Opernhaus Wuppertal is a German theatre in Wuppertal, North Rhine-Westphalia. It houses performances of operas, but plays, run by the municipal Wuppertaler Bühnen; the house is the venue for dance performances by the Tanztheater Wuppertal company created by Pina Bausch. The house was built in 1905 on a design by Carl Moritz as the Stadttheater Barmen, it was rebuilt after being damaged during World War II, again restored over the period 2006-2009. The theatre is located in the center of Wuppertal-Barmen, served by the Wuppertal Suspension Railway and Wuppertal-Barmen station; the original building was the Stadttheater Barmen, an all-purpose theatre for opera and plays built in 1905 before Barmen was merged into Wuppertal. It was designed by the architect Carl Moritz in a style drawing on neo-Baroque and Jugendstil, it was completed in 1907. The theatre was damaged during a World War II air raid on the night of 30 May 1943, which destroyed the hall and damaged the stage area, it was rebuilt from 1954 to 1956, but with restricted Jugendstil elements which the leader of the project termed "schwerverdauliche Formensprache".
The house reopened on 14 October 1956, one of the first war-damaged theatres in Germany to resume operations, with a gala performance of Paul Hindemith's Mathis der Maler. The theatre was extended in the 1970s and renovated from 2006 to 2009. Since 1989, the building has been protected as an architectural monument. World premieres have included Yvonne, Prinzessin von Burgund by Boris Blacher, after the play by Witold Gombrowicz, which debuted on 15 September 1973. Die fünf Minuten des Isaak Babel by Volker David Kirchner, subtitled A Scenic Requiem, premiered on 19 April 1980, conducted by Hanns-Martin Schneidt and staged by Friedrich Meyer-Oertel; the first complete performance of Kyberiade, an opera by Krzysztof Meyer based on The Cyberiad stories by Stanisław Lem, was staged on 11 May 1986. Kirchner's Erinys, Threnos in two parts after the Oresteia by Aeschylos was first performed on 15 April 1990. A commissioned opera, Gormenghast by Irmin Schmidt on a libretto by Duncan Fallowell, was first performed on 15 November 1998.
The Opernhaus Wuppertal is known for revivals of operas that are not part of the standard repertoire, or have not been for a long time. Monteverdi's Il ritorno d'Ulisse in patria was performed in 1959 in a version by Ernst Krenek. E. T. A. Hoffmann's Undine was revived in 1970. In 1981 Meyer-Oertel staged Wagner early Die Feen, in 1994 Schubert's Fierrabras, conducted by Peter Gülke. In the 21st century, Haydn's L'incontro improvviso was performed in a German translation under the title Unverhofft in Kairo on 8 January 2011, Wolfgang Fortner's Bluthochzeit was revived in 2013. Fritz Lehmann was Generalmusikdirektor from 1938 to 1947, János Kulka from 1964 to 1975, Hanns-Martin Schneidt from 1975 to 1985. Peter Gülke from 1986 to 1996 and George Hanson from 1998 to 2004. Since 2016, the current Generalmusikdirektorin of the company is Julia Jones. Hans Schmidt-Isserstedt began his career as a repetiteur in 1923. Horst Stein was repetiteur from 1947 to 1951. Other conductors have included Imre Pallo.
