Clarín (Argentine newspaper)
Clarín is the largest newspaper in Argentina, published by the Grupo Clarín media group. It was founded by Roberto Noble on 28 August 1945 in Buenos Aires, its director since 1969 was Ernestina Herrera de Noble. Clarín is part of Periódicos Asociados Latinoamericanos, an organization of fourteen leading newspapers in South America. Clarín was created by Roberto Noble, former minister of the Buenos Aires Province, on 28 August 1945, it was one of the first Argentine newspapers published in tabloid format. It became the highest sold Argentine newspaper in 1965, the highest sold Spanish-speaking newspaper in 1985, it was the first Argentine newspaper to sell a magazine with the Sunday edition, since 1967. In 1969, the news were split into several supplements by topic. In 1976, high colour printing was benefited by the creation of AGR. For many years the Argentine author Horacio Estol was the New York correspondent of Clarin, writing about aspects of US life of interest to Argentines. Roberto Noble died in 1969, his widow Ernestina Herrera de Noble succeeded him as director.
The newspaper bought Papel Prensa in 1977, together with La Razón. In 1982, it joined a group of 20 other newspapers to create the "Diarios y Noticias" informative agency; the Sunday magazine was renamed in 1994 to a name that would last up to modern day. The newspaper started a media conglomerate in 1999 after a law reformation which allows it to collect many different media supports, that would be named after the newspaper, Grupo Clarín; this conglomerate would operate in radio, Internet, other newspapers and other areas beyond Clarín itself. On 27 December 1999, The Clarín Group and Goldman Sachs, an American investment firm, subscribed an investment agreement where the consortium, managed by Goldman Sachs, made a direct investment in Clarín Group; the operation implied an increase of capital to the Clarin Group and the incorporation of Goldman Sachs as minority partner, with a participation of 18% of the stocks. Clarín launched clarin.com, the website for the newspaper, in March 1996. The site served nearly 6 million unique visitors daily in Argentina in April 2011, making it the fifth most visited website in the country that month and the most visited of any website based in Argentina itself.
There was a conflict between the government of Fernández de Kirchner and the Clarín Group from 2008 until 2015 over a variety of issues. The Clarín Group is the biggest media holding in Argentina, not only publishes the Clarín newspaper but owns the country major cable operator Cablevisión, a major commercial broadcast television Canal 13, a number of cable networks, hundreds of radio licenses. Clarín prints and distributes around 330,000 copies throughout the country, but by 2012, circulation had declined to 270,444 copies and Clarín accounted for nearly 21 percent of Argentine newspaper market, compared to 35 percent in 1983. Clarín has a 44 percent market share in Buenos Aires. According to third-party web analytics providers Alexa and SimilarWeb, Clarín's website is the 10th and 14th most visited in Argentina as of August 2015. SimilarWeb rates the site as the 3rd most visited news website in Argentina, attracting 32 million visitors per month. Clarín Awards clarín.com Grupo Clarin The Holding Clarín's Profile Info America El Trece Gran DT
Kirchner Cultural Centre
The Kirchner Cultural Centre is a cultural centre located in Buenos Aires, Argentina. It is the largest of Latin America, the third or fourth largest in the world, it was opened on May 21, 2015, is located in the former Buenos Aires Central Post Office. The cultural centre was named after former president of Argentina Néstor Kirchner; the 9 floor centre has a concert hall. The need for a new central post office in Buenos Aires was first raised in 1888 by the director of the Correo Argentino at the time, Dr. Ramón J. Cárcano; that year a Congressional bill providing for its construction was signed by President Miguel Juárez Celman. The Ministry of Public Works commissioned French architect Norbert Maillart for its design in 1889. Designating a 12,500 m² city block on the corner of Leandro Alem and Corrientes Avenues for its construction, the Public Works Ministry chose the site as a means to beautify a land reclamation site where the shores of the Río de la Plata had reached just a decade earlier.
