Jelly Roll Morton
Ferdinand Joseph LaMothe, known professionally as Jelly Roll Morton, was an American ragtime and early jazz pianist and composer who started his career in New Orleans, Louisiana. His composition Jelly Roll Blues, published in 1915, was the first published jazz composition, Morton was born into a creole of color family in the Faubourg Marigny neighborhood of downtown New Orleans, Louisiana. Sources differ as to his date, a baptismal certificate issued in 1894 lists his date of birth as October 20,1890, Morton. His World War I draft registration card showed September 13,1884 and he was born to F. P. Lamothe and Louise Monette. Hécaud helped choose his name, Ferdinand. His parents lived in a marriage and were not legally married. No birth certificate has been found to date, Ferdinand started playing music as a child, showing talent at an early age. After his parents separated, his mother married a man named Mouton, Ferdinand took his stepfathers surname and anglicized it as Morton. At the age of fourteen, Morton began working as a player in a brothel.
In that atmosphere, he often sang smutty lyrics, he took the nickname Jelly Roll, while working there, he was living with his churchgoing great-grandmother, he convinced her that he worked as a night watchman in a barrel factory. After Mortons grandmother found out that he was playing jazz in a brothel, she kicked him out of her house. He said, When my grandmother found out that I was playing jazz in one of the houses in the District, she told me that I had disgraced the family. She told me that devil music would bring about my downfall. The cornetist Rex Stewart recalled that Morton had chosen the nom de plume Morton to protect his family from disgrace if he was identified as a whorehouse professor, Tony Jackson, a pianist at brothels and an accomplished guitar player, was a major influence on Mortons music. Morton said that Jackson was the only pianist better than he was, around 1904, Morton started touring in the American South, working with minstrel shows including Will Benbows Chocolate Drops and composing.
His works Jelly Roll Blues, New Orleans Blues, Frog-I-More Rag, Animule Dance, and King Porter Stomp were composed during this period. He got to Chicago in 1910 and New York City in 1911, in 1912–14, Morton toured with his girlfriend Rosa Brown as a vaudeville act before settling in Chicago for three years. By 1914, he had started writing down his compositions, in 1915, his Jelly Roll Blues was arguably the first jazz composition ever published, recording as sheet music the New Orleans traditions that had been jealously guarded by musicians
James Fletcher Hamilton Henderson, Jr. was an American pianist, bandleader and composer, important in the development of big band jazz and swing music. He was one of the most prolific black musical arrangers and and he helped bridge the gap between the Dixieland and the swing eras. He was often known as Smack Henderson, James Fletcher Henderson was born in Cuthbert, Georgia, in 1897. He grew up in a middle-class African-American family and his father, Fletcher H. Henderson Sr. was the principal of the nearby Howard Normal Randolph School from 1880 until 1942. His home, now known as the Fletcher Henderson House, is a historic site and his mother, a teacher, taught him and his brother Horace to play the piano. He began lessons by the age of six and his father would occasionally lock Fletcher in his room to practice for hours. By age 13, Henderson possessed an ability to read music. He pursued the studies with his mother and further engaged himself in lessons on European art, although a talented musician, Henderson decided to dedicate himself to math and science.
At age 18 he moved to Atlanta and changed his name to Fletcher Henderson, giving up James and he attended Atlanta University and graduated in 1920 with a bachelors degree in chemistry and mathematics. After graduation, he moved to New York City to attend Columbia University for a degree in chemistry. Finding his job prospects in chemistry to be poor because of his race, after arriving in New York City, Henderson shared an apartment with a pianist who worked as a musician. During the 1920s, he played piano accompaniment for blues singers and he led the backing group for Ethel Waters during one of her national tours. Before 1923, Hendersons group was more of a band than a jazz band. In 1922 he formed his own band, which was resident first at Club Alabam, at the Roseland Ballroom, in the 1920s, he did not do very many band arrangements. Although Armstong played in the band for only a year, he influenced its members, Hendersons band boasted the formidable arranging talents of Don Redman from 1922 to 1927.
