The Great Atlantic & Pacific Tea Company
The Great Atlantic & Pacific Tea Company, better known as A&P, was an American chain of grocery stores that ceased supermarket operations in November 2015, after 156 years in business. From 1915 through 1975, A&P was the largest grocery retailer in the United States. A&P was considered an American icon that, according to The Wall Street Journal, "was as well known as McDonald's or Google is today", was "the Walmart before Walmart". At its peak in the 1940s, A&P captured. Known for innovation, A&P and the supermarkets that followed its lead improved nutritional habits by making available a vast assortment of food products at much lower costs; until 1982, A&P was a large food manufacturer. In his 1952 book, American Capitalism, John Kenneth Galbraith cited A&P's manufacturing strategy as a classic example of countervailing power, a welcome alternative to state price controls. Founded in 1859 by George Gilman as "Gilman & Company", within a few years the firm opened a small chain of retail tea and coffee stores in New York City, operated a national mail order business.
The firm grew to 70 stores by 1878, when Gilman passed management to George Huntington Hartford, who turned A&P into the country's first grocery chain. In 1900, it operated 200 stores. After Hartford acquired ownership, A&P grew by introducing the economy store concept in 1912, growing to 1,600 stores in 1915. After World War I, it added stores that produce, while expanding manufacturing. In 1930, A&P, now the world's largest retailer, reached $2.9 billion in sales with 16,000 stores. In 1936, it adopted the self-serve supermarket concept and opened 4,000 larger stores by 1950. A&P's decline began in the early 1950s, when it failed to keep pace with competitors that opened larger supermarkets with more modern features demanded by customers. By the 1970s, A&P stores were outdated, its efforts to combat high operating costs resulted in poor customer service. In 1975, it hired outside management, closed older stores, built modern ones; when these efforts failed to turn A&P around, the heirs of the Hartford family and the Hartford foundation, which owned a majority of the stock, sold to the Tengelmann Group of Germany.
In 1981, A&P launched its second store-closing program financed by the surplus assets of its employee pension plan, reducing the corporation to fewer than 1,000 stores. The plan closed manufacturing operations except coffee production. Starting in 1982, A&P acquired several chains that continued to be operated under their own names, rather than being converted to A&P. While A&P regained profitability in the 1980s, in 2002 it operated at a record loss because of new competition from Walmart. A&P closed more stores. A&P spun off Eight O'Clock Coffee, the last of its manufacturing units. In 2007, A&P purchased Pathmark, one of its biggest rivals, A&P again became the largest supermarket operator in the New York City area. At the same time, Tengelmann reduced its shares to 38.5%, while the private equity firm Yucaipa, as major shareholder of Pathmark, acquired 27.5% of A&P's shares. Leveraged after the Pathmark acquisition, A&P experienced financial difficulties because of the Great Recession and filed for Chapter 11 protection in 2010, in the United States Bankruptcy Court in White Plains, New York.
By the time of its filing, A&P had declined from the nation's largest grocery retailer to the 28th, with operations limited to the Northeast. In 2012, A&P emerged from bankruptcy by becoming a private company, as Tengelmann ended its holding, returned to modest profitability in 2013 and 2014. A&P could not find a suitable buyer. After declaring a loss in April 2015, it filed for its second Chapter 11 bankruptcy on July 19 of that year. All of its supermarkets were sold or closed by December 1, 2015, the closure of the Best Cellars Wines and Spirits stores followed shortly thereafter, with those stores auctioned in August 2016; the forerunner of A&P was founded in the 1850s as Gilman & Company by George Gilman to continue his father's leather tanning business. Gilman's father died in 1859; that year, Company entered the tea and coffee business from that storefront. One source speculates that Gilman decided to enter a more respectable business in light of his wealth. In May 1861, Gilman turned over the tanning business to his brother Winthrop.
Gilman & Company was a wholesaler. In early 1863 the firm became Great American Tea Company, it opened five stores, moving its office and warehouse to 51 Vesey Street. Gilman proved to be a master at promotion; the firm was able to offer low prices by acting as both the retailer. Gilman built a nationwide mail order business. By 1866, the firm was valued at more than $1 million. In 1869, the transcontinental railroad was completed; the tea company continued to use the Great American name for mail-order purposes. In 1871, A&P introduced another concept when it offered premiums, such as lithographs and glassware with the purchase of coffee and/or tea at its stores; these premiums are now collectibles. George Huntington Hartford joined Gilman & Company as a clerk in the late 1850s.
