperor's name in an act of Imperial submission. Until the reign of Yohannes IV, the Emperor was Neguse Tsion, "King of Zion"), whose seat was at Axum, which conferred hegemony over much of the north of the Empire; the Emperor was referred to by the dignities of the formal Girmawi, in common speech as Janhoy, in his own household and family as Getochu, when referred to by name in the third person with the suffix of Atse. All formal speech concerning the Emperor was in the plural. A Negus was a hereditary ruler of one of Ethiopia's larger provinces, over whom collectively the monarch ruled, thus justifying his imperial title; the title of Negus was awarded at the discretion of the Emperor to those who ruled important provinces, although it was used hereditarily during and after the Zemene Mesafint. The rulers of Begemder, Gojjam, all held the title of Negus at some point, as the "Negus of Shewa", "Negus of Gojjam", so forth.
During and after the reign of Menelik II all of the titles either lapsed into the Imperial crown or were dissolved. In 1914, after having been appointed "Negus of Zion" by his son Lij Iyasu, Mikael of Wollo, in consideration of the hostile feelings this provoked in of much of the nobility in northern Ethiopia, who were now technically made subordinate to him, instead elected to use the title of Negus of Wollo. Tafari Makonnen, who became Emperor Haile Selassie, was bestowed the title of Negus in 1928. Despite this, European sources referred to the Ethiopian monarch as the Negus well into the 20th century, switching to Emperor only after the Second World War- around the same time the name Abyssinia fell out of use in favour of Ethiopia in the west. Le'ul was a princely style used by sons and grandson of the Emperor, it conferred upon its holder the title of Imperial Highness. The style first came into use in 1916, following the enthronement of Empress Zewditu Abetohun or Abeto -- Prince. Title reserved for males of Imperial ancestry in the male line.
Title fell into disuse by the late 19th century. Lij Iyasu attempted to revive the title as Abeto-hoy, this form is still used by the current Iyasuist claimant Girma Yohannes Iyasu. Ras -- One of the powerful non-imperial; the combined title of Leul Ras was given to the heads of the cadet b
Sapienza University of Rome
The Sapienza University of Rome called Sapienza or the University of Rome, is a collegiate research university located in Rome, Italy. Formally known as Università degli Studi di Roma "La Sapienza", it is one of the largest European universities by enrollments and one of the oldest in history, founded in 1303; the University is one of the most prestigious Italian universities ranking first in national rankings and in Southern Europe. Most of the Italian ruling class studied at Sapienza. Sapienza educated numerous notable alumni, including many Nobel laureates, Presidents of the European Parliament and European Commissioners, heads of several nations, notable religious figures and astronauts.. In September 2018, it was included in the top 100 of the QS World University Rankings Graduate Employability Ranking. Sapienza University of Rome was founded in 1303 with the Papal bull In Supremae praeminentia Dignitatis, issued on 20 April 1303 by Pope Boniface VIII, as a Studium for ecclesiastical studies more under his control than the universities of Bologna and Padua, making it the first pontifical university.
In 1431 Pope Eugene IV reorganized the studium with the bull In supremae, in which he granted masters and students alike the broadest possible privileges and decreed that the university should include the four schools of Law, Medicine and Theology. He introduced a new tax on wine. However, the University's days of splendour came to an end during the sack of Rome in 1527, when the studium was closed and the professors dispersed, some were killed. Pope Paul III restored the university shortly after his ascension to the pontificate in 1534. In the 1650s the university became meaning wisdom, a title it retains. In 1703, Pope Clement XI purchased some land with his private funds on the Janiculum, where he made a botanical garden, which soon became the most celebrated in Europe through the labours of the Trionfetti brothers; the first complete history of the Sapienza University was written in 1803-1806 by Filippo Maria Renazzi. University students were newly animated during the 19th-century Italian revival.
In 1870, La Sapienza stopped being the papal university and became the university of the capital of Italy. In 1935 the new university campus, planned by Marcello Piacentini, was completed. Sapienza University has many campuses in Rome but its main campus is the Città Universitaria, which covers 44 ha near the Roma Tiburtina Station; the university has satellite campuses outside Rome, the main of, in Latina. In 2011 a project was launched to build a campus with residence halls near Pietralata station, in collaboration with the Lazio region. In order to cope with the ever-increasing number of applicants, the Rector approved a new plan to expand the Città Universitaria, reallocate offices and enlarge faculties, as well as create new campuses for hosting local and foreign students; the Alessandrina University Library, built in 1667 by Pope Alexander VII, is the main library housing 1.5 million volumes. Orto Botanico dell'Università di Roma "La Sapienza", a botanical garden Sant'Ivo alla Sapienza San Pietro in Vincoli: the cloister is part of the Engineering School Villa Mirafiori: a Neo-Renaissance palace built during the 19th century, some rooms are decorated with fine frescoes.