Henderson developed his skills from 1931 to the mid-1930s. His band c.1925 included Howard Scott, Coleman Hawkins, Louis Armstrong, Charlie Dixon, Kaiser Marshall, Buster Bailey, Elmer Chambers, Charlie Green, Ralph Escudero, and Don Redman. In 1925, with Henry Troy, he wrote Gin House Blues, recorded by Bessie Smith and his other compositions include Soft Winds
Ian Ernest Gilmore Gil Evans was a Canadian jazz pianist, arranger and bandleader. He is widely recognized as one of the greatest orchestrators in jazz, playing an important role in the development of jazz, modal jazz. He is best known for his collaborations with Miles Davis. Born in Toronto, Canada, his name was changed early on from Green to Evans and his family moved to Stockton, California where he spent most of his youth. After 1946, he lived and worked primarily in New York City, living for many years at Westbeth Artists Community. Between 1941 and 1948, Evans worked as an arranger for the Claude Thornhill Orchestra. ”Evans modest basement apartment behind a New York City Chinese laundry soon became a place for musicians looking to develop new musical styles outside of the dominant bebop style of the day. Those present included the leading performer, Charlie Parker, as well as Gerry Mulligan. In 1948, with Miles Davis and others, the Miles Davis-led group was booked for a week at the Royal Roost as an intermission group on the bill with the Count Basie Orchestra.
Capitol Records recorded 12 numbers by the nonet at three sessions in 1949 and 1950 and these recordings were reissued on a 1957 Miles Davis LP titled Birth of the Cool. Later, while Davis was under contract with Columbia Records, producer George Avakian suggested that Davis could work with any of several arrangers, the three albums that resulted from the collaboration are Miles Ahead and Bess, and Sketches of Spain. Another collaboration from this period, Quiet Nights was issued later, against the wishes of Davis, although these four records were marketed primarily under Daviss name, Evanss contribution was as important as Daviss. Their work coupled Evanss classic big band jazz stylings and arrangements with Daviss solo playing, Evans contributed behind the scenes to Davis classic quintet albums of the 1960s. The demands of the score for Porgy and Bess were legendary, the limited time allotted for rehearsals revealed that the ability to read such a challenging score was not consistent among jazz musicians, and there are many audible errors.
Evans was an influence on Daviss interest in non-jazz music. Davis died before the release of the album, from 1957 onwards Evans recorded albums under his own name. Tubist Bill Barber and trumpeter Louis Mucci from Thornhills band were both stalwarts in Evanss early ensembles, with Mucci finding a spot on nearly every pre1980s Evans recording. Among the featured soloists on these records were Lee Konitz, Jimmy Cleveland, Steve Lacy, Johnny Coles, in 1965 he arranged the big band tracks on Kenny Burrells Guitar Forms album. Evans was explicitly influenced by Spanish composers Manuel de Falla and Joaquín Rodrigo and his arrangements of pieces already well known to some listeners from their original cabaret, concert hall or Broadway stage arrangements, revealed aspects of the music in a wholly original way
Copyright is a legal right created by the law of a country that grants the creator of an original work exclusive rights for its use and distribution. This is usually only for a limited time, the exclusive rights are not absolute but limited by limitations and exceptions to copyright law, including fair use. A major limitation on copyright is that copyright protects only the expression of ideas. Copyright is a form of property, applicable to certain forms of creative work. Some, but not all jurisdictions require fixing copyrighted works in a tangible form and it is often shared among multiple authors, each of whom holds a set of rights to use or license the work, and who are commonly referred to as rights holders. These rights frequently include reproduction, control over derivative works, public performance, copyrights are considered territorial rights, which means that they do not extend beyond the territory of a specific jurisdiction. While many aspects of copyright laws have been standardized through international copyright agreements.
Typically, the duration of a copyright spans the authors life plus 50 to 100 years, some countries require certain copyright formalities to establishing copyright, but most recognize copyright in any completed work, without formal registration. Generally, copyright is enforced as a matter, though some jurisdictions do apply criminal sanctions. Most jurisdictions recognize copyright limitations, allowing fair exceptions to the exclusivity of copyright. Copyright came about with the invention of the press and with wider literacy. As a legal concept, its origins in Britain were from a reaction to printers monopolies at the beginning of the 18th century, Copyright laws allow products of creative human activities, such as literary and artistic production, to be preferentially exploited and thus incentivized. Different cultural attitudes, social organizations, economic models and legal frameworks are seen to account for why copyright emerged in Europe and not, for example, with copyright laws, intellectual production comes to be seen as a product of an individual, with attendant rights.