The sudden onset of the Panic of 1890 and the subsequent crisis led to President Juárez Celman's resignation, however, as well as to the project's suspension. The national government revived the plans only in 1905, in 1908 Maillart returned to Buenos Aires, where his new plans for a larger post office were approved the following April. Differences arose between Maillart and the Argentine government, the French architect abandoned the project in 1911. Construction, which had just started, was left to the supervision of Maillart's chief assistant, Jacques Spolsky. Spolsky reengineered the design, which featured masonry supports, to consist of a steel-reinforced concrete structure, for which 2,882 steel pillars were placed onto the bedrock, 10 m deep. Limitations on the city's public works budgets resulting from the onset of World War I forced another major design alteration in 1916; the planned construction of an elevated causeway on Leandro Alem Avenue was cancelled, a mezzanine was added to the plans to compensate for an entrance which would now be one floor below the original's.
Spolsky achieved this without substantial changes to the building's exterior, though the number of delays led to considerable cost overruns on the project, its budget was exhausted in 1923. President Marcelo Torcuato de Alvear, obtained Congressional support for a new appropriation, on September 28, 1928, the new Secretaría de Comunicaciones was inaugurated; the building's eclectic design, drawing prominently from French Second Empire architecture, was typical of the public buildings and upscale real estate built in Buenos Aires and other Argentine cities early in the 20th Century. Despite their differences, Maillart went on to design the Buenos Aires National College and the Argentine Supreme Court, Spolsky designed post offices for Rosario and San Miguel de Tucumán in a similar style while at work on this structure; the largest public building completed in Argentina up to that point, the building measured eight stories and 60 m in height and included over 88,000 m² of indoor space. The central hall was decorated with marble throughout, features stained glass windows, numerous bronze sculptures and mail drop boxes, a 4-story-high domed ceiling.
The grandiose setting led President Juan Perón to move his offices in the building during the early years of his 1946-55 tenure, the First Lady, Eva Perón, designated a wing as the first headquarters of the charitable Eva Perón Foundation. During the subsequent automobile boom in Argentina, the plaza facing the post office was made into a parking lot. Opposition to the 1979 sale of the parking lot for the construction of a local Bank of Tokyo headquarters proved insurmountable, the plans were cancelled. Guillermo del Cioppo, the Minister of Urban Development and Mayor, ordered the construction of an underground parking structure instead, the lot above was converted into a park in 1983; the building was designated a National Historic Monument in 1997. Most of its postal activities had been transferred to a newer structure during the Perón administration, it handled only international mail in years. In 2005, its last remaining postal bureau was closed. President Néstor Kirchner proposed the conversion of the abandoned building and landmark into a cultural centre in June 2005, two years plans were approved for the construction of two concert halls and an exhibition gallery for the creation of the Bicentennial Cultural Centre.
The centre's winning design was provided by a team of architects led by siblings Enrique and Nicolás Bares. It was scheduled to be inaugurated on the Argentina Bicentennial, May 25, 2010. Completion of the new centre was delayed however, in 2012 its designated name was amended as Centro Cultural del Bicentenario Presidente Dr. Néstor Carlos Kirchner, in honor of the late former president. Upon opening in May 2015 it was named the shorter Centro Cultural Kirchner; when the architects added new spaces and elements, they purposely used different materials such as clear and frosted glass and stainless steel, to maintain sight of the ornate Beaux-Arts style beauty of the original building. The main concert hall La Sala Sinfonica, seating 1,950 people, is a blimp-shaped three-storey auditorium
Buenos Aires City Hall
Buenos Aires City Hall is the executive seat of government of the Argentine capital. The 1880 Federalization of Buenos Aires was followed by a boom in foreign trade and European immigration, in 1890, Mayor Francisco P. Bollini commissioned the construction of a new city hall; the building would replace what had been the city government's offices since 1860 - the second floor of police headquarters. Bollini's announced project had been preceded by the Panic of 1890, the effect of this crisis on the city's leading source of tax revenue British investment, led to plans of a modest scale. Among the cost-saving measures was the city's enlistment of the Assistant Minister of Public Works, Juan Cagnoni, as chief architect, as well as the decision to build on the site of the outmoded police headquarters. Decorative tilework and chandeliers from the adjacent Zuberbühler house, expropriated to make way for the Avenida de Mayo, were salvaged for use in the upcoming city hall; the cornerstone laying ceremony was held on New Year's Eve 1890, for which the Mayor contributed a time capsule which included the construction permit among other mementoes.