The Department of Philosophy is located in this building. Since the 2011 reform, Sapienza University of Rome has 65 departments. Today Sapienza, with 140,000 students and 8,000 among academic and technical and administrative staff, is the largest university in Italy; the university has significant research programmes in the fields of engineering, natural sciences, biomedical sciences and humanities. It offers 10 Masters Programmes taught in English; as of the 2016 Academic Ranking of World Universities, Sapienza is positioned within the 151-200 group of universities and among the top 3% of universities in the world. In 2018, the subject Classics and Ancient history of Sapienza is ranked the 1st in the world by QS World University Rankings by subject; as the same ranking, the subject Archaeology ranks the 9th. In 2016, the Center for World University Rankings ranked the Sapienza University of Rome as the 90th in the world and the top in Italy in its World University Rankings. In order to cope with the large demand for admission to the university courses, some faculties hold a series of entrance examinations.
The entrance test decides which candidates will have access to the undergraduate course. For some faculties, the entrance test is only a mean through which the administration acknowledges the students' level of preparation. Students that do not pass the test can still enroll in their chosen degree courses but have to pass an additional exam during their first year. On 15 January 2008 the Vatican cancelled a planned visit to La Sapienza University by Pope Benedict XVI, to speak at the university ceremony launching the 2008 academic year due to protests by some students and professors; the title of the speech would have been'The Truth Makes Us Good and Goodness is Truth'. Some students and professors protested in reaction to a 1990 speech that Pope Benedict XVI gave in which he, in their opinion, endorsed the actions of the church against Galileo in 1633. Among the prominent scholars who have taught at the Sapienza University of Rome are architects Ernesto Basile and Bruno Zevi.
Ezana of Axum
‘Ezana of Axum was ruler of the Kingdom of Aksum located in present-day northern Ethiopia, part of southern Saudi Arabia, northern Somalia, Djibouti and parts of Sudan. He himself employed the style "king of Saba and Salhen and Dhu-Raydan". Tradition states that ‘Ezana succeeded his father Ella Amida while still a child and his mother, Sofya served as regent. ‘Ezana was the first monarch of the Kingdom of Aksum to embrace Christianity, the first after Za Haqala to be mentioned by contemporary historians, a situation that lead S. C. Munro-Hay to comment that he was "the most famous of the Aksumite kings before Kaleb." His childhood tutor, the Syrian Christian Frumentius, became head of the Ethiopian Church. A surviving letter from the Arian Roman emperor Constantius II is addressed to ‘Ezana and his brother Saizana and requests that Frumentius be sent to Alexandria to be examined for doctrinal errors and be replaced by Theophilos the Indian. A pair of inscriptions on a stela in Ge'ez found at Meroë is thought of as evidence of a campaign in the fourth century, either during ‘Ezana's reign, or by a predecessor like Ousanas.
While some authorities interpret these inscriptions as proof that the Aksumites destroyed the kingdom of Meroë, others note that archeological evidence points to an economic and political decline in Meroë around 300. Moreover, some view the stela as military aid from Aksum to Meroë to quell the revolt and rebellion by the Nuba. However, conclusive evidence and proof to which view is correct is not available. On some of the Aksumite coins minted during ‘Ezana's reign appears the motto in Greek TOYTOAPECHTHXWPA – "May this please the people". Munro-Hay comments that this motto is "a rather attractive peculiarity of Aksumite coinage, giving a feeling of royal concern and responsibility towards the people's wishes and contentment". A number of coins minted bearing his name were found in the late 1990s at archeological sites in India, indicating trade contacts in that country. A remarkable feature of the coins is a shift from a pagan motif with disc and crescent to a design with a cross. ‘Ezana is credited for erecting several stelae and obelisks.