The Week Of
The Week Of is a 2018 American comedy film written and directed by Robert Smigel, co-written by and starring Adam Sandler. It co-stars Chris Rock, Rachel Dratch, Steve Buscemi, Allison Strong, Noah Robbins, follows two fathers the week of the wedding of their children; the film is the fourth collaboration between Sandler and Netflix, was released on the streaming service on April 27, 2018. The week before the marriage of their children, fathers Kenny Lustig and Kirby Cordice must put aside their different views on how the wedding should be planned and work together to overcome a series of obstacles. Adam Sandler as Kenny Lustig Chris Rock as Kirby Cortice Rachel Dratch as Debbie Lustig Steve Buscemi as Charles Allison Strong as Sarah Katie Hartman as Robin Jake Lippmann as Isaac Scott Cohen as Ron Elliman Melanie Nicholls-King as Katrina Noah Robbins as Noah Maury Ginsberg as Jay Liz Larsen as Julia Katz Patricia Belcher as Thelma Teddy Coluca as Dominic Jim Barone as Seymour Roland Buck III as Tyler Garry Pastore as Mayor John Barone Rob Morgan as Cousin Marvin Germar Terrell Gardner as Cousin Ethridge Chuck Nice as Leonard Kenajuan Bentley as Jermaine Joel Marsh Garland as Kent the Magician Dan Patrick as baseball coach Ronnie "The Limo Driver" Mund as Pallbearer #5 Principal photography began on Long Island, New York in July 2017.
On review aggregator website Rotten Tomatoes, the film holds an approval rating of 23% based on 22 reviews, an average rating of 3.6/10. The site's critical consensus reads, "The Week Of suggests promise in further collaborations between Sandler and Robert Smigel, but its shopworn premise and listless execution aren't enough to recommend it." On Metacritic, the film has a weighted average score of 42 out of 100, based on 10 critics, indicating "mixed or average reviews". Richard Roeper of the Chicago Sun-Times gave the film 1.5 out of 4 stars, calling it lazy and saying: "Sandler gives a restrained performance as the well-meaning dad. Rock seems invested in paying attention to the other actors, reads his lines as if he’s hoping there won’t be another take and he won’t have to go through this again. With helpful title cards telling us it’s'MONDAY,"TUESDAY,' etc. etc. this is a week that feels 10 days long." Peter Debruge, writing for Variety, called the film "lazy and overlong" and said: "Back in autopilot mode, Sandler phones in what may qualify as the lowest-concept comedy of his career — which, thankfully, is not the same as the lowest point in his career."
The Week Of on IMDb
Staten Island is one of the five boroughs of New York City, in the U. S. state of New York. Located in the southwest portion of the city, the borough is separated from New Jersey by the Arthur Kill and the Kill Van Kull and from the rest of New York by New York Bay. With an estimated population of 479,458 in 2017, Staten Island is the least populated of the boroughs but is the third-largest in land area at 58.5 sq mi. The borough contains the southern-most point in the state, South Point; the borough is coextensive with Richmond County and until 1975 was referred to as the Borough of Richmond. Staten Island has sometimes been called "the forgotten borough" by inhabitants who feel neglected by the city government; the North Shore—especially the neighborhoods of St. George, Tompkinsville and Stapleton—is the most urban part of the island; the East Shore is home to the 2.5-mile F. D. R. Boardwalk, the fourth-longest boardwalk in the world; the South Shore, site of the 17th-century Dutch and French Huguenot settlement, developed beginning in the 1960s and 1970s and is now suburban in character.
The West Shore is the most industrial part of the island. Motor traffic can reach the borough from Brooklyn via the Verrazzano-Narrows Bridge and from New Jersey via the Outerbridge Crossing, Goethals Bridge and Bayonne Bridge. Staten Island has Metropolitan Transportation Authority bus lines and an MTA rapid transit line, the Staten Island Railway, which runs from the ferry terminal at St. George to Tottenville. Staten Island is the only borough, not connected to the New York City Subway system; the free Staten Island Ferry connects the borough across New York Harbor to Manhattan and is a popular tourist attraction, providing views of the Statue of Liberty, Ellis Island and Lower Manhattan. Staten Island had the Fresh Kills Landfill, the world's largest landfill before closing in 2001, although it was temporarily reopened that year to receive debris from the September 11 attacks; the landfill is being redeveloped as an area devoted to restoring habitat. As in much of North America, human habitation appeared in the island rapidly after the Wisconsin glaciation.
