The Rock Hotel
The Rock Hotel known as Rock Hotel, is a historic hotel in the British Overseas Territory of Gibraltar. It has been described as "one of the Mediterranean's most famous hotels," and as "an institution in Gibraltar and the Mediterranean." Built in 1932 by John Crichton-Stuart, 4th Marquess of Bute, the hotel is set in a 3.6-hectare landscaped garden and contains 104 rooms. It is located in a large white Art Deco building along Europa Road, overlooking the Gibraltar Botanic Gardens; the Rock Hotel was built by John Crichton-Stuart, 4th Marquess of Bute, began operation in 1932. In the years after it opened, the hotel was managed by Rudolph Richard and earned a reputation as one of the finest hotels in Europe, its notable guests included Sir John Mills, Winston Churchill, Errol Flynn. During the 1930s and'40s, the hotel provided visitors with a first-hand perspective on the area's military activities. During the Second Italo-Abyssinian War, visitors could watch as Britain's Royal Navy engaged in manoeuvres off the coast of Gibraltar.
American journalist Westbrook Pegler stayed at the hotel and took movies from his balcony of the British fleet engaged in exercises. In November 1935, Pegler reported that the hotel's management instructed guests to leave the full-length glass doors open while a new gun on HMS Hood, the largest warship afloat at the time, was tested, he noted that the hotel's balconies "afford a fine view of the pageant of peace" and described "a mighty thump that popped eardrums and rattled glasses on the bathroom shelf" of his room at the Rock Hotel. In July 1936, the hotel sustained minor damage during the Spanish Civil War. A shell from a Spanish warship attempting to shoot down a rebel aircraft exploded over the city, causing a small landslide in which rocks and fragments struck the hotel's fire escape ladders. In 1936, a rebel plane dropped a bomb that damaged the hotel. During World War II, military officials stayed at The Rock. Guests dealt with noise from the construction of war tunnels. In September 1941, an American war correspondent described his stay at the hotel: "I dropped off to sleep in a comfortable room at the Rock hotel to the thunderous lullaby of the dynamite blasters.
The next morning, after a breakfast of bacon, toast, orange marmalade and coffee – a remarkable breakfast for wartime Europe – I set off on a tour of the passages." Until his death in 1947, the hotel was owned by the Marquess of Bute. The hotel had declined by 1950 when B. Vispaly, who had worked at the Hôtel Meurice in Paris, was in charge. In April 1951, the hotel sustained damage in the explosion of the RFA Bedenham, an incident in which a 1,000-ton British munitions ship blew up at the Gibraltar naval base; the Rock Hotel has hosted numerous internationally renowned celebrities and a number of celebrity weddings. Bernard Montgomery and Dwight D. Eisenhower stayed at the hotel while they were planning the invasion of North Africa, Winston Churchill and Errol Flynn stayed here. In April 1962, the 47-year-old actress daughter of Churchill, was married to Thomas Touchet-Jesson, 23rd Baron Audley, in a civil ceremony at the Rock Hotel. In 1962, Sean Connery and Diane Cilento stayed at The Rock Hotel after a marriage ceremony in Gibraltar.
Since 1959, the hotel has been operated by the Bland Group. The Bland Group was founded in 1810 as a shipping agency and provided a passenger service and transported supplies for Gibraltar's military garrison. Joseph Gaggero acquired the company in 1891, it has been run by the Gaggero family since that time. In 1997, Stephen Davenport of Wood Hall Country House Hotel, West Yorkshire, became general manager of The Rock, he launched a £1.2 million refurbishment programme at the hotel soon after arriving. Stephen Davenport has now retired and Charles Danino has taken over; the hotel is set in a 3.6-hectare landscaped garden with a wisteria-covered terrace. It is decorated in a colonial style and has 104 rooms, including some suites, junior suites and penthouses; some of the rooms have ceiling fans. In the 2009 guide book, "Frommer's Seville and the Best of Andalusia," the author described the hotel's Rib Room Restaurant as the "single finest dining room on Gibraltar". According to the hotel's web site, Moorish and British styles of cooking predominate at the hotel's restaurants, which are led by head chef Alfred Rodriguez, affiliated with the hotel since 1973.
