In the music industry, a single is a type of release a song recording of fewer tracks than an LP record or an album. This can be released for sale to the public in a variety of different formats. In most cases, a single is a song, released separately from an album, although it also appears on an album; these are the songs from albums that are released separately for promotional uses such as digital download or commercial radio airplay and are expected to be the most popular. In other cases a recording released. Despite being referred to as a single, singles can include up to as many as three tracks; the biggest digital music distributor, iTunes Store, accepts as many as three tracks less than ten minutes each as a single, as does popular music player Spotify. Any more than three tracks on a musical release or thirty minutes in total running time is either an extended play or, if over six tracks long, an album; when mainstream music was purchased via vinyl records, singles would be released double-sided.
That is to say, they were released with an A-side and B-side, on which two singles would be released, one on each side. Moreover, only the most popular songs from a released album would be released as a single. In more contemporary forms of music consumption, artists release most, if not all, of the tracks on an album as singles; the basic specifications of the music single were set in the late 19th century, when the gramophone record began to supersede phonograph cylinders in commercially produced musical recordings. Gramophone discs were manufactured in several sizes. By about 1910, the 10-inch, 78 rpm shellac disc had become the most used format; the inherent technical limitations of the gramophone disc defined the standard format for commercial recordings in the early 20th century. The crude disc-cutting techniques of the time and the thickness of the needles used on record players limited the number of grooves per inch that could be inscribed on the disc surface, a high rotation speed was necessary to achieve acceptable recording and playback fidelity.
78 rpm was chosen as the standard because of the introduction of the electrically powered, synchronous turntable motor in 1925, which ran at 3600 rpm with a 46:1 gear ratio, resulting in a rotation speed of 78.26 rpm. With these factors applied to the 10-inch format and performers tailored their output to fit the new medium; the 3-minute single remained the standard into the 1960s, when the availability of microgroove recording and improved mastering techniques enabled recording artists to increase the duration of their recorded songs. The breakthrough came with Bob Dylan's "Like a Rolling Stone". Although CBS tried to make the record more "radio friendly" by cutting the performance into halves, separating them between the two sides of the vinyl disc, both Dylan and his fans demanded that the full six-minute take be placed on one side, that radio stations play the song in its entirety; as digital downloading and audio streaming have become more prevalent, it has become possible for every track on an album to be available separately.
The concept of a single for an album has been retained as an identification of a more promoted or more popular song within an album collection. The demand for music downloads skyrocketed after the launch of Apple's iTunes Store in January 2001 and the creation of portable music and digital audio players such as the iPod. In September 1997, with the release of Duran Duran's "Electric Barbarella" for paid downloads, Capitol Records became the first major label to sell a digital single from a well-known artist. Geffen Records released Aerosmith's "Head First" digitally for free. In 2004, Recording Industry Association of America introduced digital single certification due to significant sales of digital formats, with Gwen Stefani's "Hollaback Girl" becoming RIAA's first platinum digital single. In 2013, RIAA incorporated on-demand streams into the digital single certification. Single sales in the United Kingdom reached an all-time low in January 2005, as the popularity of the compact disc was overtaken by the then-unofficial medium of the music download.
Recognizing this, On 17 April 2005, Official UK Singles Chart added the download format to the existing format of physical CD singles. Gnarls Barkley was the first act to reach No.1 on this chart through downloads alone in April 2006, for their debut single "Crazy", released physically the following week. On 1 January 2007 digital downloads became eligible from the point of release, without the need for an accompanying physical. Sales improved in the following years, reaching a record high in 2008 that still proceeded to be overtaken in 2009, 2010 and 2011. Singles have been issued in various formats, including 7-inch, 10-inch, 12-inch vinyl discs. Other, less common, formats include singles on Digital Compact Cassette, DVD, LD, as well as many non-standard sizes of vinyl disc; the most common form of the vinyl single is the 45 or 7-inch. The names are derived from its play speed, 45 rpm, the standard diameter, 7 inches; the 7-inch 45 rpm record was released 31 March 1949 by RCA Victor as a smaller, more durable and higher-fidelity replacement for the 78 rpm shellac discs.