Archaeologists have recovered tool evidence of Clovis culture activity dating from about 14,000 years ago. This evidence was first discovered in 1917 in the Charleston section of the island. Various Clovis artifacts have been discovered since on property owned by Mobil Oil; the island was abandoned possibly because of the extirpation of large mammals on the island. Evidence of the first permanent Native American settlements and agriculture are thought to date from about 5,000 years ago, although early archaic habitation evidence has been found in multiple locations on the island. Rossville points are distinct arrowheads that define a Native American cultural period that runs from the Archaic period to the Early Woodland period, dating from about 1500 to 100 BC, they are named for the Rossville section of Staten Island, where they were first found near the old Rossville Post Office building. At the time of European contact, the island was inhabited by the Raritan band of the Unami division of the Lenape.
In Lenape, one of the Algonquian languages, Staten Island was called Aquehonga Manacknong, meaning "as far as the place of the bad woods", or Eghquhous, meaning "the bad woods". The area was part of the Lenape homeland known as Lenapehoking; the Lenape were called the "Delaware" by the English colonists because they inhabited both shores of what the English named the Delaware River. The island was laced with Native American foot trails, one of which followed the south side of the ridge near the course of present-day Richmond Road and Amboy Road; the Lenape moved seasonally, using slash and burn agriculture. Shellfish was a staple of their diet, including the Eastern oyster abundant in the waterways throughout the present-day New York City region. Evidence of their habitation can still be seen in shell middens along the shore in the Tottenville section, where oyster shells larger than 12 inches are sometimes found. Burial Ridge, a Lenape burial ground on a bluff overlooking Raritan Bay in Tottenville, is the largest pre-European burial ground in New York City.
Bodies have been reported unearthed at Burial Ridge from 1858 onward. After conducting independent research, which included unearthing bodies interred at the site and archaeologist George H. Pepper was contracted in 1895 to conduct paid archaeological research at Burial Ridge by the American Museum of Natural History; the burial ground today lies within Conference House Park. The first recorded European contact on the island was in 1520 by Italian explorer Giovanni de Verrazzano who sailed through The Narrows on the ship La Dauphine and anchored for one night. In 1609, English explorer Henry Hudson sailed into Upper New York Bay on his ship the Half Moon; the Dutch named the island Staaten Eylandt in honor of the Dutch parliament, still known as the Staten-Generaal. The first permanent Dutch settlement of the New Netherland colony was made on Governor's Island in 1624, which they had used as a trading camp for more than a decade before. In 1626, the colony transferred to the island of Manhattan, designated as the capital of New Netherland.
The Dutch did not establish a permanent settlement on Staaten Eylandt for many decades. From 1639 to 1655, Cornelis Melyn
Liberty Avenue (New York City)
Liberty Avenue is an 8-mile long west-east avenue in Brooklyn and Queens, New York City. It is bidirectional for most of its length, running between Mother Gaston Boulevard in Brooklyn in the west and Farmers Boulevard in Queens in the east. Liberty Avenue is known as "Little India Guyana-Trinidad and Tobago" because it includes Indian, Indo-Guyanese, Indo-Trinidadian and Tobagonian, Indo-Caribbean cultures and people there; the IND Fulton Street Line runs above the avenue between 80th Lefferts Boulevard. There is a station on the IND Fulton Street Line named Liberty Avenue; the Q83 and Q112 buses serve the street in Queens.
Food 4 Less
Food 4 Less is a national grocery store grocery chain owned by Kroger. It is a no-frills grocery store. Kroger operates Food 4 Less stores in California, Illinois and Ohio. In northern and central California, where Kroger does not have the rights to the Food 4 Less name, it operates as Foods Co. There are other stores scattered throughout the United States with the Food 4 Less name, part of franchise agreements with various wholesalers, including Unified Western Grocers and Associated Wholesale Grocers Midwest; these stores have particular penetration in northern California. The Food 4 Less name was used by Fleming Companies, Inc. but as Fleming exited various regions and collapsed, the rights to the name went to wholesalers who picked up some of Fleming's former customers. The Food 4 Less name and logo was conceived in the 1930s by Lou Falley, who developed a chain of stores both in the Food 4 Less name and the Falley's name; the Falley's stores were full service supermarkets, while the Food 4 Less stores were warehouse stores, where labor costs were cut by having the groceries stocked to the shelves in the original cases, rather than stacking individual items.