Notes References Official site
O'Callaghan Eliott Hotel
O'Callaghan Eliott Hotel is a hotel in the Old Town of Gibraltar. As of 2008 it had 120 guestrooms; the Holiday Inn, it is now operated by the Irish O'Callaghan Hotel Group. The hotel is served by the Palm Victoria Garden restaurant; the hotel looks out on Governor's Parade opposite the Garrison Library and the old offices of the Gibraltar Chronicle. Official site
The Garrison Library was founded in Gibraltar in 1793 by Captain John Drinkwater Bethune. Constructed on the site of the Governors’ residence during the Spanish occupation of Gibraltar, the library was opened in 1804 by the Duke of Kent. In 1823 the library's fees were "100 hard dollars", paid by the 150 proprietors of the "Commercial Library"; each proprietor was entitled to borrow one large or three smaller books or an entire set of a novel for one to two weeks. In exchange they had to pay 16 dollars per year; this was a commercial affair and membership of the library could be bought or sold. The thirteen members of the committee were elected annually and the library was to be open seven days a week with both winter and summer hours; the library served as the headquarters and archive service of the Gibraltar Chronicle, the world's second oldest English language newspaper. The Library was established by the officers of the Garrison of Gibraltar, it has remained a private entity run by a Trust for over two hundred years up until, September 2011, at which point the Library was transferred to the Government of Gibraltar.
The Garrison is a library including many rare volumes. This library exists to hold the collection which includes good coverage of the subjects of culture and travel; the library was started to occupy officers stationed in Gibraltar. It has an excellent local history collection. Many lithographs and art prints are held here and many of the furnishings have interesting historical backgrounds. In 2006 the editorial offices of the Gibraltar Chronicle moved to new premises in Watergate House, the print works relocated in 2007 to New Harbours; the Chronicle's archive remains at the Garrison Library, as does the records of the more recent Panorama newspaper. The dragon tree in the library's front garden is thought to date from the Spanish occupation when the plant was introduced to Gibraltar by mariners who brought the seeds from the Canary Islands. Barnaby Rogerson. "Gibraltar in History". Travel Intelligence. Retrieved 2012-12-21
Victualling Yard, Gibraltar
The Victualling Yard was a victualling facility in the British Overseas Territory of Gibraltar built for supplying Royal Navy ships while anchored at Rosia Bay. The early history of the Victualling Yard complex is traced back to the late 18th century. At that time, the dockyard was located at the New Mole, now referred to as the South Mole, victualling was near the Old Mole, now known as the North Mole; these facilities however, suffered great damage during the Great Siege of Gibraltar due to its proximity to the Spanish land artillery to the north. In 1799, while residing at Rosia Parade in Gibraltar, John Jervis, 1st Earl of St Vincent, Admiral in Charge of the Mediterranean Fleet, recommended that the Royal Navy Victualling Yard be relocated to the Rosia Bay area, just south of the New Mole. Governor O'Hara did not approve of St Vincent's plan as he proposed to finance it by selling the naval stores at Waterport and Irish Town; however St Vincent won. In addition to access to the bay, the site had the advantage of the protection afforded by Parson's Lodge Battery.
