King Kong: Jean-Luc Ponty Plays the Music of Frank Zappa
King Kong: Jean-Luc Ponty Plays the Music of Frank Zappa is an album by French jazz fusion artist Jean-Luc Ponty first released in May 1970 on Liberty Records' World Pacific Records subsidiary label and released on Blue Note. The album contains numerous selections Zappa had recorded either with the Mothers of Invention or under his own name, including: "King Kong" included on the Mothers' 1969 album Uncle Meat "Idiot Bastard Son", from the Mothers' 1968 album We're Only in It for the Money "Twenty Small Cigars", from Zappa's 1970 album Chunga's Revenge "America Drinks and Goes Home", from the Mothers' 1967 album Absolutely FreeIn addition, the track "Music for Electric Violin and Low Budget Orchestra" includes the themes from "Duke of Prunes" from Absolutely Free, "Pound for a Brown" from Uncle Meat. Zappa excised those themes, everything that followed them, when he recorded the piece himself under the title "Revised Music for Guitar and Low-Budget Orchestra", first released on his 1978 album Studio Tan.
George Duke, who would join Zappa and Ponty in the Mothers, is featured on piano on all tracks. Ernie Watts is featured on alto and/or tenor saxophone on tracks 2, 3, 4, 6. Zappa himself plays the guitar on track 4, Mothers members Ian Underwood and Art Tripp contribute on track 1, 5, 6. Rolling Stone's Bob Palmer called it "one of the most rewarding and boundary-obliterating collaborations" and said "Zappa, donning his Jazz Composer - Arranger suit, emerges as a first-rate practitioner of the art: his previous lack of acceptance by the jazz community is due to the same bizarre touches that endear him to his younger audiences. Here he is reminiscent of Charles Mingus, not musically but in the way he examines and finds new expressive possibilities in his earlier pieces, combines them with new music that refers to wide areas of experience without centring in any one stylistic bag." All songs by Frank Zappa unless otherwise noted. "King Kong" – 4:54 "Idiot Bastard Son" – 4:00 "Twenty Small Cigars" – 5:35 "How Would You Like to Have a Head Like That" – 7:14 "Music for Electric Violin and Low-Budget Orchestra" – 19:20 "America Drinks and Goes Home" – 2:39 Jean-Luc Ponty – electric violin, baritone violectra Frank Zappa – guitar George Duke – piano, electric piano Ernie Watts – alto and tenor saxophone Ian Underwood – tenor saxophone Buell Neidlinger – bass Wilton Felder – Fender bass Gene Estes – vibraphone, percussion John Guerin – drums Art Tripp – drums Donald Christlieb – bassoon Gene Cipriano – oboe, English horn Vincent DeRosa – French horn, descant Arthur Maebe – French horn, tuben Jonathan Meyer – flute Harold Bemko – cello Milton Thomas – viola Richard Bock – producer Frank Zappa – arranger, conductor Gerald Wilson – conductor Ian Underwood – conductor Leonard Feather – liner notes
King Kong (comics)
Throughout the decades King Kong has been featured in numerous comic book publications from numerous publishers. In 1933, RKO created comic strips for each respective film in their pressbooks; these strips were published by newspapers across the country weeks leading up to each film's release as part of a pre-release publicity campaign and were illustrated by Glenn Cravath. When The Son of Kong strip was published in Spain, it featured additional artwork not seen in the American strip by Tomas Porto; these were published in Movies Celebs #12 by Editorial Swan in 1942. A mini-story, based on the King Kong from The King Kong Show was published in the one-shot comic America's Best TV Comics by Marvel Comics in 1967. In Japan, the cartoon version of King Kong appeared in a comic strip in issue No. 34 of the Japanese magazine Shonen Magazine. In this issue published in 1967, Kong battles a living version of the Statue of Liberty brought about by Dr. Who; this strip was based on the American cartoon series, animated in Japan by Toei Animation.
Shonen Magazine would publish numerous strips based on the 1960s King Kong cartoon throughout the show's run in that country featuring adaptations of various episodes but original stories. Hikari No Kuni Comics from Japan had comic magazines based on the series as well. In 1965 a Mexican comic company called; the series was published with painted color covers but with sepia and white interior artwork. A new issue was published every Wednesday and the series would run 185 issues. In 1972 the series was reprinted by a company called Ediciones Joma. In 1980 the series was reprinted yet again by a company called Ediciones Mexico. For these reprints the series was renamed The Gorilla for the first 15 issues before being renamed to The Gorilla of the Jungle when a company called Nama took over publishing; the series ran to issue #131. The next King Kong comic from Latin America was King Kong in the Microcosmos; the publisher of the series was Editorial America and it was published in 1979, lasted 35 issues.