Andreas Meyer-Hanno was opera director from 1959 to 1964, Friedrich Meyer-Oertel from 1979 to 1996. Ingrid Bjoner, who had made her stage debut in 1957 as Donna Anna in Mozart's Don Giovanni with the Norwegian National Opera, performed the part the same year in Wuppertal. Ticho Parly performed in 1962 the part of Mephisto in Busoni's Doktor Faust and the title role in Britten's Peter Grimes. Peter Hofmann sang his first Siegmund in Wagner's Die Walküre in 1974, the role which he repeated in Patrice Chéreau's historic centennial production of Der Ring des Nibelungen at the 1976 Bayreuth Festival. Fritz Lehmann János Kulka Hanns-Martin Schneidt Peter Gülke George Hanson Toshiyuki Kamioka Julia Jones The opera house is the home base for the dance company Tanztheater Wuppertal, founded by Pina Bausch. Performances have included 1975's Frühlingsopfer on a stage covered with soil, a production, revived many times. Notes Sources Official website Image Architektur-Bildarchiv
Theater Duisburg is located in Duisburg, Germany and is one of two opera houses where performances are given by the Deutsche Oper am Rhein. The other is the Opernhaus Düsseldorf in Düsseldorf; the original theatre was built in 1912, destroyed during the Second World War, rebuilt in 1950. Due to the refurbishment of the Düsseldorf opera house, the 50th Anniversary celebration of the company's resumption after the war will take place on 28 September 2006 in Duisburg with a performance of Richard Strauss' Elektra, the company's premiere of, presented 29 September 1956. List of opera houses Theatre website Deutsche Oper am Rhein website
The Teatro Colón is the main opera house in Buenos Aires, Argentina. It is considered one of the ten best opera houses in the world by National Geographic, is acoustically considered to be amongst the five best concert venues in the world; the present Colón replaced an original theatre which opened in 1857. Towards the end of the century it became clear that a new theatre was needed and, after a 20-year process, the present theatre opened on 25 May 1908, with Giuseppe Verdi's Aïda; the Teatro Colón was visited by the foremost singers and opera companies of the time, who would sometimes go on to other cities including Montevideo, Rio de Janeiro and São Paulo. After this period of huge international success, the theatre's decline became clear and plans were made for massive renovations. After an initial start of works to restore the landmark in 2005, the theatre was closed for refurbishment from October 2006 to May 2010, it re-opened on 24 May 2010, with a programme for the 2010 season. The first Teatro Colón was designed by Charles Pellegrini, proved to be a successful venue for over 30 years, with 2,500 seats with the inclusion of a separate gallery reserved only for people who were in mourning.
The construction started in 1856 and completed in 1857. This was celebrated with an opening on April 27, 1857, with Verdi's La traviata, just four years after its Italian premiere; the production starred Sofia Vera Lorini as Enrico Tamberlik as Alfredo. This theater was closed on September 13th 1888 to step aside for a new improved building, opened twenty years on Libertad street, overlooking Plaza Lavalle. In that period of time, the 1890 crisis and its effects were the cause for the delay in the completion of this second theater. Before the construction of the current Teatro Colón, opera performances were given in several theatres, of which the first Teatro Colón and the Teatro Opera were the most important; the principal company that performed at the Teatro Opera moved to the Teatro Colón in 1908. However, major companies performed at the Teatro Politeama and the Teatro Coliseo which opened in 1907; the theatre is bounded by the wide 9 de Julio Avenue, Libertad Street, Arturo Toscanini Street, Tucumán Street.
It is in the heart of the city on a site once occupied by Ferrocarril Oeste's Plaza Parque station. The auditorium is horseshoe-shaped, has 2,487 seats, standing room for 1,000 and a stage, 20 m wide, 15 m high and 20 m deep; the low-rise building has 6 floors above ground and 3 below ground, 7 elevators with a facade of applied masonry. It has a large central chandelier with 700 light bulbs; the original architect was the Italian Francesco Tamburini. The original auditorium "had eight boxes with metal grilles and a separate entrance, so that those in mourning could still attend performances, but remain dignifiedly sequestered from public view"; the Colon's acoustics are considered to be so good as to place it in the top five performance venues in the world. Luciano Pavarotti held a similar opinion; the present theatre, the second with that name, opened on 25 May 1908, after twenty years under construction, was inaugurated with Aida by the Italian company directed by Luigi Mancinelli and tenor Amedeo Bassi, soprano Lucia Crestani.
The second presentation was Thomas' Hamlet with the baritone Titta Ruffo During the inaugural season seventeen operas were performed with famous stars such as Ruffo, Feodor Chaliapin in Boito's Mefistofele, Antonio Paoli in Verdi's Otello. The cornerstone of the present Teatro Colón was laid in 1889 under the direction of architect Francesco Tamburini and his pupil, Vittorio Meano, who designed a theatre in the Italian style on a scale and with amenities which matched those in Europe. However, delays followed due to financial difficulties, arguments regarding the location, the death of Tamburini in 1891, the murder of Meano in 1904 and the death of Angelo Ferrari, an Italian businessman, financing the new theatre; the building was completed in 1908 under the direction of the Belgian architect Julio Dormal who made some changes in the structure and left his mark in the French style of the decoration. The bas-reliefs and busts on the facade are the work of sculptor Luigi Trinchero; the theatre's opening on 25 May, the Día de la Patria in Argentina, featured a performance of Verdi's Aida and it became a world-famous operatic venue rivaling La Scala and the Metropolitan Opera in attracting most of the world's best opera singers and conductors.