The first 45
Master of Puppets
Master of Puppets is the third studio album by American heavy metal band Metallica. It was released on March 1986 by Elektra Records. Recorded at the Sweet Silence Studios with producer Flemming Rasmussen, it was the first Metallica album released on a major record label. Master of Puppets was the band's last album to feature bassist Cliff Burton, who died in a bus accident in Sweden during the album's promotional tour; the album peaked at number 29 on the Billboard 200 and became the first thrash metal album to be certified platinum. It was certified 6× platinum by the Recording Industry Association of America in 2003 for shipping six million copies in the United States; the album was certified 6× platinum by Music Canada and gold by the British Phonographic Industry. The album has been cited as a key influence to the heavy metal genre, its music and political lyrics drew praise from critics outside the metal community. Critics credit it for consolidating the American thrash metal scene. Bands from various genres of heavy metal have covered the album's songs, including tribute albums.
Master of Puppets was deemed "culturally or aesthetically significant" enough for preservation in the National Recording Registry by the United States Library of Congress in 2015, the first metal recording to do so. The cover was painted by Don Brautigam, it depicts a cemetery field of white crosses tethered to strings, manipulated by a pair of hands in a blood-red sky. Instead of releasing a single or video in advance of the album's release, Metallica embarked on a five-month American tour in support of Ozzy Osbourne; the European leg was canceled after Burton's death in September 1986, the band returned home to audition a new bassist. Metallica honored the album's 20th anniversary on the Escape from the Studio'06 tour, by playing it in its entirety. A remastered version was released in November 2017. Metallica's 1983 debut Kill'Em All laid the foundation for thrash metal with its aggressive musicianship and vitriolic lyrics; the album revitalized the American underground scene, inspired similar records by contemporaries.
The band's second album Ride the Lightning extended the limits of the genre with its more sophisticated songwriting and improved production. The album caught the attention of Elektra Records representative Michael Alago, who signed the group to an eight-album deal in the fall of 1984, halfway through the album's promotional tour. Elektra reissued Ride the Lightning on November 19, the band began touring larger venues and festivals throughout 1985. After parting with manager Jon Zazula, Metallica hired Q Prime executives Cliff Burnstein and Peter Mensch. During the summer, the band played the Monsters of Rock festival at Castle Donington, alongside Bon Jovi and Ratt to an audience of 70,000. Metallica was motivated to make an album that would impress critics and fans, began writing new material in mid-1985. Lead vocalist and rhythm guitarist James Hetfield and drummer Lars Ulrich were the main songwriters on the album titled Master of Puppets; the two developed ideas at a garage in El Cerrito, before inviting bassist Cliff Burton and guitarist Kirk Hammett for rehearsals.
Hetfield and Ulrich described the songwriting process as starting with "guitar riffs and reassembled until they start to sound like a song". After that, the band came up with a song title and topic, Hetfield wrote lyrics to match the title. Master of Puppets is Metallica's first album not to feature songwriting contributions from former lead guitarist Dave Mustaine. Mustaine claimed he had co-written "Leper Messiah", based on an old song called "The Hills Ran Red"; the band stated that one section incorporated Mustaine's ideas. The band was not satisfied with the acoustics of the American studios they considered, decided to record in Ulrich's native Denmark. Ulrich took drum lessons, Hammett worked with Joe Satriani to learn how to record more efficiently. Ulrich was in talks with Rush's bassist and vocalist Geddy Lee to produce the album, but the collaboration never materialized because of uncoordinated schedules. Metallica recorded the album with producer Flemming Rasmussen at Sweet Silence Studios in Copenhagen, from September 1 to December 27, 1985.
The writing of all the songs except "Orion" and "The Thing That Should Not Be" was completed before the band's arrival in Copenhagen. Rasmussen stated that the band brought well-prepared demos of the songs, only slight changes were made to the compositions in the studio; the recording took longer than the previous album because Metallica had developed a sense of perfectionism and had higher ambitions. Metallica eschewed the slick production and synthesizers of contemporary hard rock and glam metal albums. With a reputation for drinking, the band stayed sober on recording days. Hammett recalled that the group was "just making another album" at the time and "had no idea that the record would have such a range of influence that it went on to have", he said that the group was "definitely peaking" at the time and that the album had "the sound of a band gelling learning how to work well together". Rasmussen and Metallica did not manage to complete the mixtapes as planned. Instead, the multitrack recordings were sent in January 1986 to Michael Wagener, who finished the album's mixing.