The most significant point is that patent and copyright laws support the expansion of the range of human activities that can be commodified. This parallels the ways in which led to the commodification of many aspects of social life that earlier had no monetary or economic value per se. Often seen as the first real copyright law, the 1709 British Statute of Anne gave the rights for a fixed period. The act alluded to individual rights of the artist and it began, Whereas Printers and other Persons, have of late frequently taken the Liberty of Printing. Books, and other Writings, without the Consent of the Authors. to their very great Detriment, and too often to the Ruin of them and their Families
Brunswick Records is an American record label founded in 1916. The company first began producing phonographs in 1916, began marketing their own line of records as an after-thought and these first Brunswick records used the vertical cut system like Edison Disc Records, and were not sold in large numbers. They were recorded in the US but sold only in Canada, in January 1920, a new line of Brunswick Records was introduced in the US and Canada that employed the lateral cut system which was becoming the default cut for 78 discs. Brunswick started its standard popular series at 2000 and ended up in 1940 at 8517, when the series reached 4999, they skipped over the previous allocated 5000s and continued at 6000. Also, when they reached 6999, they continued at 7301, the parent company marketed them extensively, and within a few years Brunswick became one of the USAs Big Three record companies, along with Victor and Columbia Records. The Brunswick line of home phonographs were commercially successful, Brunswick had a hit with their Ultona phonograph capable of playing Edison Disc Records, Pathé disc records, and standard lateral 78s.
In late 1924, Brunswick acquired the Vocalion Records label, audio fidelity of early-1920s, acoustically-recorded Brunswick discs is above average for the era. They were pressed into good quality shellac, although not as durable as that used by Victor, in the spring of 1925 Brunswick introduced its own version of electrical recording using photoelectric cells, which Brunswick called the light-ray process. Then based in Chicago, many of the citys best orchestras, the labels jazz roster included Fletcher Henderson, Duke Ellington, King Oliver, Johnny Dodds, Andy Kirk, and Red Nichols. Brunswick initiated a 7000 race series as well as the Vocalion 1000 race series and these race records series recorded hot jazz and rural blues, and gospel. Brunswick had a successful business supplying radio with sponsored transcriptions of popular music, comedy. Few orchestra records were approved for issue and those that did appear on the often combined excellent performances with execrable sound. Brunswick found it expedient and ultimately cheaper to contract with European companies to fill their electrical classical catalogue, some of these recordings have been reissued on CD.
Brunswick itself switched to a conventional microphone recording process in 1927. Prior to this, they had introduced the Brunswick Panatrope and this phonograph met with critical acclaim, and composer Ottorino Respighi selected the Brunswick Panatrope to play a recording of bird songs in his composition The Pines of Rome. Jack Kapp became the company executive of Brunswick in 1930. In April 1930, Brunswick-Balke-Collender sold Brunswick Records to Warner Bros. Warner Bros. hoped to make their own soundtrack recordings for their sound-on-disc Vitaphone system. A number of interesting recordings were made by actors during this period, actors who made recordings included Noah Beery, Charles King, and J. Harold Murray
Although he composed some jazz instrumentals such as Chicken and Waffles and Blues, Berigan was best known for his virtuoso jazz trumpeting. His 1937 classic recording I Cant Get Started was inducted into the Grammy Hall of Fame in 1975, Berigan was born in Hilbert, the son of William Patrick Berigan and Mary Catherine Schlitzberg, and raised in Fox Lake. Having learned the violin and trumpet by 14, Berigan played in local orchestras by his mid-teens and he attended the University of Wisconsin, teaching trumpet and playing in dance bands after school hours before joining the successful Hal Kemp orchestra in 1930. His first recorded trumpet solos came with it, which toured England and he appeared as featured soloist with bands fronted by Rudy Vallee, Tommy Dorsey, Abe Lyman, Paul Whiteman and Benny Goodman. Shortly after the Kemp unit returned to the U. S. in late 1930, like fellow trumpeter Manny Klein, fred Rich, Freddy Martin and Ben Selvin were just some conductors who sought his services for record dates.