The Teatro was bombed by anarchists in 1910. The bomb landed in the middle of the orchestra. Clemenceau describes the attack. A senior official told me; the wounded were carried off as best as possible, the room was emptied by the cries of fury, the material damage repaired during the day which followed, not a woman of society missed the representation of the morrow. It is a fine trait of character that honors the female element of the Argentine nation. I am not quite sure that in Paris the hall would have been full in such cases."Ballet stars performed at the Colón alongside Argentine dancers and classical instrumentalists. This included Lida Martinoli; when she retired from dancing, Martinoli began to choreograph. She died in Santa Fe; the tragic 1971 aviation death of two of the best known of these, Norma Fontenla and José Neglia, was commemorated with a monument in neighbouring Lavalle Square. With excellent acoustics and moder
The Paris Opera is the primary opera and ballet company of France. It was founded in 1669 by Louis XIV as the Académie d'Opéra, shortly thereafter was placed under the leadership of Jean-Baptiste Lully and renamed the Académie Royale de Musique, but continued to be known more as the Opéra. Classical ballet as it is known today arose within the Paris Opera as the Paris Opera Ballet and has remained an integral and important part of the company. Called the Opéra National de Paris, it produces operas at its modern 2700-seat theatre Opéra Bastille which opened in 1989, ballets and some classical operas at the older 1970-seat Palais Garnier which opened in 1875. Small scale and contemporary works are staged in the 500-seat Amphitheatre under the Opéra Bastille; the company's annual budget is in the order of 200 million euros, of which 100 million come from the French state and 70 million from box office receipts. With this money, the company runs the two houses and supports a large permanent staff, which includes the orchestra of 170, a chorus of 110 and the corps de ballet of 150.
Each year, the Opéra presents about 380 performances of opera and other concerts, to a total audience of about 800,000 people, a good average seat occupancy rate of 94%. In the 2012/13 season, the Opéra presented 18 opera titles, 13 ballets, 5 symphonic concerts and two vocal recitals, plus 15 other programmes; the company's training bodies are active, with 7 concerts from the Atelier Lyrique and 4 programmes from the École de Danse. The poet Pierre Perrin began thinking and writing about the possibility of French opera in 1655, more than a decade before the official founding of the Paris Opera as an institution, he believed that the prevailing opinion of the time that the French language was fundamentally unmusical was incorrect. Seventeenth-century France offered Perrin two types of organization for realizing his vision: a royal academy or a public theater. In 1666 he proposed to the minister Colbert that "the king decree'the establishment of an Academy of Poetry and Music' whose goal would be to synthesize the French language and French music into an new lyric form."Even though Perrin's original concept was of an academy devoted to discussions of French opera, the king's intention was in fact a unique hybrid of royal academy and public theatre, with an emphasis on the latter as an institution for performance.
On 28 June 1669, Louis XIV signed the Privilège accordé au Sieur Perrin pour l'établissement d'une Académie d'Opéra en musique, & Vers François. The wording of the privilège, based in part on Perrin's own writings, gave him the exclusive right for 12 years to found anywhere in France academies of opera dedicated to the performance of opera in French, he was free to set the price of tickets. No one was to have the right of free entry including members of the royal court, no one else could set up a similar institution. Although it was to be a public theatre, it retained its status as royal academy in which the authority of the king as the primary stakeholder was decisive; the monopoly intended to protect the enterprise from competition during its formative phase, was renewed for subsequent recipients of the privilege up to the early French Revolution. As Victoria Johnson points out, "the Opera was an organization by nature so luxurious and expensive in its productions that its survival depended on financial protection and privilege."Perrin converted the Bouteille tennis court, located on the Rue des Fossés de Nesles, into a rectangular facility with provisions for stage machinery and scenery changes and a capacity of about 1200 spectators.
His first opera Pomone with music by Robert Cambert opened on 3 March 1671 and ran for 146 performances. A second work, Les peines et les plaisirs de l'amour, with a libretto by Gabriel Gilbert and music by Cambert, was performed in 1672. Despite this early success and two other associates did not hesitate to swindle Perrin, imprisoned for debt and forced to concede his privilege on 13 March 1672 to the surintendant of the king's music Jean-Baptiste Lully; the institution was renamed the Académie Royale de Musique and came to be known in France as the Opéra. Within one month Lully had convinced the king to expand the privilege by restricting the French and Italian comedians to using two singers rather than six, six instrumentalists, rather than twelve; because of legal difficulties Lully could not use the Salle de la Bouteille, a new theatre was built by Carlo Vigarani at the Bel-Air tennis court on the Rue de Vaugirard. Lully and his successors bitterly negotiated the concession of the privilege, in whole or in part, from the entrepreneurs in the provinces: in 1684 Pierre Gautier bought the authorisation to open a music academy in Marseille the towns of Lyon, Rouen and Bordeaux followed suit in the following years.