The cover was painted by Don Brautigam. It depicts a cemetery field of white crosses tethered to strings, manipulated by a pair of hands in a blood-red sky. Ulrich explained that the artwork summarized the lyrical content of the album—people being subconsciously manipulated; the original artwork was sold at Rockefeller Plaza, New York Cit
Peter Paul "Paulie Walnuts" Gualtieri is a fictional character portrayed by Tony Sirico on the HBO series The Sopranos. One of the chief henchmen of series protagonist Tony Soprano, Paulie begins the series as a soldato becoming a caporegime and underboss of the DiMeo crime family. Violent and paranoid, Paulie is fiercely loyal to Tony, making him a valued member of the organization. According to The Sopranos: A Family History, Peter Paul "Paulie" Gualtieri, son of Gennaro Gualtieri, has been a troubled street kid in Roseville, Newark from the age of nine, he dropped out of school after the ninth grade and spent time in and out of juvenile correctional facilities during his early youth. When he was seventeen, he became an enforcer/bodyguard for Johnny Soprano, He moved to West Orange, New Jersey as an adult. Paulie's father was a captain in the DiMeo crime family, his mother discovered to be his aunt, worked at a Kresge's department store during Paulie's childhood and early adulthood, but has since retired.
Paulie's grandfather, who emigrated to the United States in 1910, is from Ariano Irpino, a municipality in the province of Avellino, in Italy's Campania region. Paulie's grandfather and Tony's paternal grandparents were from the same province in Italy. Paulie spent four years in the U. S. Army Signal Corps, where he was drummed out through Section 8. Afterwards, he spent more time out of prison on various criminal charges, he was inducted into the DiMeo crime family, becoming a close associate of Johnny Soprano and helping to mentor his son Tony. Paulie received his nickname "Paulie Walnuts" after hijacking a truck in the early 1990s which he believed was filled with television-sets, but only contained walnuts, his surname is taken from real life DeCavalcante crime family mobster Frank Gualtieri, who served under Vincent Palermo. In the episode "From Where To Eternity" Paulie mentions to his parish priest after visiting a psychic that he had been donating to the parish for 23 years, meaning he had started attending in 1977.
He paid for the new altar boy robes. He tells the priest he will stop contributing financially to the church following his incident with the psychic saying that he should have been protected. Paulie is one of the show's most colorful characters cracking jokes or spouting bizarre sentiments, he is self-centered, does not show much empathy, can be paranoid at times. One of the older active gangsters in the family, Paulie adheres to traditional mob customs and displays fierce loyalty and deference to his boss Tony showing a childlike dependence on his approval. Other character traits include his competitiveness, miserly nature and indifference to violence. Despite his seniority and successful earning, Paulie is one of the more eccentric and reckless of Tony's associates and is arguably the most ruthless. In the first season finale, "I Dream of Jeannie Cusamano," Tony tells his crew that he had been in therapy for a year, when Paulie reveals that he too had seen a therapist, from whom he "learned some coping skills."
Despite his personality flaws Paulie is recognized throughout the series as one of the top earners and one of Tony's most trusted friends in his "inner circle". Paulie has no children and remains single, devoting his entire life to being a gangster. In the first season, Paulie is a central member of Tony's crew, he executes a Colombian drug dealer and steals a large quantity of drugs and cash from his hotel room. Other tasks he performs are retrieving a stolen car, torturing a hotel co-owner so the crew can own 25% of the business, extorting a soccer coach by giving him an unwanted free TV; when suspicions that Big Pussy is an informant first surface, Paulie volunteers to investigate. His method of taking Pussy to a bath house and trying to get him to undress for a steambath lacks subtlety and drives Pussy into hiding. In Tony's brief and bloody war with Corrado "Junior" Soprano's crew, following Junior's attempt on Tony's life, Paulie is assigned the hit on Junior's consigliere Mikey Palmice, with Christopher Moltisanti.