It had the further advantage of being out of range of enemy gunfire from the North Front. Construction of the Rosia Water Tanks began in 1799 and was completed in 1804 by contractor Giovanni Maria Boschetti; the entire Victualling Yard complex at Rosia Bay was completed by 1812. It formed part of the Royal Navy base and contained stores of food and clothing in sufficient quantities for a large fleet; the Rosia Mole was the berthing place for the Royal Navy vessels seeking provisions and water from the Victualling Yard complex. The complex was in use as a victualling yard until the 1980s, remained in Ministry of Defence hands until 2004, it was described as'until the best and least altered example of a victualling depot' outside the British isles. Having taken ownership, the Gibraltar government demolished the unique underground water tanks in 2006, in the face of international opposition
Synagogues of Gibraltar
The four active synagogues of Gibraltar are colloquially known as the Great Synagogue, the Little Synagogue, the Flemish Synagogue, the Abudarham Synagogue. The first synagogue established after the 1717 expulsion of Jews from Gibraltar, the Great Synagogue, was built on what is now known as Engineer Lane, remains Gibraltar's principal synagogue; the Little Synagogue, founded in 1759 in Irish Town, was the result of the desire of Moroccan Jews for a less formal service. The lavish Flemish Synagogue was built at the turn of the nineteenth century on Line Wall Road, due to the request of some congregants for a return to more formal, Dutch customs; the last synagogue to be established in what is now the British overseas territory of Gibraltar, the Abudarham Synagogue, was founded in 1820 on Parliament Lane by recent Moroccan immigrants. Jews resided in what is now the British overseas territory of Gibraltar by the 14th century, based on records which reveal a 1356 request for assistance in ransoming Jews, taken prisoner by pirates.
In addition, after Jews were expelled from Spain in 1492, many went through Gibraltar en route to North Africa. During the 18th century, much of the rations of the British military forces were pork. Barrels of salted meat were provided by Ireland. However, in order to avoid scurvy, fresh provisions had to be procured for soldiers after a few months of salted or cured food. For soldiers stationed in Gibraltar, Morocco was the most convenient location to obtain fresh beef, although pork was not available from the Muslim country. Subsequently, starting in the early 18th century, after the 1704 capture of Gibraltar, Jewish merchants from Tetuan in Morocco were encouraged to come to Gibraltar with provisions, their counterparts from Leghorn, Italy. As a result, by the time of the negotiation of the 1713 Treaty of Utrecht, there was a thriving Jewish population in Gibraltar. In those early years, starting about 1705, Jews met in private houses or in a warehouse in what is now Bomb House Lane; some consider that warehouse on what was known as La Calle que va a la Plazuela de Juan Serrano to be Gibraltar's first synagogue founded under British rule.
However, Spain insisted on language in the treaty that excluded Muslims from Gibraltar. "Her Britannic Majesty, at the request of the Catholic King, does consent and agree that no leave shall be given, under any pretext whatsoever, either to Jews or Moors to reside or have their dwellings in the said town of Gibraltar." Attempts to have the clause deleted were unsuccessful. In 1716, supplies began to arrive over the border with Spain, but the Spanish ambassador complained that there were substantial numbers of Jews living in Gibraltar, in violation of the terms of the treaty; the British government insisted that the Lieutenant-Governor of Gibraltar adhere to the terms of the 1713 treaty, Jews were expelled from Gibraltar in 1717. However, under the terms of the Treaty of Utrecht, Spain lost Sicily. Despite that, in 1717, the same year as the expulsion of Jews from Gibraltar, Spain dispatched an expedition to recover Sardinia and Sicily. European countries having peace after the War of the Spanish Succession, responded to Spain's actions by declaring war.
Provisions no longer came across the border with Spain. In 1721, a reciprocal treaty was negotiated with the Sultan of Morocco, Ismail Ibn Sharif, allowing both Jews and Muslims to settle in Gibraltar, Englishmen to reside in Barbary. "The subjects of the Emperor of Fez and Morocco, whether Moors or Jews, residing in the dominion of the King of Great Britain, shall enjoy the same privileges that are granted to the English residing in Barbary." In 1726, Spain claimed that Britain had violated the terms of the 1713 Treaty of Utrecht, used that as a pretext for attacking Gibraltar. The siege lasted for several months in 1727; the British government endeavoured to balance the treaty with the Sultan with the terms of the Treaty of Utrecht. Subsequent treaties with Morocco limited the stay of Muslims to three months. However, this was ignored by the Governors of Gibraltar and, by 1777, 863 Jews lived in Gibraltar, three quarters of whom were natives of the country; the Jewish population in Gibraltar peaked in the 19th century.