These stores were located throughout parts of northwestern Missouri. Over the years, the number of Falley's store diminished, were replaced with Food 4 Less stores. Falley's franchised Food 4 Less in states where it did not operate. Ron Burkle's Yucaipa Companies acquired Falley's in 1987. In a period of consolidation for the grocery industry, Food 4 Less merged into Ralphs. In 2015, Food 4 Less exited Nevada entirely. Six of the stores were converted to sister store Smith's, a prominent grocery chain owned by Kroger in the Las Vegas area; the remaining Food 4 Less stores were shut down. In 1998, Fred Meyer sold Falley's and the midwest Food 4 Less stores to Associated Wholesale Grocers of Kansas City; the warehouse type stores were phased out in favor of full service Food 4 Less stores with a new logo and format. In January 2006, the AWG-owned Falley's and Food 4 Less stores located in Kansas were combined with sister company Homeland Stores, based in Edmond, Oklahoma; the company changed the names of the Food 4 Less stores, which it can't use beyond Kansas and Missouri, to AWG brands such as Price Chopper.
The company uses the Foods Co name in Northern California, where Kroger is bound by an agreement between Falley's and grocer Nugget Markets, Inc.. One Food 4 Less store in Northern California is operated by Nugget. Kroger does not have any administrative control over the single Nugget Food 4 Less store. Nugget's Food 4 Less is limited by its agreement with Fleming in its ability to advertise in circulars. Kroger's Food 4 Less circulars will feature individual products on sale whereas Nugget's Food 4 Less circulars only promote sales events and customer testimony. Ad prices from the Kroger Food 4 Less chain are not honored; the Nugget Food 4 Less store features a different selection of products than the Kroger Food 4 Less stores due to Nugget's pooling of resources from its upscale Nugget Market stores. Marketing and administration of the Nugget Food 4 Less store is handled through the Nugget Market Corporate Office in Woodland and any requests for other Food 4 Less stores will be deferred to the Kroger Corporate Office in Cincinnati, Ohio.
It is unclear whether Nugget Markets and Kroger will continue the Fleming relationship when the franchise agreement expires. Nugget operated a total of three stores in Northern California. In 2014, the Food 4 Less in Cameron Park was converted into Fork Lift, a new store concept by Nugget; the Food 4 Less in Vallejo was shuttered on May 15, 2016, leaving the Woodland location as Nugget's sole remaining Food 4 Less store. Fleming was another franchisee of the Food 4 Less name. In early 2003, Fleming filed for bankruptcy, causing the company to place all Fleming owned Food 4 Less stores up for bids to other national grocers. Three stores in Utah were purchased by Albertsons; the two stores kept the Food 4 Less name until January 2005, when the names changed to the Albertsons owned Super Saver name. Another store in Pinole, California became a FoodMaxx, a price-impact store owned by Save Mart Supermarkets. In Oregon, only one former Fleming store remained, in Salem, part of the Mega Foods local chain of four stores.
The remaining store was converted into Mega Foods. An independently run former Fleming store in Portland was closed in January 2013. PAQ Inc. the parent company of Hawaii-based Times Supermarkets, is another franchisee of the Food 4 Less name with stores in northern California. The franchisee operates Food 4 Less stores in Arroyo Grande, Ceres, Los Banos, Paso Robles, San Luis Obispo and Stockton. Kroger does not have any administrative control over the PAQ Inc. Food 4 Less stores; the franchisee operates Rancho San Miguel Market, a supermarket specializing in Mexican groceries. Gongco Foods operates seven franchised Food 4 Less stores in central California, they are not affiliated with Kroger. In Oregon, stores in Bend and Medford both operate under the Food 4 Less name, but with separate local owners. A Food 4 Less store in Massillon, Ohio, co-owned with local grocery chain Bordner's, closed in 2014. Official Food 4 Less website Official website—Nugget Food 4 Less stores Official website—PAQ Inc.