This comic was about a group of aliens who live in the Microcosmos that are facing a war on their planet. Searching for a warrior to help them in this war, they find a gorilla being chased by a group of hunters in the macro-world, they take some of the hunters to their planet. After reducing the gorilla and the others to enter their micro-world, they reversed the effects making the gorilla gigantic. Kong would help them win the war. Gold Key Comics, a subsidiary of Western Publishing, put out an adaptation in 1968, drawn by Alberto Giolitti with a cover painting by George Wilson, while Golden Press released the comic as part of a Treasury Edition release; this oversized comic was commissioned by Merian C. Cooper and was based on the 1932 novelization by Delos W. Lovelace, rather than the 1933 film, it was reprinted a few times upon the release of the 1976 remake, not just in the U. S, but other countries as well, translated into Dutch, Swedish and Norwegian editions. In 1964, the British comic company IPC Media created a character in the pages of Valiant Comics called Mytek the Mighty.
This character was a giant robot ape, built by a Professor Boyce. He appeared in various issues published by IPC well into the 1970s; when these comic strips were published in France from 1972–1974, the character's name was changed to King Kong the Robot. When the 32-issue comic was reprinted as various collections it was renamed Super King Kong. Monster Comics, an imprint of Fantagraphics Books, produced a six-issue black and white comic book in 1991, adapted and illustrated by Don Simpson, authorized by Merian C. Cooper's estate, it is not, in fact, based on the 1933 film, but instead on the 1932 novelization by Delos W. Lovelace, thus differs from the movie in numerous places. Notably, the ship is called the Vastator instead of the Venture and the characters of Charlie the Chinese cook and Second Mate Briggs are absent, replaced by a character from Lovelace's novel named Lumpy; the comic contains several scenes not found in the film including the infamous "spider pit" scenes and extra encounters with dinosaurs by the search party.
Other notable changes include the addition of a character original to this comic, Denham's assistant Wally, an extended sequence of several dinosaurs joining Kong in attacking the native village. Part 1: Denham's Quest with cover by Dave Stevens. Moviemaker Carl Denham hires a down-on-her-luck woman named Ann Darrow to be the star of his latest picture. During the voyage to their destination aboard the Vastator, Ann falls in love with first mate Jack Driscoll, is given as a sacrifice to the god of Skull Island, a giant gorilla known as Kong; the cover by Stevens depicts Ann cupped in Kong's palm. Part 2: Kong's Island! with cover by Mark Schultz and Tom Luth. Driscoll and some of the Vastator's crew mount a rescue operation to save Ann. Instead, they find themselves fighting for their lives against Skull Island's population of fierce dinosaurs; the party fights heroically onward. Meanwhile, Kong battles a herd of dinosaurs, the search party catches up to him while crossing a log bridge over a chasm.
The cover by Schultz and Luth shows Kong shaking the men off the log. Part 3: Death in Devil's Chasm! with cover by William Stout. Kong shakes most of the sailors off the log bridge and into the chasm, where they a
Arthur (Or the Decline and Fall of the British Empire)
Arthur is the seventh studio album by English rock band the Kinks, released in October 1969. Kinks frontman Ray Davies constructed the concept album as the soundtrack to a Granada Television play and developed the storyline with novelist Julian Mitchell; the rough plot revolved around Arthur Morgan, a carpet-layer, based on Ray and guitarist Dave Davies' brother-in-law Arthur Anning. A mono version was released in the UK, but not in the US, it is now available on the 2011 deluxe-edition re-issue. Arthur was met with nearly unanimous acclaim upon release, it received generous coverage in the US rock press, with articles running in underground magazines such as Fusion and The Village Voice. It garnered back-to-back reviews by Mike Daly and Greil Marcus in Rolling Stone magazine's lead section. Reviews in the UK were positive. Although Arthur received a mixed review in New Musical Express, Disc & Music Echo praised the album's musical integrity, Melody Maker called it "Ray Davies' finest hour... beautifully British to the core".