By 1805, they represented half of the population. By 1878, there were 1,533 Jews residing in Gibraltar. 36.14243°N 5.35267°W / 36.14243. The Sephardi community's synagogue was constructed on Bevis Marks in that city, it was there. Isaac Nieto was one of the Jewish merchants who settled in Gibraltar in the early eighteenth century. During the 1727 Siege of Gibraltar, he was Gibraltar's sole importer of food supplies from Morocco. Following the death of his father in 1728, Nieto returned to London where, in 1732, he was appointed Chief Rabbi of the Bevis Marks Synagogue, his partner James Argatt became the beneficiary of his decision to leave Gibraltar. After the return of the Jews to Gibraltar following their expulsion in 1717, the first synagogue was built. However, there is substantial disagreement between authorities as to whether the synagogue was built in 1723-4 or 1749. Isaac Nieto, sometimes spelled Netto, came from London to work as a merchant and to establish a synagogue in Gibraltar. He
South Mole, Gibraltar Harbour
The South Mole is a breakwater located in the southern section of Gibraltar Harbour, in the British Overseas Territory of Gibraltar, at the southern end of the Iberian Peninsula. Known as the New Mole and New Mole Extension, the South Mole, with the rest of harbour, is just north of the east entrance to the Strait of Gibraltar; the South Mole at Gibraltar Harbour is one of a trio of breakwaters that provides protection to the harbour, in addition to that which results from the presence of the Rock of Gibraltar on its east side. The South Mole is positioned at the southwestern aspect of the harbour, is 1,100 feet in length; the Gibdock shipyard and Royal Naval base are in the southern section of the harbour, the wharfage of the shipyard including 435 metres of the South Mole. Repair berths along the breakwater can accommodate vessels up to 150,000 deadweight tonnage. During construction in the 1880s, a railway and two new tunnels were created to take large quantities of quarried stone to assist in the Mole's creation.
One of these tunnels was by Camp Bay and the other was under the Parson's Lodge Battery. The north end of the South Mole, its "A" Head, is the site of the Gibraltar South Mole Lighthouse; the location gives the tower its alternate name of the Gibraltar "A" Head Lighthouse. Its light characteristic is a flashing white light, with a range of fifteen nautical miles; the black, cast-iron, skeletal tower continues to be active as an aid to navigation and is operated by the Gibraltar Port Authority. The south entrance to Gibraltar Harbour, between the "A" Head of the South Mole and the "B" Head of the Detached Mole, is controlled by the Queen's Harbourmaster. Berths utilised by U. S. Navy ships on the South Mole include Piers 48, 49, 50; the South Mole was known as the New Mole and New Mole Extension, to distinguish it from the Old Mole at the northeastern corner of the harbour. Construction of the New Mole was begun by the Spanish in 1620, it underwent extension a variety of times reaching a length of 1,400 feet.
It was built of rubble stone. The New Mole Extension was added about the turn of the twentieth century; the 2,700 feet extension, together with the New Mole length of 1,400 feet, resulted in a total length of 4,100 feet for the New Mole and New Mole Extension together, by 1911. This is more than the length indicated by the Gibraltar Port Authority one hundred years in 2011. In 1916, the length of the south entrance to the harbour was reported to be 600 feet. At that time, coal stores lined the entire length of the South Mole. In January 1916, the SS Rosslyn, a more than 3,600 ton steamship commanded by Captain William Fishey, departed from Liverpool, England; the ship was 340 feet long and built in 1902. After the ship's cargo was unloaded at Muros, the captain was directed to set a course for Gibraltar, where he was instructed to anchor off the South Mole, outside the harbour. After an uneventful week at anchor, the weather changed for the worse on 27 February 1916; the following day, gale-force winds dashed the ship against the completed South Mole.