Food 4 Less stores. Official website—Gongco Foods Food 4 Less st
Harris Teeter Supermarkets, Inc. is an American supermarket chain based in Matthews, North Carolina, a suburb of Charlotte. As of April 2019, the chain operates 249 stores in seven South Atlantic states: North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia, Delaware and the District of Columbia. Supermarket News ranked Harris Teeter No. 34 in the 2012 "Top 75 Retailers & Wholesalers" based on 2011 fiscal year sales of $4.3 billion. On July 9, 2013, Harris Teeter announced; the merger closed on January 28, 2014, though Harris Teeter retained its name and headquarters in Matthews. Harris Teeter was founded by two entrepreneurs, William Thomas Harris and Willis L. Teeter, who started their separate businesses during the Great Depression in Charlotte, North Carolina. William T. Harris opened the first full-service drugstore called Harris Drugs and Willis L. Teeter opened Teeters Food Mart. On they merged their two ventures. Harris, an employee of the A&P store on Central Avenue and Pecan, Charlotte's first supermarket, borrowed funds in 1936 to open the Harris Super Market at 1704 Central Avenue.
The store had eight employees. It was a dry goods store because frozen foods and refrigeration did not become common until World War II. To the family and employees, it was known as Store #1; this store, known as Harris Teeter store #201, closed on June 5, 2012, was replaced by a two-story store #401 on the same site, which opened on May 29, 2013. Harris' store was the first in North Carolina to allow customers to select their own groceries off shelves. Before this time, customers handed a shopping list to a clerk, who selected the groceries for the customers; the store was open until 9 p.m. on Fridays, at a time when most grocery stores closed their doors at 5 p.m. This was done to appeal to working families and to capture their grocery shopping after they were paid on Fridays; the Harris Super Market was the first grocery store in Charlotte to add air conditioning. Harris ran his own dairy farm and sold products from his dairy in his stores. For his wife, LaVerne, the dairy products carried the brand name of Vernedale Farms.
Harris pioneered the first dairy co‑op among local dairy farmers. After running the co-op for several years, he negotiated its sale to Pet Dairy. Harris Super Markets began as a family business. Most of Harris's brothers and sisters were employees, brothers and brothers-in-law were store managers, his sister, ran the accounting department and his wife's sister was Harris's personal secretary. His son, Donald Thomas Harris, began working for the company at 8 years old by sweeping floors. Donald suggested that Harris Teeter should carry more than just food products, recommended the introduction of health and beauty aids, school supplies, kitchen tools, seasonal items, his father liked the idea and told Don that he should create and run that division of the company, which he did until his retirement in 1995. He was the last member of the family. Harris was instrumental in the permanent placement of kindergarten in the South Carolina public school system, supported the effort to turn Charleston College into what is known today as the College of Charleston.
In 1939, Willis L. Teeter—who worked for A&P, at its Mooresville, North Carolina store—and his brother Paul, working for A&P borrowed $1,700 to open Teeter's Food Mart on Main Street in Mooresville, North Carolina. A&P agreed to lease the location to the Teeter brothers; the first Teeter Food Mart opened on July 15, 1939. Teeter's was a family-run operation as Teeter was the manager, his brother was the produce manager, Teeter's wife, Sylvia worked at the store. Paul's wife, Mildred joined the staff as bookkeeper as the Teeter stores expanded; the Teeter brothers believed in exceptional customer service having home delivery service. Because of their foresight of providing great customer service and only the best products, they saw sales rise quickly. Teeter based all. In 1946, the Teeters moved from downtown to a much larger location to keep up with demand; the Teeters were leaders in installing the first automated check-outs in North Carolina. In July 1953, the Teeters opened their second store in North Carolina.
At this point the Teeters had become a household name. Lines of eager shoppers wrapped around the new store in anticipation of being one of the first customers in the Teeters' new store; the Teeters' success continued to grow and by 1957 their third store opened in Newton, North Carolina, a fourth in Cornelius, a fifth in Hickory, a sixth opened in Morganton, North Carolina, in November 1958. After opening his sixth store Teeter joined the NC Food Dealers Association. At one of the Food Dealers meetings, Teeter met Harris; the two men decided that working together would increase the financial strength of the two supermarkets, allow them to grow more and decrease operating costs. W. L. Teeter and W. T. Harris agreed to merge and did so in November 1959 to become Harris Teeter Supermarkets; the merger of 15 stores collectively became official in February 1960. The new company became the largest independent grocery organization in the Carolinas. Harris Teeter was purchased in 1969 by holding company Ruddick Corporation of Charlotte.