During Lully's tenure, the only works performed were his own. The first productions were the pastorale Les fêtes de l'Amour et de Bacchus and his first tragedie lyrique called Cadmus et Hermione. After Molière's death in 1673, his troupe merged with the players at the Théâtre du Marais to form the Théâtre Guénégaud, no longer needed the theatre built by Richelieu at his residence the Palais-Royal, near the Louvre. (In 1680 the troupe at the Guénégaud merged again with the players from the Hôtel de Bourgogne forming the Comédie-Fr
Santa Fe Opera
Santa Fe Opera is an American opera company, located 7 miles north of Santa Fe, New Mexico. After creating the Opera Association of New Mexico in 1956, its founding director, John Crosby, oversaw the building of the first opera house on a newly acquired former guest ranch of 199 acres; the company has presented operas each summer festival season since July 1957, is internationally known for introducing new operas as well as for its productions of the standard operatic repertoire. Since its inception, Santa Fe Opera has staged 43 American premieres and 15 world premieres, as of 2017. John Crosby, a New York-based conductor, founded the company in 1956 with the financial support of his parents, who helped in the acquisition of the land and the building of the first opera house. One goal was to give American singers the opportunity to learn and perform new roles while having ample time for rehearsal and preparation in the context of a summer festival situation with the presentation of five operas in repertory.
Its first season began on 3 July 1957 with a performance of Puccini's Madama Butterfly. Crosby remained as general director until 2000, the longest general directorship in US opera history. Richard Gaddes served as the company's general director from 2000 through 2008. In November 2007, SFO named Charles MacKay the company's third general director, effective 1 October 2008. In August 2017, the company announced the intention of MacKay to stand down as its general director after the 2018 season. In addition to being the opera company's founding general director, Crosby had served as its de facto first principal conductor. Alan Gilbert became the company's first music director from 2003 to 2006. Kenneth Montgomery, a regular guest conductor starting in 1982, served as interim music director for the 2007 season. In July 2007, Edo de Waart was named as chief conductor, effective 1 October 2007, with an initial contract was of four years, he was the first conductor to hold that title with the company However, in November 2008, the company announced that de Waart stood down from the post before the end of his contract, with de Waart citing health and family reasons for this decision.
In May 2010, the company announced the appointment of Frédéric Chaslin as the company's next chief conductor, effective 1 October 2010, with an initial contract of three years. However, in August 2012, Chaslin resigned as the Opera's chief conductor. In April 2013, the company announced the appointments of Harry Bicket as its next chief conductor, effective 1 October 2013, of Montgomery as conductor laureate for the 2013 season. In November 2016, the company announced the extension of Bicket's contract as chief conductor through 30 September 2020. In February 2018, the company announced the appointments of Robert K. Meya as its next general director and of Alexander Neef as its first-ever artistic director, the elevation of Harry Bicket from chief conductor of the company to its music director, with three appointments effective as of 1 October 2018. In October 2018, the company announced the extension of Bicket's contract as music director through the 2023 season. From the beginning, certain characteristics of what was to become a typical season emerged.
It runs annually from late June or the beginning of July to the third week of August, with five operas presented in rotating repertory. From the time of Crosby's inception of the company, two popular operas opened the season. An American premiere was in the program and these included works commissioned by the company. A lifelong lover of the operas of Richard Strauss, Crosby scheduled one and presented many American premieres of the composer’s work, an example being the 1964 U. S. premiere of the 1938 Daphne. The fifth opera was a performed work; the same philosophy continues to the present day. For modern works, US premiere productions of contemporary operas include Thomas Adès' The Tempest, Tan Dun's Tea: A Mirror of Soul, Kaija Saariaho's Adriana Mater, the July 2009 world premiere of The Letter, by composer Paul Moravec and librettist Terry Teachout, the first full production of Lewis Spratlan's Life Is a Dream in July 2010. World premieres have included Jennifer Higdon's Cold Mountain, and Mason Bates' and Mark Campbell's The evolution of Steve Jobs.