In season two, when Tony becomes the family's street boss, while Junior remains boss only in name, Paulie is promoted to capo of Tony's old crew. This meant that Pussy and Furio Giunta amongst others, report to him. To help set up the crew's stolen car distribution operation, Paulie travels with Tony and Chris to Italy. Paulie helps run the "executive game," a high-stakes poker game. In the episode "From Where to Eternity," while Chris is in the hospital recovering from the bullet wounds caused by Matthew Bevilaqua and Sean Gismonte's failed assassination attempt, when Chris becomes clinically dead for a few minutes after his heart stops while in his comatose state, he has a morphine-induced dream in which he visits Hell and sees his deceased father "Dickie" Moltisanti along with his deceased former best friend Brendan Filone and Mikey Palmice, who had slain Brendan. Chris informs Tony and Paulie that Mikey had a message for them: "Three o'clock". Paulie subsequently begins to have nightmares of being dragged to Hell.
Paulie, at the recommendation of his mistress, goes to see a medium in Nyack, New York. Much to Paulie's chagrin, the authenticity of the medium seems to be confirmed when he begins communicating with people that Paulie has killed, with Mikey giving details of his murder. Paulie continues to remain unsettled and paranoid, as he feels he is being ha
Sausalito is a city in Marin County, located 8 miles south-southeast of San Rafael, 4 miles north of San Francisco. Sausalito's population was 7,061 as of the 2010 census; the community is situated near the northern end of the Golden Gate Bridge, prior to the building of that bridge served as a terminus for rail and ferry traffic. Sausalito developed as a shipbuilding center in World War II, with its industrial character giving way in postwar years to a reputation as a wealthy and artistic enclave, a picturesque residential community, a tourist destination; the city is adjacent to, bounded by, the protected spaces of the Golden Gate National Recreation Area. The name of Sausalito comes from the Spanish sauzalito, meaning "small willow grove", from sauce "willow" + collective derivative -al meaning "place of abundance" + diminutive suffix -ito. Early variants of the name were Saucelito, San Salita, San Saulito, San Salito, Sancilito, Sousalita, Sousilito and Sauz Saulita, it is sometimes claimed that Sausalito was named for the district in Valparaíso, Chile where the bandit Joaquín Murrieta was born.
Murrieta was the leader of bandits who settled at the northern end of the future Golden Gate bridge after being banned from San Francisco in the bandit wars. However, this theory cannot be true because Murrieta was from Mexico, not Chile, because he did not arrive in California until the Gold Rush around 1849; the Rancho Saucelito had been granted to William Richardson in 1838. Located at 37°51′33″N 122°29′07″W, Sausalito encompasses both steep, wooded hillside and shoreline tidal flats. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 2.2 square miles. Notably, only 1.8 square miles of it is land. A full 21.54% of the city is under water, has been so since its founding in 1868. Prominent geographic features associated with Sausalito include Pine Point; when Sausalito was formally platted, it was anticipated that future development might extend the shoreline with landfill, as had been the practice in neighboring San Francisco. As a result, entire streets and given names like Pescadero and Teutonia, remain beneath the surface of Richardson Bay.
The legal, if not actual, presence of these streets has proved a contentious factor in public policy, because some houseboats float directly above them. According to the San Francisco Chronicle, "State agencies say owned houseboats can't be located above the underwater streets because the streets are public trust lands intended for public benefit." The California State Lands Commission is pursuing a compromise which would move not the houseboats, but the theoretical streets instead. Sausalito has a Mediterranean climate with far lower temperatures than expected because of its adjacency to San Francisco Bay and the resultant onshore breezes. Sausalito was once the site of a Coast Miwok settlement known as Liwanelowa; the branch of the Coast Miwok living in this area were known as the Huimen. Early explorers of the area described them as hospitable. According to Juan de Ayala, "To all these advantages must be added the best of all, that the heathen Indians of the port are so faithful in their friendship and so docile in their disposition that I was pleased to receive them on board."