The album, although not successful commercially, was a return to the charts in the US for the band. Their previous effort, The Kinks Are the Village Green Preservation Society, received acclaim from critics but failed to chart in any country upon its 1968 release, with total US sales estimated at under 25,000 copies; the Kinks returned to the Billboard charts in 1969 after a two-year absence, with the lead single from the record, "Victoria", peaking at number 62. The album itself reached number 50 on the Record World charts, number 105 on Billboard, their highest position since 1965, it failed to chart in Britain. Arthur paved the way for the further success of their 1970 comeback album Lola Versus Powerman and the Moneygoround, Part One and its accompanying US Top 10 and UK Top 5 hit "Lola". British production company Granada TV approached Ray Davies in early January 1969, expressing interest in developing a movie or play for television. Davies was to collaborate with writer Julian Mitchell on the "experimental" programme, with a soundtrack by the Kinks to be released on an accompanying LP.
Agreements were finalised on 8 January, but the project was not revealed until a press release on 10 March. Separately, the Kinks began work on the programme's companion record, entitled Arthur. Development of Arthur occurred during a rough period for the band, due to the commercial failure of their previous album The Kinks Are the Village Green Preservation Society and the subsequent single, "Plastic Man", as well as the departure of founding member and bassist Pete Quaife. In early 1969, Quaife had told the band he was quitting, though the other members did not take the remark seriously; when an article in the New Musical Express mentioned Maple Oak, the band that he had formed without the rest of the Kinks' knowledge, Davies unsuccessfully asked Quaife to return for the upcoming sessions of Arthur. As a replacement, Davies called up bassist John Dalton, who had filled in for Quaife. Davies travelled to United Recording Studios in Los Angeles, California on 11 April 1969, to produce American pop band The Turtles' LP Turtle Soup with engineer Chuck Britz.
While in Los Angeles, Davies helped negotiate an end to the concert ban placed on the Kinks by the American Federation of Musicians in 1965. Although neither the Kinks nor the union gave a specific reason for the ban, at the time it was attributed to their rowdy on-stage behaviour. After negotiations with Davies, the Federation relented, opening up an opportunity for the group to return to touring in America. Once the main sessions for the Turtles LP were completed, Davies returned to England. While Davies was abroad, the other members of the band had been rehearsing and practising for the upcoming album, as well as lead guitarist Dave Davies' solo album, nicknamed A Hole in the Sock of; when Ray returned, the Kinks regrouped at his house in Borehamwood, Hertfordshire, to rehearse the upcoming album Arthur. The group turned to the recording proper on 1 May 1969; the first tracks worked on were "Drivin'", intended as their next single release, "Mindless Child Of Motherhood", written by Dave Davies.
The Kinks began a two-week series of focused sessions on 5 May, laying down an early version of the entire Arthur album. Recording was interrupted when the Kinks travelled to Beirut, Lebanon on 17 May to play three dates at the Melkart Hotel. Mixing and dubbing began in early June, with arranger Lew Warburton handling string overdubs; the Kinks played a few small gigs in England throughout the remainder of the month, but devoted most of their time to finishing Dave Davies' solo album. Writing for the TV play progressed through May and June, on 15 June mixing for Dave Davies' solo LP was completed. A press release announced; as Davies and Mitchell completed their script, the Arthur TV play began to crystallise, British filmmaker Leslie Woodhead was assigned the role of director. By early September production was scheduled to begin, with a planned broadcast of late September, but these plans were continually delayed; as problems with the TV play got progressively worse—and distracted the Kinks from completing the pos
King Kong (Gorilla Zoe album)
King Kong is the third studio album by American rapper Gorilla Zoe, released on June 14, 2011. The album debuted at #56 on the Billboard 200 with 10,300 copies in its first week out
King Kong (1959 musical)
King Kong was a landmark South African jazz-influenced musical, billed at the time as an "all-African jazz opera". It has more been called "an extraordinary musical collaboration that took place in apartheid-torn South Africa.... A model of fruitful co-operation between black and white South Africans in the international entertainment field, a direct challenge to apartheid." Opening in Johannesburg on 2 February 1959 at Witwatersrand University Great Hall, the musical was an immediate success, with The Star newspaper calling it "the greatest thrill in 20 years of South African theatre-going". It "swept South Africa like a storm", touring the country for two years and playing to record-breaking multi-racial audiences, before being booked for a London production in 1961, by which time it had been seen by some 200,000 South Africans; the music and some of the lyrics for King Kong were written by Todd Matshikiza. The lyrics were by the book by Harry Bloom; the musical was directed by Leon Gluckman with orchestration and arrangements by pianist Sol Klaaste, tenor saxophonist Mackay Davashe, alto saxophonist Kippie Moeketsi and composer Stanley Glasser.