The works themselves cost the city a modest 150,000 pesos, were completed in 1892. Inaugurated in March 1893, the new city hall housed 860 m², was only a little more spacious than the earlier offices; this problem was resolved by the 1911 acquisition of an adjacent residential lot, which allowed the expansion of the city hall to nearly double. Designed in the same Second Empire style with which Cagnoni designed the first part, the engineering firm of Bonneu Ibero, Parodi & Figini completed the annex in 1914. A connection to the adjacent House of Culture was opened following the latter's acquisition by the city in 1988; the 1880 Federalization of Buenos Aires, enacted in a bid to end the internecine warfare between those who favored a united Argentina with a strong central government and Buenos Aires Province leaders who favored an independent nation of their own, resulted in President Julio Roca's passage in 1882 of National Law 1260, which created the presidential prerogative of the appointment of the Mayor of Buenos Aires.
This remained the city's governing structure in 1993, when former President Raúl Alfonsín prevailed on his successor, President Carlos Menem, to agree to a limited devolution of governing powers to the city. Accordingly, the 1994 reform of the Argentine Constitution included article 129, which guaranteed Buenos Aires greater self-governance; the Indentente was replaced by a Jefe de Gobierno, the city council by the Buenos Aires City Legislature. Shortly before the historic, June 30, 1996, elections to these posts, however, a senior Peronist Senator, Antonio Cafiero, succeeded in limiting the city's autonomy by advancing National Law 24.588, which reserved control of the 25,000-strong Policía Federal, the Port of Buenos Aires and other faculties to the national government. The controversial bill, signed in 1996 by President Menem, remained a sticking point between successive Presidents and Buenos Aires Mayors. A 2005 agreement on principles between Mayor Aníbal Ibarra and President Néstor Kirchner was followed by the modification of the contentious article 7, which denied the city its own, local police force, in 2007 - though the "Cafiero Law" otherwise remains in force.
Efforts since 2007 by Mayor Mauricio Macri to declare it unconstitutional have thus far failed, though the Mayor inaugurated a Metropolitan Police, issues of revenue sharing for its financing remain pending
Palacio de la Legislatura de la Ciudad de Buenos Aires
The Palacio de la Legislatura de la Ciudad de Buenos Aires houses the Government of the City of Buenos Aires, Argentina. It is an architectural landmark in the city's Montserrat district, situated in a triangular block bounded by the streets Calle Hipólito Yrigoyen, Avenida Presidente Julio Argentino Roca and Calle Perú. Built of grey granite, it has a Neoclassical design; the building is open to the public on week-days only. The building contains the Esteban Echeverría Library, Salon Rosado, a carillon which, when it was installed in 1930, was the largest in South America. A lot southwest of the Plaza de Mayo was set aside for the building's construction; the building's design was awarded through a competition to local architect Héctor Ayerza. Approved and budgeted by the council in 1926, Ayerza's eclectic design drew from French Neoclassical architecture; the foundation stone was laid under the First Congress of Municipalities of the Republic of Argentina, on November 18, 1926 by Marcelo Torcuato de Alvear.
A commemorative plaque was affixed on the occasion. Louis Falcone was awarded the contract with a completion time of 5 years, the work started on September 19, 1927. Problems with contractual interpretation were arbitrated by the engineer Sebastian Ghigliazza; the palace was inaugurated on October 3, 1931. The building has been home to other government agencies. Juan Perón, who established the Secretariat of Labor and Social Insurance, set aside a wing in the building for the purpose. Perón had the building declared a National Historic Monument in 1951. Constructed in the Neoclassical style, the building has three storeys and a penthouse, it incorporates an older residence that faced the Plaza de Mayo but now fronts the Avenida Julio A. Roca; the main door, located at the corner of Avenida Julio A. Roca and the Calle Peru, is of carved wood with a central brass knocker shaped as a lion's head; the front of the building has Corinthian style balconies with balustrades. The former Municipal shield, made of bronze, adorns a large window.