General Directors John Crosby Richard Gaddes Charles MacKay Robert Meya Artistic Directors Alexander Neef Conductors in leadership positions John Crosby Alan Gilbert Kenneth Montgomery Edo de Waart Frédéric Chaslin Kenneth Montgomery Harry Bicket In his first season, Crosby created the Apprentice Singer Program, whereby eight young people were to be given living expenses and paid per performance to be members of the chorus and to cover major roles. Unusual for its time in America in the 1950s, the Apprentice Singers Program helped young singers to make the transition from academic to professional life. To date, over 1,500 aspiring opera singers have participated; as Crosby noted: "In this country young artists have to do something, impossible – gain experience. But with our plan, these young people will be scheduled in small roles and will have the opportunity of working with their older brothers and sisters who have won their spurs. To get such experience now, a young artist has to go to Europe."The Apprentice Program for Technicians was added in 1965.
The program has for
The Gran Teatre del Liceu, or Liceu in Catalan, is an opera house on La Rambla in Barcelona, Spain. The Liceu opened on 4 April 1847; the adjacent Liceu metro station is named for the theatre. In 1837, the Liceo Filodramático de Montesión was founded in Barcelona to promote musical education and organize scenic representations of opera performed by Liceo students. A theater was built in the convent building — named Teatro de Montesión or Teatro del Liceo de Montesión — and plays and operas performed: the first was Vicenzo Bellini's Norma; the repertoire was Italian, the most performed composers being Donizetti and Mercadante as well as Bellini and Rossini. The Barcelona premiere of Hérold's Zampa was held here. In 1838 the society changed its name to Liceo Dramático Filarmónico de S. M. la Reina Isabel II. Lack of space, as well as pressures brought to bear by a group of nuns, motivated the Liceu to leave its headquarters in 1844; the last theatre performance was on 8 September. The Trinitarian convent building located in the centre of the town at la Rambla was purchased.
The managers of the Liceu entrusted Joaquim de Gispert d'Anglí with a project to make the construction of the new building viable. Two different societies were created: a "building society" and an "auxiliary building society". Shareholders of the building society obtained the right of use in perpetuity of some theatre boxes and seats in exchange for their economic contributions; those of the second society contributed the rest of the money necessary in exchange for property of other spaces in the building including some shops and a private club called the Círculo del Liceo. In contrast with many other European cities, where the monarchy took on the responsibility of the building and upkeep of opera houses, the Liceu was funded by private shareholders of what would become the Societat del Gran Teatre del Liceu, organized in a similar way to a trading company or societat; this is reflected in the building's architecture. The queen did not contribute to the construction, the name of the society was changed to Liceo Filarmónico Dramático, deleting the queen's name from it.
Miquel Garriga i Roca was the architect contracted. The Theatre was inaugurated on 4 April 1847; the inauguration presented a mixed program including the premieres of José Melchior Gomis' musical ouverture, a historical play Don Fernando de Antequera by Ventura de la Vega, the ballet La rondeña by Josep Jurch, a cantata Il regio himene with music by the musical director of the theatre Marià Obiols. The first complete opera, Donizetti's Anna Bolena on 17 April. At this point Liceu was the biggest opera house in Europe with 3,500 seats. Other operas performed in the Liceu during the first year were: I due Foscari, Il bravo, Parisina d'Este, Giovanna d'Arco, Ernani, Linda di Chamounix and Il barbiere di Siviglia; the building was damaged by fire on 9 April 1861, but it was rebuilt by the architect Josep Oriol Mestres and opened on 20 April 1862, performing Bellini's I puritani. From the old building only the façade, the entrance hall and the foyer remained. On 7 November 1893, on the opening night of the season and during the second act of the opera Guillaume Tell by Rossini, two Orsini bombs were thrown into the stalls of the opera house.
Only one of the bombs exploded. The attack was the work of the anarchist Santiago Salvador and it shocked Barcelona, becoming a symbol of the turbulent social unrest of the time; the Liceu reopened its doors on 18 January 1894, but the seats occupied by those killed by the bombs were not used for a number of years. The second bomb was put on display in the Van Gogh Museum in 2007 during an exhibit on Barcelona around 1900. In 1909 the auditorium ornamentation was renewed. Spanish neutrality during World War I allowed the Catalan textile industry to amass enormous wealth through supplying the warring parties; the 1920s were prosperous years and the Liceu became established as a leading opera house welcoming better singers, the orchestra leaders of the time and companies such as Sergei Diaghilev's Ballets Russes. When the Second Spanish Republic was proclaimed in 1931 political instability meant that the Liceu suffered a severe financial crisis, only overcome though subsidies from Barcelona City Council and the government of Catalonia.