King Kong was choreographed by Arnold Dover. The decor and costumes were designed by Arthur Goldreich, a Jewish communist architect and visual designer. King Kong had an all-black cast; the musical portrayed the life and times of a heavyweight boxer, Ezekiel Dlamini, known as "King Kong". Born in 1921, his life degenerated, after a meteoric boxing rise, into drunkenness and gang violence, he knifed his girlfriend, asked for the death sentence during his trial and instead was sentenced to 14 years' hard labour. He was found drowned in 1957 and it was believed his death was suicide, he was 36. After being a hit in South Africa, touring for two years during which it was seen by more than a quarter of a million people, of whom two-thirds were white, the musical played at the Prince's Theatre in the West End of London in 1961; the liner notes for the London cast recording state: "No theatrical venture in South Africa has had the sensational success of King Kong. This musical, capturing the life and effervescence -- as well as the poignancy and sadness -- of township life, has come as a revelation to many South Africans that art does not recognize racial barriers.
King Kong has played to capacity houses in every major city in the Union, now, the first export of indigenous South African theatre, it will reveal to the rest of the world the peculiar flavour of township life, as well as the hitherto unrecognized talents of its people. The show, as recorded here, opened at the Princes Theatre, London, on February 23, 1961." The song "Sad Times, Bad Times" was considered a reference at the time to the infamous South African Treason Trial in Pretoria, which had begun in 1956 and lasted for more than four years before it collapsed with all the accused acquitted. Among the defendants were Albert Luthuli, secretary Walter Sisulu, Oliver Tambo and Nelson Mandela. According to John Matshikiza, King Kong′s first night was attended by Mandela, who at the interval congratulated Todd Matshikiza "on weaving a subtle message of support for the Treason Trial leaders into the opening anthem"; as Lewis Nkosi wrote: "The resounding welcome accorded to the musical at Wits University Great Hall, in Johannesburg, on Feb 2nd 1959, was not so much for the jazz musical as a finished artistic product as it was applause for an idea, achieved by pooling together resources from both black and white artists in the face of impossible odds."
King Kong launched the international career of Miriam Makeba, who played the shebeen queen of the Back of the Moon, a popular shebeen of the time in Sophiatown. The male lead was Nathan Mdledle of the Manhattan Brothers. There was a cast of 72, among them Caiphus Semenya, Sophie Mgcina, Letta Mbulu and Benjamin Masinga. Other musicians in the show included Hugh Masekela, Jonas Gwangwa, Kippie Moeketsi and Thandi Klaasen, all of whom went on to have successful careers. In the 2017 memoir King Kong - Our Knot of Time and Music by lyricist Williams, Abdullah Ibrahim — known as Dollar Brand — puts the record straight about his supposed involvement with the musical: "In spite of what everyone says, I had nothing to do with it." The London cast featured Nathan Mdlele and Peggy Phango, with Joseph Mogotsi, Ben Masinga, Stephen Moloi, Sophie Mgcina, Patience Gowabe and former "Miss South Africa 1955" Hazel Futa. Peggy and Hazel became The Velvettes, the backing vocal singers for Cyril Davies All Stars band and performed backing vocals on the Joe Meek-produced single "She's Fallen In Love With The Monster Man" by Screaming Lord Sutch and the Savages in 1964.
From the London cast recording liner notes: In the dim light of early morning the township people set out for work. As Pauline, the washerwoman, leaves to deliver a bundle of washing a boy picks out a tune on a penny whistle—the "Little Kong" song, which has become a great favourite with the children; this sets the group reminiscing about the life of King Kong, who has become something of a legend in the township. And so we see the great King Kong in his heyday, surrounded by photographers, journalists and an excited township crowd. There is a big fight coming off, everybody is confident it will be a pushover for the Champ. King wins the fight and takes his friends to celebrate in Back of the Moon, the township's most famous shebeen. Joyce, the "shebeen queen", falls for King, their love affair goes off at a hot pace, unlucky for Petal, who has a secret passion for
King Kong Bundy
Christopher Alan Pallies was an American professional wrestler, better known by his ring name, King Kong Bundy. He is best known for his appearances in the World Wrestling Federation in the mid-1980s and mid-1990s, he wrestled in the main event of WrestleMania 2 in 1986, facing Hulk Hogan in a steel cage match for the WWF World Heavyweight Championship. Pallies was trained to wrestle by Larry Sharpe at the "Monster Factory" in New Jersey, he debuted on March 7, 1981, wrestling for the World Wrestling Federation under the ring name "Chris Canyon". In the early years of his career, he used the name "Chris Cannon". In 1982, Pallies relocated to Texas, he was developed by the Von Erich family as "Big Daddy Bundy". He wore blue jeans with a rope belt. After a dispute with the Von Erich family, Bundy was recruited by "Playboy" Gary Hart and reintroduced as "King Kong Bundy", with the "Big Daddy" portion of his moniker replaced by the name of cinematic monster, King Kong, wearing the black singlet for the first time to signify his change.