He joined the staff of CBS radio network musicians in early 1931, Berigan recorded his first vocal, At Your Command, with Rich that year. From late 1932 through early 1934, Berigan was a member of Paul Whitemans orchestra and he returned to freelancing in the New York recording studios and working on staff at CBS radio in 1934. He recorded as a sideman on hundreds of records, most notably with the Dorsey Brothers and on Glenn Millers earliest recording date as a leader in 1935. At the same time, Berigan made an association that began his ascent to fame in his own right, he joined Benny Goodmans Swing band. Legendary jazz talent scout and producer John H. Berigan recorded a number of classic solos while with Goodman, including on King Porter Stomp, Sometimes Im Happy, Berigan left Goodman to return again to freelancing as a recording and radio musician in Manhattan. During this time, he began to record regularly under his own name, and continued to back such as Bing Crosby, Mildred Bailey. He spend some time with Tommy Dorseys orchestra in late 1936 and early 1937, working as a jazz soloist on Dorseys radio program and his solo on the Dorsey hit recording Marie became considered one of his signature performances.
In 1937, Berigan assembled a band to record and tour under his name, picking the then-little known Ira Gershwin/Vernon Duke composition, I Cant Get Started as his theme song. He made three attempts to organize a band of his own, his last try meeting success, playing trumpet in every number while directing the band. Berigans bravura trumpet work and curiously attractive vocal made his performance of it for Victor the biggest hit of his career. Berigan modeled his style in part on Louis Armstrongs. Still, his sound and jazz ideas were unique, earning Armstrongs praise both before and after Berigans death. Berigan got the itch to lead his own band full-time and did so from early 1937 until June 1942, with one six-month hiatus in 1940, some of the records he made with his own bands were equal in quality to the sides he cut with Goodman and Dorsey
Tony Williams (drummer)
Anthony Tillmon Tony Williams was an American jazz drummer. Widely regarded as one of the most important and influential drummers in history. He was inducted into the Modern Drummer Hall of Fame in 1986, Williams was born in Chicago and grew up in Boston. He was of African and Chinese descent and he studied with drummer Alan Dawson at an early age, and began playing professionally at the age of 13 with saxophonist Sam Rivers. Saxophonist Jackie McLean hired Williams when he was 16, at 17 Williams found considerable fame with Miles Davis, joining a group that was dubbed Daviss Second Great Quintet. Williams was an element of the group, called by Davis in his autobiography the center that the groups sound revolved around. His inventive playing helped redefine the role of the rhythm section through the use of polyrhythms and metric modulation. His first album as a leader, 1964s Life Time, was in the avant-garde vein, in 1969, he formed a trio, the Tony Williams Lifetime, with John McLaughlin on guitar and Larry Young on organ.
Lifetime was a band of the fusion movement, a combination of rock, R&B. Was largely rejected by the community at the time of its release. His second fusion recording, on Polydor Records, was Turn It Over, was more progressive and louder, with the addition of rock bassist. After McLaughlin and Bruces departure, and several albums, Lifetime disbanded. In mid-1976, Williams was a part of a reunion with his colleagues from the Miles Davis band, keyboardist Herbie Hancock, bassist Ron Carter, Davis was in the midst of a six-year hiatus and was replaced by Freddie Hubbard. The record was released as V. S. O. P and was highly influential in increasing the popularity of acoustic jazz. The group went on to tour and record for several years, in 1979, Williams, McLaughlin and bassist Jaco Pastorius united for a one-time performance at the Havana Jazz Festival. This trio came to be known as the Trio of Doom, and it opens with a powerful drum improvisation by Williams, followed by McLaughlins Dark Prince and Pastorius Continuum, Williams original composition Para Oriente and McLaughlins Are You the One.
Williams and Pastorius had played together on the Herbie Hancock track Good Question from his 1978 album Sunlight, with the group Fuse One, Williams released two albums in 1980 and 1982. In 1985, he recorded an album for Blue Note Records entitled Foreign Intrigue, that year he formed a quintet with Miller, saxophonist Bill Pierce, and bassist Charnett Moffett
George Adams (musician)
George Rufus Adams was an American jazz musician who played tenor saxophone and bass clarinet. He is best known for his work with Charles Mingus, Gil Evans, Roy Haynes and in the quartet he co-led with pianist Don Pullen, featuring bassist Cameron Brown and he was known for his idiosyncratic singing. George Adams was born in Covington, Georgia on April 29,1940 and he first started playing piano at the age of eleven and switched to tenor saxophone in high school. Later on, he went study at the Clark College and got lessons on flute by Wayman Carver, as a teenager, George Adams frequently gained performance experience by playing with local funk bands. In 1961, he accompanied singer Sam Cooke on a tour, at this point, Adams was based out of Cleveland where he spent a great deal of time studying and working with organ trios alongside pianist and organist Bill Doggett. The two men played a form of music that rhythm and blues with jazz. In 1968, he decided to expand his career and move to New York City to participate in the growing jazz scene.