Ezana is unknown in the King Lists though the coins bear this name. According to tradition, Emperors Abreha and Asbeha ruled Ethiopia, it may be that these names were applied to ‘Ezana and his brother or that these were their baptismal names. Along with his brother, Saizana, ‘Ezana is regarded as a saint by the Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahedo Church, with a feast day of October 1. Ezana Stone Yuri M. Kobishchanov. Axum. University Park, Pennsylvania: University of Pennsylvania, 1979. ISBN 0-271-00531-9 Sergew Hable Sellassie. Ancient and Medieval Ethiopian History to 1270. African Zion, the Sacred Art of Ethiopia
Saint Frumentius was the first bishop of Axum, is credited with bringing Christianity to the Kingdom of Aksum. He is sometimes known by other names, such as Aba Salama, he was ethnically a Syro-Phoenician Greek born in Tyre. As a boy, he was captured with his brother, they became slaves to the King of Axum, he freed them shortly before his death, they were invited to educate his young heir. They began to teach Christianity in the region. Frumentius traveled to Alexandria, where he appealed to have a bishop appointed and missionary priests sent south to Axum. Thereafter, he was appointed bishop and established the Church in Ethiopia, converting many indigenous people, as well as the king, his appointment began a tradition. According to the fourth-century historian Tyrannius Rufinus, who cites Frumentius' brother Edesius as his authority, as children Frumentius and Edesius accompanied their uncle Meropius from their birthplace of Tyre on a voyage to Ethiopia; when their ship stopped at one of the harbors of the Red Sea, local people massacred the whole crew, sparing the two boys, who were taken as slaves to the King of Axum.
The two boys soon gained the favour of the king. Shortly before his death, the king freed them; the widowed queen, prevailed upon them to remain at the court and assist her in the education of the young heir, in the administration of the kingdom during the prince's minority. They used their influence to spread Christianity. First they encouraged the Christian merchants present in the country to practise their faith and they helped them find places "where they could come together for prayer according to the Roman Rite"; when the prince came of age, Edesius returned to Tyre, where he was ordained a priest. Frumentius, eager for the conversion of Ethiopia, accompanied his brother as far as Alexandria, where he requested Athanasius, Patriarch of Alexandria, to send a bishop and some priests as missionaries to Ethiopia. By Athanasius' own account, he believed Frumentius to be the most suitable person for the job and consecrated him as bishop, traditionally in the year 328, or according to others, between 340-346.
Frumentius returned to Ethiopia, where he erected his episcopal see at Axum converted and baptized King Ezana, who built many churches and spread Christianity throughout Ethiopia. The people called Abba Salama, he became a title given to the head of the Ethiopian Church. In about 356, the Emperor Constantius II wrote to King Ezana and his brother Saizana, requesting them to replace Frumentius as bishop with Theophilos the Indian, who supported the Arian position, as did the emperor. Frumentius had been appointed by a leading opponent of Arianism; the king refused the request. Ethiopian traditions credit him with the first Ge'ez translation of the New Testament, being involved in the development of Ge'ez script from an abjad into an abugida; the Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahedo Church and Eritrean Orthodox Tewahedo Church celebrate the feast of Abba Salama on Taḫśaś 18. The Coptic Orthodox Church of Alexandria celebrates the feast of Frumentius on December 18, the Eastern Orthodox Church on November 30 and the Catholic Church on October 27.
In the 20th century, Lutherans mistakenly claimed that Saint Frumentius was venerated on August 1 in the Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahedo Church without providing any evidence for this. Martyrologium Romanum, Editio Altera, p. 401 "San Frumenzio", Santi e Beati Catholic News Agency: Frumentius of Ethiopia Saints. SQPN: Frumentius Catholic Online: Frumentius
A chamber tomb is a tomb for burial used in many different cultures. In the case of individual burials, the chamber is thought to signify a higher status for the interree than a simple grave. Built from rock or sometimes wood, the chambers could serve as places for storage of the dead from one family or social group and were used over long periods for multiple burials. Most chamber tombs were constructed from large stones or megaliths and covered by cairns, barrows or earth; some chamber tombs are wooden-chambered tombs covered with earth barrows. Grave goods are a common characteristic of chamber tomb burials. In Neolithic and Bronze Age Europe, stone-built examples of these burials are known by the generic term of megalithic tombs. Chamber tombs are distinguished by the layout of their chambers and entrances or the shape and material of the structure that covered them, either an earth barrow or stone cairn. A wide variety of local types has been identified, some designs appear to have influenced others.