He lost his hair during the feud. Bundy was Fritz Von Erich's opponent for Fritz's 1982 retirement match at the Fritz Von Erich Retirement Show held at the Texas Stadium, he competed in various territories such as the American Wrestling Association and National Wrestling Alliance. He had a tendency to demand a five count for pinfalls whenever he dominated his opponent in a squash match, a gimmick he began while wrestling for Mid-South Wrestling. During this time Bundy wrestled in Memphis teaming with Rick Rude and Jim Neidhart against opponents such as Jerry Lawler. After making a few appearances on New Japan Pro Wrestling/World Wrestling Federation joint shows in early 1985, Bundy debuted in the WWF on the March 16, 1985 airing of WWF Championship Wrestling, defeating Mario Mancini. First managed by Jimmy Hart, he was pushed with dominating victories over all of his opponents. Bundy reprised his gimmick of demanding a five-count from the referee while pinning an opponent, to show how badly he had beaten his hapless opponent.
He defeated S. D. "Special Delivery" Jones in what was announced as only nine seconds at the first WrestleMania at Madison Square Garden. This remained the shortest match in WrestleMania history until 2008 when Kane defeated Chavo Guerrero Jr. in a legitimate eight seconds at WrestleMania XXIV. In September 1985, Hart traded Bundy to manager Bobby Heenan in exchange for Adrian Adonis and The Missing Link. After joining the Heenan Family, Bundy feuded extensively with André the Giant, a feud which started during an angle where Bundy interfered in one of André's matches and delivered several splashes, giving the Giant a kayfabe broken sternum, they feuded for several months, including a pair of tag team matches on Saturday Night's Main Event in late 1985, where Bundy, André's other nemesis, Big John Studd, first faced André and Tony Atlas and André and WWF World Heavyweight Champion Hulk Hogan. On September 23, 1985, Bundy faced André the Giant at Madison Square Garden in a match billed as "the Colossal Jostle".
André dominated the match, with the match ending after Big John Studd came from the locker rooms to Bundy's aid and attacked the Giant, causing a disqualification. Bundy began targeting Hogan and the WWF World Championship in late 1985. At Saturday Night's Main Event V, Hogan was dominating challenger the Magnificent Muraco when Bundy ran to ambush Hogan. With Muraco's help, Bundy gave Hogan avalanches and big splashes, which caused Hogan to bruise his ribs. Bundy claimed Hogan was afraid of him, setting up their feud. Hogan demanded revenge and agreed to a steel cage match for the WWF World Heavyweight Championship as the main event of WrestleMania 2 in the Los Angeles portion of the event, which Hogan won. In 1986, Bundy reformed his tag-team partnership with Studd and began a feud with The Machines, Bill Eadie and Blackjack Mulligan wrestling under masks and joined by Andre the Giant; the storyline was that Bundy and Studd, along with Heenan, claimed that the Giant Machine was a masked Andre the Giant, was competing under the mask and alias to circumvent an earlier suspension, but none of them proved that Andre and the Giant Machine were one and the same.
Bundy and Studd began teaming up with Heenan in a series of six-man tag team matches against the Machines. Bundy and Studd were beaten, but won their last match over the Super-Big version of the Machines at Madison Square Garden. In the latter half of 1986, Bundy and Studd received shots at the WWF Tag Team Championship against The British Bulldogs, but were unsuccessful losing by disqualification. Studd left the WWF shortly after their last match with the Machines, Bundy went back to singles competition. At WrestleMania III, Bundy was involved in a mixed six-man tag team match, teaming up with midget wrestlers Little Tokyo and Lord Littlebrook against Hillbilly Jim, the Haiti Kid and Little Beaver. During the match, after being pestered by Beaver, Bundy body slammed him and delivered a big elbow, causing his team's disqualificati
King Kong (1933 film)
King Kong is a 1933 American pre-Code monster adventure film directed and produced by Merian C. Cooper and Ernest B. Schoedsack; the screenplay by James Ashmore Creelman and Ruth Rose was developed from an idea conceived by Cooper and Edgar Wallace. It stars Fay Wray, Bruce Cabot and Robert Armstrong, opened in New York City on March 2, 1933, to rave reviews, it has been ranked by Rotten Tomatoes as the greatest horror film of all time and the thirty-third greatest film of all time. The film tells of a huge, ape-like creature dubbed Kong who perishes in an attempt to possess a beautiful young woman. King Kong is noted for its stop-motion animation by Willis O'Brien and a groundbreaking musical score by Max Steiner. In 1991, it was deemed "culturally and aesthetically significant" by the Library of Congress and selected for preservation in the National Film Registry. A sequel followed with Son of Kong, with several more films made in the following decades; the year is 1932. In New York Harbor, filmmaker Carl Denham, famous for making wildlife films in remote and exotic locations, charters Captain Englehorn's ship, the Venture, for his new project.