Such placidity was a contributing factor to their complete displacement, which took place within the span of a few generations. As historian Jack Tracy has observed, "Their dwellings on the site of Sausalito were explored and mapped in 1907, nearly a century and a half by an archaeological survey. By that time, nothing was left of the culture of those who had first enjoyed the natural treasures of the bay; the life of the Coastal Miwoks had been reduced to archaeological remnants, as though thousands of years had passed since their existence." The first European known to visit the present-day location of Sausalito was Don José de Cañizares, on August 5, 1775. Cañizares was head of an advance party dispatched by longboat from the ship San Carlos, searching for a suitable anchorage for the larger vessel; the crew of the San Carlos came ashore soon after, reporting friendly natives and teeming populations of deer, bear, sea lions and otters. More for maritime purposes, they reported an abundance of large, mature timber in the hills, a valuable commodity for shipwrights in need of raw materials for masts and planking.
Despite these and positive reports, the Spanish colonial government of Upper California did little to establish a presence in the area. When a military garrison and a Franciscan mission were founded the following year, they were situated on the opposite, southern shore of the bay, where no portage was necessary for overland traffic to and from Monterey, the regional capitol; as a result, the far shore of the Golden Gate strait would remain wilderness for another half-century. The development of the area began at the instigation of William A. Richardson, who arrived in Upper California in 1822, shortly after Mexico had won its independence from Spain. An English mariner who had picked up a fluency in Spanish during his travels, he became an influential presence in the now-Mexican territory. By 1825, Richardson had assumed Mexican citizenship, converted to Catholicism and married the daughter of Don Ignacio Martínez, commandant of the Presidio and holder of a large land grant, his ambitions now expanding
Mama Said (Metallica song)
"Mama Said" is a country rock ballad by American heavy metal band Metallica from their sixth album Load, with music and lyrics by James Hetfield. The lyrics represent a man or boy, learning to find his own way in life away from his mother; the song is directly written about Hetfield's difficult relationship with his mother, who died of cancer when he was 16 years old. The song is a departure from Metallica's usual heavy metal sound. "Mama Said" begins with acoustic guitar and, during the chorus, becomes flush with a country-flavored vocal harmony and steel guitar. Toward the end, the song features power chords on electric guitar. "Mama Said" has never been featured as a part of Metallica's live setlist. Hetfield has performed this song live, using a single steel-stringed acoustic guitar with no drum or bass accompaniment, he performed it along with country singer Jessi Colter on CMT's Outlaw Concert, along with Hetfield's cover of Waylon Jennings's "Don't You Think This Outlaw Bit's Done Got Out of Hand."
An early demo version is entitled "Mama Said", recorded in Lars Ulrich's home musical studio "Dungeon" on April 14, 1995. Lesser known among Metallica's music video catalog, the "Mama Said" video focuses on James Hetfield sitting in the backseat of a car while playing the song on an acoustic guitar; the vehicle appears to be driving along a Southwestern highway, at one point the other members of Metallica are seen outside looking into the window. As the song comes to an end, the view pulls back to reveal that Hetfield has been sitting in a stationary backseat inside a studio, he walks over to a horse, takes its bridle, walks off screen. Directed by Anton Corbijn. International Single Part 1"Mama Said" - 5:19 "King Nothing" - 6:50 "Whiplash" - 4:52 "Mama Said" - 4:34International Single Part 2"Mama Said" - 5:19 "So What" - 3:00 "Creeping Death" - 7:15 "Mama Said" - 6:52International 7" Inch Vinyl Single"Mama Said" - 5:19 "Ain't My Bitch" - 5:59Australian Maxi Single"Mama Said" - 4:34 "Mama Said" - 6:52UK Promo Single"Mama Said" - 4:43 "Mama Said" - 5:19Japanese EP"Mama Said" - 4:42 "So What" - 2:58 "Creeping Death" - 7:14 "King Nothing" - 6:51 "Whiplash" - 6:01 "Mama Said" - 6:53 Lyrics of this song at MetroLyrics
The Record Plant is a famous recording studio operating in Los Angeles, California which hosts top level artists and musicians. It is known for its role in innovating the recording artist’s workspace, as well as being the site of many influential recordings over the decades, including notable albums such as The Eagles’ Hotel California,Eminem's The Marshal Mathers LP Guns N' Roses’ Appetite for Destruction and Kanye West’s The College Dropout. More recent albums recorded at Record Plant include Lady Gaga’s ARTPOP, Justin Bieber's Purpose and Ariana Grande’s Thank U, Next; the original location was founded in New York City by Gary Kellgren and Chris Stone in 1968, with the Los Angeles location opening in 1969 and a Sausalito, California location in 1972. During the 1980s the New York and Sausalito studios ended up under different ownership, with the New York studio closing in 1987 and the Sausalito studio closing in 2008; the Los Angeles studio continues in operation, was purchased by songwriter/producer Philip Lawrence in 2016.