A year later, George Adams toured with Roy Haynes, playing with him until 1973, shortly after, he performed with Art Blakey before joining Charles Mingus band. His partnership with Mingus would last until 1976, George Adams first appearance with Mingus was on Mingus Moves with Ronald Hampton, Dannie Richmond, and Don Pullen in 1973. Later on, Adams went to perform in Mingus at Carnegie Hall, Changes One and he appeared in Mingus Whee and other albums. 1975, while touring Europe with Mingus, he made his first recordings under his own name with Don Pullen, Dannie Richmond, Adams began a working relationship with Gil Evans that lasted until 1978 that same year. Adams first appearance with Evans was on his album The Gil Evans Orchestra Plays the Music of Jimi Hendrix, the album features orchestral versions of songs such as Angel, Castles Made of Sand and Voodoo Child. George Adams continued to record with Gil Evans throughout 1975 by contributing to his album There Comes a Time, in 1976, Adams began to performing on and off with pianist McCoy Tyner until the late 1980s.
The following year, George performed with trumpeter Marvin Hannibal Peterson at the Antibes Jazz Festival in Antibes and he appeared on Tyners album The Greeting in 1978 alongside bassist Charles Fambrough and drummer Sonship. In 1979, Adams and Pullen began to co-lead a quartet with Dannie Richmond, in December 1979, George recorded the album Paradise Space Shuttle with his personal quintet that featured pianist Ron Burton, drummer Al Foster, bassist Don Pate and percussionist Azzedin Weston. Adams contributions to his ensemble were best heard on Paradise Space Shuttles title track, after a brief introduction, he enters the arrangement playing a disjointed and primal melody. He plays a more traditional bebop figure before supplementing it with a strident motive and he continues to utilize several different textures throughout the song, such as multiphonics, blues riffs and phrased melodic devices. The result of all this is a performance that includes a multitude of saxophone history into four, in 1980, Adams and Dannie Richmond recorded the album Hand to Hand for the Soul Note label
David Sanborn is an American alto saxophonist. Though Sanborn has worked in genres, his solo recordings typically blend jazz with instrumental pop. He released his first solo album Taking Off in 1975, but has been playing the saxophone since before he was in high school, Sanborn has worked extensively as a session musician, notably on David Bowies Young Americans. Sanborn is often identified with radio-friendly smooth jazz, Sanborn has expressed a disinclination for both the genre itself and his association with it. In his three-and-a-half-decade career, Sanborn has released 24 albums, won six Grammy Awards and has had eight gold albums and he continues to be one of the most highly active musicians of his genre. Sanborn was born in Tampa and grew up in Kirkwood and he suffered from polio for eight years in his youth, and began playing the saxophone on a physicians advice to strengthen his weakened chest muscles and improve his breathing. Alto saxophonist Hank Crawford, at the time a member of Ray Charless band, was an early, Sanborn initially attended college at Northwestern University, studying music.
However, he transferred to the University of Iowa where he played and studied with saxophonist J. R. Monterose, Sanborn performed with blues musicians Albert King and Little Milton at the age of 14. He continued playing blues when he joined Paul Butterfields band in 1967, Sanborn recorded on four Butterfield albums as a horn section member and soloist from 1967 to 1971. In 1985 Sanborn and Al Jarreau played two concerts at Chastain Park in Atlanta. Although Sanborn is most associated with jazz, he studied free jazz in his youth with saxophonists Roscoe Mitchell. In 1993, he revisited this genre when he appeared on Tim Bernes Diminutive Mysteries, sanborns album Another Hand featured leading avant garde musicians. Sanborn has won awards including Grammy Awards for Voyeur, Double Vision. His solo recordings have featured the bassist/multi-instrumentalist and producer Marcus Miller. He has done some film scoring for films such as Lethal Weapon, the album, produced by Hal Willner, featured musicians from outside the smooth jazz scene, such as Charlie Haden, Jack DeJohnette, Bill Frisell, and Marc Ribot.