Architecturally, the building is best known for its 26 cornice caryatids, the clock tower, carillon of 30 bells. Aside from the legislative chambers themselves, the building's interior features a number of architecturally noteworthy salons and halls, as well as two libraries; the Esteban Echeverría Library houses a unique collection of 2,000 books from the seventeenth to the nineteenth century. The other library, known as the Hemeroteca José Hernández, has numerous newspaper archives from 1870 covering topics of history and general news. A staircase is situated opposite the main entrance to Avenida Julio A. Roca, it splits into two sections before reaching the main floor rotunda. Above it, a stained glass dome representing the sun can be opened manually or electronically to view the open sky. Known as the Centennial Library, the Esteban Echeverría library was designed in 1884 by the Council president, Dr. Roberto Larroque, who ordered library materials from foreign counties, it houses a collection of 30,000 texts on law and legislation.
There are texts from Visigothic Spain, from the Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata, the colonial Buenos Aires Cabildo, others. It includes the José Hernández Periodicals Library. Created to assist legislators and municipal officials, it was opened to the general public; the library was renamed to honor the Argentine poet Esteban Echeverria who introduced literary romanticism to the city. The library is designed in an eclectic style with Neoclassical elements, it is clad in walnut. The Golden Hall, reserved for ceremonies and other formal events, was inspired by the Hall of Mirrors in the Palace of Versailles, France, it is reached by climbing the Stairway of Honor. Columns with Ionic capitals surround the central area, supporting an arched gallery which serves as a balcony over the central area. At its base there is a shield of honor with the arms of the city; the hall is lit by each with 45 lights, as well as 14 candelabras. The room is used for public hearings and events. After women obtained voting rights in 1947 and female politicians began to enter the government's legislative system, First Lady Eva Perón established the palace's Salon Rosado as a reserved area for government women to discuss issues in a place from which men were excluded.
The room is now open to visitors. It includes original fixtures; the edifice was declared a Historic Protection Area in 1977 and at the "comprehensive protection level" since 2000. The salon is a study. A number of scenes for Alan Parker's 1996 film, were filmed here and in the legislative chambers, it is located between the Vice President of the First Legislature. It houses some of the original furniture and personal objects such as a desk, lamp, folders and letter rack, its walls are paneled in wood. There are two Louis XIV cabinets by cabinetmaker Tarris, the municipal arms engraved on the doors. Two vases stand there, one in Baccarat crystal, the
Islamic culture and Muslim culture refer to cultural practices common to Islamic people. The early forms of Muslim culture, from the Rashidun Caliphate to early Umayyad perioud, were predominantly Arab, Byzantine and Levantine. With the rapid expansion of the Islamic empires, Muslim culture has influenced and assimilated much from the Persian, Caucasian, Mongol, South Asian, Somali, Berber and Moro cultures. Islamic culture includes all the practices which have developed around the religion of Islam. There are variations in the application of Islamic beliefs in different traditions. Arabic literature is both prose and poetry, produced by writers in the Arabic language; the Arabic word used for literature is "Adab", derived from a meaning of etiquette, which implies politeness and enrichment. Arabic literature emerged in the 5th century with only fragments of the written language appearing before then; the Qur'an regarded by people as the finest piece of literature in the Arabic language, would have the greatest lasting effect on Arabic culture and its literature.
Arabic literature flourished during the Islamic Golden Age, but has remained vibrant to the present day, with poets and prose-writers across the Arab world, as well as rest of the world, achieving increasing success. Persian literature comprises oral compositions and written texts in the Persian language and it is one of the world's oldest literatures, it spans over two-and-a-half millennia. Its sources have been within Greater Iran including present-day Iran, Afghanistan, the Caucasus, Turkey, regions of Central Asia and South Asia where the Persian language has been either the native or official language. For instance, one of best-loved Persian poets born in Balkh or Vakhsh, wrote in Persian and lived in Konya the capital of the Seljuks in Anatolia; the Ghaznavids conquered large territories in Central and South Asia and adopted Persian as their court language. There is thus Persian literature from Iran, Azerbaijan, the wider Caucasus, western parts of Pakistan, India and other parts of Central Asia.