The Record Plant in New York was the first studio to give the recording artist a comfortable, casual environment rather than the clinical setting, the norm through the 1960s. Kellgren and Stone brought this same vision to their Los Sausalito properties. Stone said of Kellgren, "He single-handedly was responsible for changing studios from what they were—fluorescent lights, white walls and hardwood floors—to the living rooms that they are today." The remaining Los Angeles location continues the founders’ vision by offering additional VIP lounges for the artists, as well as the early signatures of Kellgren’s vision, a Jacuzzi and billiard table. In 1967, Kellgren was a recording engineer working at several New York City studios, including Mayfair on 701 Seventh Avenue at the edge of Times Square, a drab upstairs office, a single room which held the only professional 8-track recording system in New York. There, Kellgren worked with artists such as the Velvet Underground, who recorded "Sunday Morning" in November 1966.
In late 1967, Chris Stone was introduced to Kellgren because Kellgren's wife, was seven months pregnant and scared of the upcoming birth and Stone's wife, had just given birth. Mutual friends thought that the two couples could ease Marta's worry. Though they were "diametrically opposed" in nature, the two became friends. Seeing him at work, Stone determined that Kellgren was not making full use of his genius for making recordings. Stone noticed that the small studio was charging its clients $5,000 per week, but Kellgren was making $200 per week. Stone suggested Kellgren ask for a raise and soon he was making $1,000 per week. Stone held an MBA from the UCLA Anderson School of Management and was employed as the national sales representative of Revlon cosmetics. Stone convinced Kellgren that the two of them, with $100,000 borrowed from Johanna C. C. "Ancky" Revson Johnson, could start a new recording studio with a better atmosphere for creativity. Johnson was the second wife of Revlon founder Charles Revson.
She married Ben Johnson, a male model 21 years her junior. In early 1968, Kellgren and Stone began building a 12-track studio at 321 West 44th Street, creating a living room type of environment for the musicians, it opened on March 13, 1968. As the studio was nearing completion, record producer Tom Wilson persuaded Hendrix producer Chas Chandler to book the Record Plant from April 18 to early July 1968 for the recording of the album Electric Ladyland. In early April, just prior to the start of the Hendrix session, the band Soft Machine spent four days recording The Soft Machine, their debut album produced by Wilson and Chandler with Kellgren engineering; when the Jimi Hendrix Experience arrived at the studio, Kellgren engineered the first few dates until Eddie Kramer, the band's familiar engineer, flew in from London. In 1969, Kellgren and Stone sold the New York operation to TeleVision Communications, a cable television company, broadening its portfolio; the purpose of the sale was to gain cash for expansion into Los Angeles with a second studio.
The next big mixing assignment that the studio accepted was to mix the tracks recorded at the Woodstock Festival. These took more than a month to sort out in the studio, as recording conditions had been primitive and some tracks contained both voice and instruments, preventing separate processing for each. In 1970, Studio A became the first recording studio designed for mixing quadraphonic sound. On August 1, 1971, the studio made its first remote recordings at The Concert for Bangladesh at Madison Square Garden. During the 1970s, house engineers Shelly Yakus and Roy Cicala gave many local bands their start by donating session time and materials and producing their demo tapes. In January 1972, Warner Communications bought the facility from TVC. Head engineer Cicala bought it from Warner. In April 1973, the New York Dolls recorded their debut album there. In late 1973, Aerosmith began recording Get their second album. Bob Ezrin, known for producing hits for Alice Cooper, was put in charge, but engineer Jack Douglas put so much into the project that he was called the sixth member of the band.
The song "Lord of the Thighs" was written and recorded inside the Record Plant's Studio C during an all-night session after the band realized they needed one more song for the album. When Aerosmith returned to the Record Plant in early 1975 to record Toys in the Attic, they named Douglas as sole producer; the song "Walk Thi