Despite the efforts of tugs provided by the Royal Navy and the Gibraltar Harbour authority, the ship sank off the South Mole. The Gibraltar Chronicle of 1 March 1916 reported: The Cardiff steamer Rosslyn, of 3,679 tons gross, in ballast, dragged her anchor on Monday afternoon and was driven by the South-West gale on to the new Mole Breakwater; the dangerous plight of the vessel was at once seen and two Government Tugs went to her assistance and made several attempts to tow her off, but as the gale was increasing every moment, after taking off the crew, they gave up their efforts and brought the men safely to harbour. Owing to the battering received by the high seas, the Rosslyn foundered yesterday morning, only part of her masts being now visible above water; the SS Rosslyn is now a popular site with divers. Media related to South Mole, Gibraltar at Wikimedia Commons
St Bernard's Hospital
St Bernard's Hospital is the only civilian general hospital in the British overseas territory of Gibraltar. In 1567, during Gibraltar's Spanish period, a retired Spanish innkeeper by the name of Juan Mateos converted his house into a 20-bed hospital, he continued to nurse locals and sailors from this location for over 20 years before running into debt, as a result of which he transferred the hospital to the "Orden de San Juan de Dios". He joined the order himself until his death in 1594. By 1691, the hospital became known as an isolation hospital; the existing Spanish hospital in Gibraltar was taken over by the British authorities as a military hospital after the Anglo-Dutch capture of Gibraltar in August 1704 and repaired and refurbished by the Lieutenant Governor Col. Richard Kane, it was a naval hospital, but was used during the 1727 siege by the Army, was returned to the Navy in 1728. With the building of the Naval Hospital in 1746, it became the Garrison Hospital, but by 1756 it was being used as a Barracks known as the Blue Barracks, where the Company of Military Artificers was formed in 1776.
Much of the building fell into ruins after it was damaged by Franco-Spanish bombardment during the Great Siege of Gibraltar, it was not until 1815 that it was extensively rebuilt under the auspices of the Governor of Gibraltar Sir George Don, as a civil hospital for the local population. It served as a war hospital for injured soldiers in the Mediterranean, many received aid here in the 1830s, it was rebuilt in 1882, the elegant façade can still be seen obscured by further extensions and additions over the years including the King George VI Wing in front of the hospital in the 1950s and the Mackintosh Wing in the 1970s. In 2005 St Bernard's Hospital moved to its new home in Europort, over four centuries of history came to an end; the new St Bernard's Hospital, constructed by converting an existing office block at Europort, represented a £60,000,000 plus investment in health for current and future generations. Most of the other improvements in secondary care have been made possible by this modern medical facility which contains nearly £6 million of new medical equipment.
Work on the project commenced on 8 July 2002 involving radically altering the inner areas of the existing Buildings 1-4, to adapt them to the needs of a modern hospital. The hospital is operated by the Gibraltar Health Authority, a department of the Government of Gibraltar with the purpose of providing health care to the residents of Gibraltar; the hospital is designed for some 210 beds covering ortho trauma, surgical and paediatric wards, two main operating theatres and an emergency back up theatre, a hydrotherapy pool with a full rehabilitation clinic, day surgery unit and cardiac rehabilitation and emergency department with provision for major and minor incidents and ophthalmic clinics. There is a modern mortuary with much-improved waiting and viewing facilities adjacent to a new chapel; the present School of Health Studies has relocated from Bleak House at Europa Point to a dedicated area in Block 3 and the office of the Chief Executive and the administrative staff has moved from Johnstone's Passage to Block 1.
Benady, Dr. Sam G.. Civil Hospital and Epidemics in Gibraltar. Grendon, United Kingdom: Gibraltar Books Ltd. p. 132. Dr. Cecil Montegriffo. "History of Medicine in Gibraltar". The British Medical Journal. 2: 552–555. Doi:10.1136/bmj.2.6136.552. PMC 1606962. PMID 359087. Pictures of the old hospital Gibraltar Health Authority