Not all Persian literature is written in Persian, as some consider works written by ethnic Persians in other languages, such as Greek and Arabic, to be included. At the same time, not all literature written in Persian is written by ethnic Persians or Iranians, as Turkic and Indic poets and writers have used the Persian language in the environment of Persianate cultures. Described as one of the great literatures of humanity, including Goethe's assessment of it as one of the four main bodies of world literature, Persian literature has its roots in surviving works of Middle Persian and Old Persian, the latter of which date back as far as 522 BCE, the date of the earliest surviving Achaemenid inscription, the Behistun Inscription; the bulk of surviving Persian literature, comes from the times following the Arab conquest of Persia c. 650 CE. After the Abbasids came to power, the Iranians became the scribes and bureaucrats of the Arab empire and also its writers and poets; the New Persian language literature arose and flourished in Khorasan and Transoxiana because of political reasons, early Iranian dynasties such as the Tahirids and Samanids being based in Khorasan.
Persian poets such as Ferdowsi, Sa'di, Attar, Nezami and Omar Khayyam are known in the West and have influenced the literature of many countries. For a thousand years, since the invasion of India by the Ghaznavids, the Persian-Islamic culture of the eastern half of the Islamic world started to dominate the Indian culture. Persian was the official language of most Indian empires such as the Ghaznavids, the Delhi Sultanate, the Bengal Sultanate, the Deccan Sultanates and the Mughal Empire. Persian artistic forms in literature and poetry such as ghazals have come to affect Urdu and other Indian literature. More Persian literature was produced in India than in the Iranian world; as late as the 20th century, Allama Iqbal chose Persian for some of his major poetic works. The first Persian language newspaper was published in India, given that printing machines were first implemented in India. In Bengal, the Baul tradition of mystic music and poetry merged Sufism with many local images; the most prominent poets were Lalon Shah.
During the early 14th century, the liberal poet Kazi Nazrul Islam espoused intense spiritual rebellion against oppression and religious fundamentalism. Sultana's Dream by Begum Rokeya, an Islamic feminist, is one earliest works of feminist science fiction. From the 11th century, there was a growing body of Islamic literature in the Turkic languages. However, for centuries to come the official language in Turkish-speaking areas would remain Persian. In Anatolia, with the advent of the Seljuks, the practise and usage of Persian in the region would be revived. A branch of the Seljuks, the Sultanate of Rum, took Russian language and letters to Anatolia, they adopted Persian language as the official language of the empire. The Ottomans, which can "roughly" be seen as their eventual successors, took this tradition over. Persian was the official court language of the empire, for some time, the official language of the empire, though the lingua franca amongst common people from the 15th/16th century would become Turkish as well as having laid an active "foundation" for the Turkic language as earl
Mosque of Sheikh Ibrahim Al-Ibrahim
The Mosque Ibrahim Ibin Abdul Aziz Al-Ibrahim or Caracas Mosque is a mosque in the El Recreo district of Caracas. It is the second largest mosque in Latin America after the King Fahd Islamic Cultural Center in Buenos Aires. Mirroring modern Venezuela's religious tolerance and its oil realpolitik the construction of the mosque began in 1989 by Sheikh Abdulaziz Bin Ibrahim Al Ibrahim; the mosque designed by architect Zuhair Fayez occupies an area of 5000 m², its minaret is 113 metres high and the dome is 23 metres high. Construction of the mosque was completed in 1993; the mosque can hold around 3500 worshipers. Rising higher between the Catholic Cathedral a few blocks away and the Caracas Synagogue, the minaret is the highest in the Americas."It is like a dream come true for us," Hassan Majzoub, president of Venezuela's Islamic Center, said of the four-year project, culminated in March 1993 with the inauguration of the Caracas Islamic Center. Mr. Majzoub, a shopkeeper who emigrated from Lebanon in 1968, acknowledged that the 100,000 Muslims in Venezuela were surpassed in number by Muslims in Argentina and the United States.