The new owners introduced alcoholic beverages for sale for the first time. Harris, a devout Southern Baptist, had refused to allow the sale of alcohol after the merger. In 1970, the chain introduced the Big M discount concept to compete with Colonial Stores Big Star discoun
The Smithsonian Institution, founded on August 10, 1846 "for the increase and diffusion of knowledge," is a group of museums and research centers administered by the Government of the United States. The institution is named after British scientist James Smithson. Organized as the "United States National Museum," that name ceased to exist as an administrative entity in 1967. Termed "the nation's attic" for its eclectic holdings of 154 million items, the Institution's nineteen museums, nine research centers, zoo include historical and architectural landmarks located in the District of Columbia. Additional facilities are located in Arizona, Massachusetts, New York City, Texas and Panama. More than 200 institutions and museums in 45 states, Puerto Rico, Panama are Smithsonian Affiliates; the Institution's thirty million annual visitors are admitted without charge. Its annual budget is around $1.2 billion with two-thirds coming from annual federal appropriations. Other funding comes from the Institution's endowment and corporate contributions, membership dues, earned retail and licensing revenue.
Institution publications include Air & Space magazines. The British scientist James Smithson left most of his wealth to his nephew Henry James Hungerford; when Hungerford died childless in 1835, the estate passed "to the United States of America, to found at Washington, under the name of the Smithsonian Institution, an Establishment for the increase & diffusion of knowledge among men", in accordance with Smithson's will. Congress accepted the legacy bequeathed to the nation, pledged the faith of the United States to the charitable trust on July 1, 1836; the American diplomat Richard Rush was dispatched to England by President Andrew Jackson to collect the bequest. Rush returned in August 1838 with 105 sacks containing 104,960 gold sovereigns. Once the money was in hand, eight years of Congressional haggling ensued over how to interpret Smithson's rather vague mandate "for the increase and diffusion of knowledge." The money was invested by the US Treasury in bonds issued by the state of Arkansas, which soon defaulted.
After heated debate, Massachusetts Representative John Quincy Adams persuaded Congress to restore the lost funds with interest and, despite designs on the money for other purposes, convinced his colleagues to preserve it for an institution of science and learning. On August 10, 1846, President James K. Polk signed the legislation that established the Smithsonian Institution as a trust instrumentality of the United States, to be administered by a Board of Regents and a Secretary of the Smithsonian. Though the Smithsonian's first Secretary, Joseph Henry, wanted the Institution to be a center for scientific research, it became the depository for various Washington and U. S. government collections. The United States Exploring Expedition by the U. S. Navy circumnavigated the globe between 1838 and 1842; the voyage amassed thousands of animal specimens, an herbarium of 50,000 plant specimens, diverse shells and minerals, tropical birds, jars of seawater, ethnographic artifacts from the South Pacific Ocean.
These specimens and artifacts became part of the Smithsonian collections, as did those collected by several military and civilian surveys of the American West, including the Mexican Boundary Survey and Pacific Railroad Surveys, which assembled many Native American artifacts and natural history specimens. In 1846, the regents developed a plan for weather observation; the Institution became a magnet for young scientists from 1857 to 1866, who formed a group called the Megatherium Club. The Smithsonian played a critical role as the U. S. partner institution in early bilateral scientific exchanges with the Academy of Sciences of Cuba. Construction began on the Smithsonian Institution Building in 1849. Designed by architect James Renwick Jr. its interiors were completed by general contractor Gilbert Cameron. The building opened in 1855; the Smithsonian's first expansion came with construction of the Arts and Industries Building in 1881. Congress had promised to build a new structure for the museum if the 1876 Philadelphia Centennial Exposition generated enough income.
It did, the building was designed by architects Adolf Cluss and Paul Schulze, based on original plans developed by Major General Montgomery C. Meigs of the United States Army Corps of Engineers, it opened in 1881. The National Zoological Park opened in 1889 to accommodate the Smithsonian's Department of Living Animals; the park was designed by landscape architect Frederick Law Olmsted. The National Museum of Natural History opened in June 1911 to accommodate the Smithsonian's United States National Museum, housed in the Castle and the Arts and Industries Building; this structure was designed by the D. C. architectural firm of Hornblower & Marshall. When Detroit philanthropist Charles Lang Freer donated his private collection to the Smithsonian and funds to build the museum to hold it, it was among the Smithsonian's first major donations from a private individual; the gallery opened in 1923. More than 40 years would pass before the next museum, the Museum of History and Technology, opened in 1964.
It was designed by the world-renowned firm of Mead & White. The Anacostia Community Museum, an "experimental store-front" museum created at the initiative of Smithsonian Secretary S. Dillon Ripley, opened in the Anacostia neighborhood of