General terms: Chambered cairn Chambered long barrow Cromlechs and Hunebedden Simple dolmen Great dolmen Polygonal dolmen Rectangular dolmen Corbelled tomb Chamber tumulus Gallery grave including: Allées couvertes Court cairn Giants' grave Naveta the Peak District tomb group Severn-Cotswold or Cotswold-Severn tomb Transepted gallery grave Wedge-shaped gallery grave Entrance grave such as Portal dolmen Scillonian entrance grave Passage grave including: The tholos tombs of Mycenaean Greece. Mycenaean chamber tomb V-shaped passage grave Cruciform passage grave Clava cairn Other types: Domus de Janas Dysser Medway tomb Shaft and chamber tomb Tomb of Two Brothers Piccolo, Salvatore. Ancient Stones: The Prehistoric Dolmens of Sicily. Thornham/UK: Brazen Head. ISBN 978-0-9565106-2-4
Architecture of Ethiopia
Architecture of Ethiopia varies from region to region. Over the years, it has incorporated various techniques; the best known building of the period in the region is the ruined 8th-century BC multi-story tower at Yeha in Ethiopia, believed to have been the capital of D'mt. Ashlar masonry was dominant during this period, owing to South Arabian influence where the style was common for monumental structures. Aksumite architecture flourished in the region from the 4th century BC onward, it persisted after the transition from the Aksumite dynasty to the Zagwe dynasty in the 12th century, as attested by the numerous Aksumite influences in and around the medieval churches of Lalibela. Stelae and entire churches were carved out of single blocks of rock; this was emulated at Lalibela and throughout the Tigray Province during the early-mid medieval period. Other monumental structures include massive underground tombs located beneath stelae. Among the most spectacular survivals are the giant stelae, one of which, now fallen, is the single largest monolithic structure erected.
Other well-known structures employing the use of monoliths include tombs such as the "Tomb of the False Door" and the tombs of Kaleb and Gebre Mesqel in Axum. Most structures, like palaces, commoner's houses, other churches and monasteries, were built of alternating layers of stone and wood; the protruding wooden support beams in these structures have been named "monkey heads" and are a staple of Aksumite architecture and a mark of Aksumite influence in structures. Some examples of this style had whitewashed exteriors and/or interiors, such as the medieval 12th-century monastery of Yemrehanna Krestos near Lalibela, built during the Zagwe dynasty in Aksumite style. Contemporary houses were one-room stone structures, or two-storey square houses, or roundhouses of sandstone with basalt foundations. Villas were two to four storeys tall and built on sprawling rectangular plans. A good example of still-standing Aksumite architecture is the monastery of Debre Damo from the 6th century. Ethiopian architecture continued to expand from the Aksumite style, but incorporating new traditions with the expansion of the Ethiopian state.
Styles incorporated more wood and rounder structures in commoner's architecture in the center of the country and the south, these stylistic influencies were manifested in the slow construction of churches and monasteries. Throughout the medieval period, Aksumite architecture and influences and its monolithic tradition persisted, with its influence strongest in the early medieval and Zagwe periods. Throughout the medieval period, from the 10th to 12th centuries, churches were hewn out of rock throughout Ethiopia during the northernmost region of Tigray, the heart of the Aksumite Empire. However, rock-hewn churches have been found as far south as Adadi Maryam, about 100 km south of Addis Abeba; the most famous example of Ethiopian rock-hewn architecture are the 11 monolithic churches of Lalibela, carved out of the red volcanic tuff found around the town. Though medieval hagiographies attribute all 11 structures to the eponymous King Lalibela, new evidence indicates that they may have been built separately over a period of a few centuries, with only a few of the more recent churches having been built under his reign.
Archaeologist and Ethiopisant David Phillipson postulates, for instance, that Bete Gebriel-Rufa'el was built in the early medieval period, some time between 600 and 800 A. D. as a fortress but was turned into a church. During the early modern period, the absorption of new diverse influences such as Baroque, Arab and Gujarati Indian style began with the arrival of Portuguese Jesuit missionaries in the 16th and 17th centuries. Portuguese soldiers had come in the mid-16th century as allies to aid Ethiopia in its fight against Adal, Jesuits came hoping to convert the country; some Turkish influence may have entered the country during the late 16th century during its war with the Ottoman Empire, which resulted in an increased building of fortresses and castles. Ethiopia easily defensible because of its numerous ambas or flat-topped mountains and rugged terrain, yielded little tactical use from the structures in contrast to their advantages in the flat terrain of Europe and other areas, so had until this point little developed the tradition.