Caracas Getting Continent's Biggest Mosque
A mosque is a place of worship for Muslims. Any act of worship that follows the Islamic rules of prayer can be said to create a mosque, whether or not it takes place in a special building. Informal and open-air places of worship are called musalla, while mosques used for communal prayer on Fridays are known as jāmiʿ. Mosque buildings contain an ornamental niche set into the wall that indicates the direction of Mecca, ablution facilities and minarets from which calls to prayer are issued; the pulpit, from which the Friday sermon is delivered, was in earlier times characteristic of the central city mosque, but has since become common in smaller mosques. Mosques have segregated spaces for men and women; this basic pattern of organization has assumed different forms depending on the region and denomination. Mosques serve as locations for prayer, Ramadan vigils, funeral services, Sufi ceremonies and business agreements, alms collection and distribution, as well as homeless shelters. Mosques were important centers of elementary education and advanced training in religious sciences.
In modern times, they have preserved their role as places of religious instruction and debate, but higher learning now takes place in specialized institutions. Special importance is accorded to the Great Mosque of Mecca, Prophet's Mosque in Medina and the Al-Aqsa Mosque in Jerusalem. In the past, many mosques in the Muslim world were built over burial places of Sufi saints and other venerated figures, which has turned them into popular pilgrimage destinations; the first mosque was built by Muhammad in Medina. With the spread of Islam, mosques multiplied across the Islamic world. Sometimes churches and other temples were converted into mosques, which influenced Islamic architectural styles. While most pre-modern mosques were funded by charitable endowments, modern states in the Muslim world have attempted to bring mosques under government control. Increasing government regulation of large mosques has been countered by a rise of funded mosques of various affiliations and ideologies, many of which serve as bases for different Islamic revivalist currents and social activism.
Mosques have played a number of political roles. The rates of mosque attendance vary depending on the region; the word'mosque' entered the English language from the French word mosquée derived from Italian moschea, from either Middle Armenian մզկիթ, Medieval Greek: μασγίδιον, or Spanish mezquita, from Arabic: مَـسْـجِـد, translit. Masjid, either from Nabataean masgĕdhā́ or from Arabic Arabic: سَـجَـدَ, translit. Sajada ultimately from Aramaic sĕghēdh; the first mosque in the world is considered to be the area around the Ka‘bah in Mecca, now known as Al-Masjid Al-Ḥarâm. A Hadith in Sahih al-Bukhari states that the Kaaba was the First Mosque on Earth, the Second Mosque was the Temple in Jerusalem. Since as early as 638 AD, the Sacred Mosque has been expanded on several occasions to accommodate the increasing number of Muslims who either live in the area or make the annual pilgrimage known as Ḥajj to the city. Others regard the first mosque in history to be the Quba Mosque in present-day Medina since it was the first structure built by Muhammad upon his emigration from Mecca in 622, though the Mosque of the Companions in the Eritrean city of Massawa may have been constructed at around the same time.
The Islamic Prophet Muhammad went on to establish another mosque in Medina, now known as the Masjid an-Nabawi, or the Prophet's Mosque. Built on the site of his home, Muhammad participated in the construction of the mosque himself and helped pioneer the concept of the mosque as the focal point of the Islamic city; the Masjid al-Nabawi introduced some of the features still common in today's mosques, including the niche at the front of the prayer space known as the mihrab and the tiered pulpit called the minbar. The Masjid al-Nabawi was constructed with a large courtyard, a motif common among mosques built since then. Mosques had been built in Iraq and North Africa by the end of the 7th century, as Islam spread outside the Arabian Peninsula with early caliphates; the Imam Husayn Shrine in Karbala is one of the oldest mosques in Iraq, although its present form – typical of Persian architecture – only goes back to the 11th century. The shrine, while still operating as a mosque, remains one of the holiest sites for Shia Muslims, as it honors the death of the third Shia imam, Prophet Muhammad's grandson, Hussein ibn Ali.
The Mosque of Amr ibn al-As was the first mosque in Egypt, serving as a religious and social center for Fustat during its prime. Like the Imam Husayn Shrine, nothing of its original structure remains. With the Shia Fatimid Caliphate, mosques throughout Egypt evolved to include schools and tombs; the Great Mosque of Kairouan in present-day Tunisia was the first mosque built in northwest Africa, with its present form serving as a model for other Islamic places of worship in the Maghreb. It includes naves akin to a basilica; those features can be found in Andalusian mosques, including the Grand Mo