However, he is unable to secure an actress for a female role. Searching in the streets of New York City, he finds Ann Darrow and promises her the adventure of a lifetime; the crew boards the Venture and sets off, during which the ship's first mate Jack Driscoll, falls in love with Ann. Denham reveals to the crew that their destination is in an uncharted territory, he alludes to a monstrous creature named Kong, rumored to dwell on the island. The crew anchor offshore, they encounter a native village, separated from the rest of the island by an ancient stone wall. They witness a group of natives preparing to sacrifice a young woman termed the "bride of Kong"; the intruders are spotted and the native chief stops the ceremony. When he sees Ann, he offers to trade six of his tribal women for the "golden woman", they return to the Venture. That night, natives kidnap Ann from the ship and take her to their altar, where she is offered to Kong, an enormous gorilla-like creature. Kong carries Ann into the wilderness as Denham and some volunteers enter the jungle in hopes of rescuing her.
They are ambushed by a Stegosaurus, which they manage to defeat. After facing a Brontosaurus and Kong himself and Denham are the only survivors. A Tyrannosaurus attacks Ann and Kong. Meanwhile, Driscoll continues to follow them. Upon arriving in Kong's lair, Ann is menaced by a snake-like Elasmosaurus, which Kong kills. While Kong is distracted killing a Pteranodon that tried to fly away with Ann, Driscoll reaches her and they climb down a vine dangling from a cliff ledge; when Kong notices and starts pulling them back up, the two fall unharmed. They run through the jungle and back to the village, where Denham and the surviving crewmen are waiting. Kong, breaks open the gate and relentlessly rampages through the village. Onshore, now determined to bring Kong back alive, knocks him unconscious with a gas bomb. Shackled in chains, Kong is taken to New York City and presented to a Broadway theatre audience as "Kong, the Eighth Wonder of the World". Ann and Jack are surrounded by a group of press photographers.
Kong, breaks loose. The audience flees in horror. Ann is whisked away to a hotel room on a high floor, his hand smashes through the hotel room window, immobilizing Jack, abducts Ann again. Kong rampages through the city, he wrecks a crowded elevated train and climbs the Empire State Building. At its top, he is attacked by four airplanes. Kong destroys one, but succumbs to their gunfire, he ensures Ann's safety before falling to his death. Ann and Jack are reunited. Denham pushes through a crowd surrounding Kong's corpse in the street; when a policeman remarks that the planes got him, Denham tells him, "No, it wasn't the airplanes. It was Beauty killed the Beast". Before King Kong entered production, a long tradition of jungle films existed, whether drama or documentary, such films adhered to a narrative pattern that followed an explorer or scientist into the jungle to test a theory only to discover some monstrous aberration in the undergrowth. In these films, scientific knowledge could be subverted at any time, it was this that provided the genre with its vitality and endurance.
In the early 20th century, few zoos had primate exhibits so there was popular demand to see them on film. At the turn of the 20th century, the Lumière Brothers sent film documentarians to places westerners had never seen, Georges Méliès utilized trick photography in film fantasies that prefigured that in King Kong. Jungle films were launched in the United States in 1913 with Beasts in the Jungle, the film's popularity spawned similar pictures such as Tarzan of the Apes. In 1925, The Lost World made movie history with special effects by Willis O'Brien and a crew that would work on King Kong. King Kong producer Ernest B. Schoedsack had earlier monkey experience directing Chang: A Drama of the Wilderness in 1927 and Rango in 1931, both of which prominently featured monkeys in authentic jungle settings. Capitalizing on this trend, Congo Pictures released the hoax documentary Ingagi in 1930, advertising the film as "an authentic incontestable celluloid document showing the sacrifice of a living woman to mammoth gorillas."
Ingagi is now widel