Castles were built beginning with the reign of Sarsa Dengel around the Lake Tana region, subsequent Emperors maintained the tradition resulting in the creation of the Fasil Ghebbi in the newly founded capital, Gondar. Emperor Susenyos converted to Catholicism in 1622 and attempted to make it the state religion, declaring it as such from 1624 until his abdication. With the reign of his son Fasilides, most of these foreigners were expelled, although some of their architectural styles were absorbed into the prevailing Ethiopian architectural style; this style of the Gondarine dynasty would persist throughout the 17th and 18th centuries and influenced modern 19th-century and styles. List of colossal sculpture in situ Ethiopian Ar
Christianity is an Abrahamic religion based on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth, as described in the New Testament. Its adherents, known as Christians, believe that Jesus Christ is the Son of God and savior of all people, whose coming as the Messiah was prophesied in the Old Testament. Depending on the specific denomination of Christianity, practices may include baptism, prayer, confirmation, burial rites, marriage rites and the religious education of children. Most denominations hold regular group worship services. Christianity developed during the 1st century CE as a Jewish Christian sect of Second Temple Judaism, it soon attracted Gentile God-fearers, which lead to a departure from Jewish customs, the establishment of Christianity as an independent religion. During the first centuries of its existence Christianity spread throughout the Roman Empire, to Ethiopia and some parts of Asia. Constantine the Great decriminalized it via the Edict of Milan; the First Council of Nicaea established a uniform set of beliefs across the Roman Empire.
By 380, the Roman Empire designated Christianity as the state religion. The period of the first seven ecumenical councils is sometimes referred to as the Great Church, the united full communion of the Roman Catholic Church, Eastern Orthodox Church, Oriental Orthodoxy, before their schisms. Oriental Orthodoxy split after the Council of Chalcedon over differences in Christology; the Eastern Orthodox Church and the Catholic Church separated in the East–West Schism over the authority of the Pope. In 1521, Protestants split from the Catholic Church in the Protestant Reformation over Papal primacy, the nature of salvation, other ecclesiological and theological disputes. Following the Age of Discovery, Christianity was spread into the Americas, sub-Saharan Africa, the rest of the world via missionary work and colonization. There are 2.3 billion Christians in the world, or 31.4% of the global population. Today, the four largest branches of Christianity are the Catholic Church, the Eastern Orthodox Church and Oriental Orthodoxy.
Christianity and Christian ethics have played a prominent role in the development of Western civilization around Europe during late antiquity and the Middle Ages. In the New Testament, the names by which the disciples were known among themselves were "brethren", "the faithful", "elect", "saints" and "believers". Early Jewish Christians referred to themselves as'The Way' coming from Isaiah 40:3, "prepare the way of the Lord." According to Acts 11:26, the term "Christian" was first used in reference to Jesus's disciples in the city of Antioch, meaning "followers of Christ," by the non-Jewish inhabitants of Antioch. The earliest recorded use of the term "Christianity" was by Ignatius of Antioch, in around 100 AD. While Christians worldwide share basic convcitions, there are differences of interpretations and opinions of the Bible and sacred traditions on which Christianity is based. Concise doctrinal statements or confessions of religious beliefs are known as creeds, they began as baptismal formulae and were expanded during the Christological controversies of the 4th and 5th centuries to become statements of faith.
The Apostles' Creed is the most accepted statement of the articles of Christian faith. It is used by a number of Christian denominations for both liturgical and catechetical purposes, most visibly by liturgical churches of Western Christian tradition, including the Latin Church of the Catholic Church, Lutheranism and Western Rite Orthodoxy, it is used by Presbyterians and Congregationalists. This particular creed was developed between the 9th centuries, its central doctrines are those of God the Creator. Each of the doctrines found in this creed can be traced to statements current in the apostolic period; the creed was used as a summary of Christian doctrine for baptismal candidates in the churches of Rome. Its main points include: Belief in God the Father, Jesus Christ as the Son of God, the Holy Spirit The death, descent into hell and ascension of Christ The holiness of the Church and the communion of saints Christ's second coming, the Day of Judgement and salvation of the faithful; the Nicene Creed was formulated in response to Arianism, at the Councils of Nicaea and Constantinople in 325 and 381 and ratified as the universal creed of Christendom by the First Council of Ephesus in 431.
The Chalcedonian Definition, or Creed of Chalcedon, developed at the Council of Chalcedon in 451, though rejected by the Oriental Orthodox churches, taught Christ "to be acknowledged in two natures, unchangeably, inseparably": one divine and one human, that both natures, while perfect in themselves, are also united into one person. The Athanasian Creed, received in the Western Church as having the same status as the Nicene and Chalcedonian, says: "We worship one God in Trinity, Trinity in Unity. Many evangelical Protestants reject creeds as definitive statements of faith while agreeing with some or all of the substance of the creeds. Most Baptists do not use creeds "in that they have not sought to establish binding