His more recent albums include Closer, in 1994 Sanborn appeared in A Celebration, The Music of Pete Townshend and The Who, known as Daltrey Sings Townshend. This was a concert at Carnegie Hall produced by Roger Daltrey of English rock band The Who in celebration of his fiftieth birthday. In 1994 a CD and a VHS video were issued, in 1995 he performed in The Wizard of Oz in Concert, Dreams Come True a musical performance of the popular story at Lincoln Center to benefit the Childrens Defense Fund
Jazz is a music genre that originated amongst African Americans in New Orleans, United States, in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, and developed from roots in Blues and Ragtime. Since the 1920s jazz age, jazz has become recognized as a form of musical expression. Jazz is characterized by swing and blue notes and response vocals, Jazz has roots in West African cultural and musical expression, and in African-American music traditions including blues and ragtime, as well as European military band music. Although the foundation of jazz is deeply rooted within the Black experience of the United States, different cultures have contributed their own experience, intellectuals around the world have hailed jazz as one of Americas original art forms. As jazz spread around the world, it drew on different national and local musical cultures, New Orleans jazz began in the early 1910s, combining earlier brass-band marches, French quadrilles, biguine and blues with collective polyphonic improvisation.
In the 1930s, heavily arranged dance-oriented swing big bands, Kansas City jazz, bebop emerged in the 1940s, shifting jazz from danceable popular music toward a more challenging musicians music which was played at faster tempos and used more chord-based improvisation. Cool jazz developed in the end of the 1940s, introducing calmer, smoother sounds and long, modal jazz developed in the late 1950s, using the mode, or musical scale, as the basis of musical structure and improvisation. Jazz-rock fusion appeared in the late 1960s and early 1970s, combining jazz improvisation with rock rhythms, electric instruments. In the early 1980s, a form of jazz fusion called smooth jazz became successful. Other styles and genres abound in the 2000s, such as Latin, the question of the origin of the word jazz has resulted in considerable research, and its history is well documented. It is believed to be related to jasm, a term dating back to 1860 meaning pep. The use of the word in a context was documented as early as 1915 in the Chicago Daily Tribune.
Its first documented use in a context in New Orleans was in a November 14,1916 Times-Picayune article about jas bands. In an interview with NPR, musician Eubie Blake offered his recollections of the slang connotations of the term, When Broadway picked it up. That was dirty, and if you knew what it was, the American Dialect Society named it the Word of the Twentieth Century. Jazz has proved to be difficult to define, since it encompasses such a wide range of music spanning a period of over 100 years. Attempts have been made to define jazz from the perspective of other musical traditions, in the opinion of Robert Christgau, most of us would say that inventing meaning while letting loose is the essence and promise of jazz. As Duke Ellington, one of jazzs most famous figures, although jazz is considered highly difficult to define, at least in part because it contains so many varied subgenres, improvisation is consistently regarded as being one of its key elements
Benjamin David Benny Goodman was an American jazz and swing musician and bandleader, known as the King of Swing. In the mid-1930s, Goodman led one of the most popular groups in America. Goodmans bands launched the careers of many jazz artists. During an era of segregation, he led one of the first well-known integrated jazz groups. Goodman performed nearly to the end of his life while exploring an interest in classical music, Goodman was born in Chicago, the ninth of twelve children of poor Jewish immigrants from the Russian Empire. His father, David Goodman, came to America in 1892 from Warsaw in partitioned Poland and his mother, came from Kaunas, Lithuania. His parents met in Baltimore and moved to Chicago before Benny was born, hundreds of houses are unconnected with the street sewer. Money was a constant problem in the family, Bennys father earned at most $20 per week. On Sundays, his father took the children to free concerts in Douglas Park. The following year Benny joined the club band at Jane Addamss Hull House.
By joining the band, he was entitled to two weeks at a summer camp about fifty miles from Chicago. It was the time he was able to get away from the bleak environment of his urban neighborhood. He received two years of instruction from the classically trained clarinetist Franz Schoepp and his early influences were New Orleans jazz clarinetists working in Chicago, notably Johnny Dodds, Leon Roppolo and Jimmie Noone. Goodman learned quickly, becoming a player at an early age. Goodman made his debut in 1921 at the Central Park Theater on Chicagos West Side. He entered Harrison High School in Chicago in 1922 and he joined the musicians’ union in 1923 and by the age of 14 was in a band featuring Bix Beiderbecke. Goodman attended Lewis Institute in 1924 as a sophomore, while playing the clarinet in a dance hall band. When Goodman was 16, he joined one of Chicagos top bands, when he was 17, his father was killed by a passing car after stepping off a streetcar