During the Spanish Civil War the Liceu was nationalized and took the name the Teatre del Liceu – Teatre Nacional de Catalunya. The opera seasons were suspended. After the war it was returned to its original owners in 1939. From 1940 to the 1960s the seasons were high quality ones; the year 1955, thanks to the creation of a special board, saw a historic event when for the first time since its foundation the Bayreuth Festival was staged away from its normal venue. Performances of Parsifal, Tristan und Isolde and Die Walküre with innovative stage sets by Wieland Wagner were enthusiastically received. In the 1970s an economic crisis affected the theatre and the based organization was not able to afford the increasing budgets of modern opera productions and general quality declined; the death of Joan Antoni Pàmias in 19
Renato Guttuso was an Italian painter. His best-known works include Flight from Crucifixion and La Vucciria. Guttuso designed for the theatre and did illustrations for books; those for Elizabeth David’s Italian Food, introduced him to many in the English-speaking world. A fierce anti-Fascist, "he developed out of Expressionism and the harsh light of his native land to paint landscapes and social commentary." He was born in Bagheria, near Palermo in Sicily, but from 1937 lived and worked in Rome. In his youth he joined the Gruppo universitario fascista, but he became an anti-fascist and atheist, he joined the banned Italian Communist Party in 1940 and left Rome to become an active participant in the partisan struggle from 1943. He was an opponent to the Mafia. In 1972 Guttuso was awarded the Lenin Peace Prize. In 1976 he was elected to the Italian Senate as a PCI representative for the Sicilian constituency of Sciacca. Renato Guttuso's father, Gioacchino Guttuso, was amateur watercolourist. There are a number of portraits of Gioacchino in the collection donated to the mayor of Bagheria.
Renato Guttuso began dating his works at the age of thirteen. Guttuso lived close to a house amongst the Valguarnera villas and Palagonia, which he would soon represent in paintings inspired by the cliffs of Aspra. In Palermo and in Bagheria Guttuso observed the dereliction of the 18th-century villas of the nobility, abandoned to decay as a consequence of political infighting within the municipal chambers. At the same time, his family suffered a period of economic stress because of the hostility shown by Fascists and clergy towards his father. Guttuso went to Palermo for high school studies, to the University, where his development was modelled on the European figurative trends of the day, from Courbet to Van Gogh and to Picasso. In the early part of the 1930s, Guttuso was a frequent visitor to the studio of one of the most prolific futuristic painters, Pippo Rizzo, his works opened doors for him to further travel throughout Europe. As Guttuso's expressionism became stronger he painted more scenes of nature in flower, lemon trees, saracen olive trees, all in an environment suspended between myth and island insularity, so that, when sent to the Quadriennale expo of 1931, he joined a collective of six Sicilian painters, acclaimed by the critic Franco Grasso as a "disclosure, a Sicilian affirmation".
Back in Palermo Guttuso opened a studio in Pisani street and together with the painter Lia Pasqualino and the sculptors Barbera and Nino Franchina, formed the Gruppo dei Quattro. Guttuso became a member of an artistic movement named "Corrente"; the movement stood for free and open attitudes, in opposition to the official culture, chose a strong anti-fascist position in thematic choices through the years of the Spanish Civil War. In Milan, where he stayed for three years, Guttoso was part of Corrente di Vita. Here he developed his "social" art, his moral and political commitment being visible in paintings such as Fucilazione in Campagna, dedicated to the writer García Lorca, Escape from Etna. Moving to Rome, Guttuso opened a study in Via Margutta where, because of his exuberance, his friend Marino Mazzacurati nicknamed him "Unbridled", he lived close by to significant artists of the time: Mario Mafai, Corrado Cagli, Antonello Trombadori, keeping in contact with the group from Milan of Giacomo Manzù and Aligi Sassu.
"Crocifissione" is the painting. At the time it was derided by the clergy, who labelled Guttuso a "pictor diabolicus"; the fascists denounced it for depicting the horrors of war under a religious cover. Guttuso wrote in his diary: "it is the symbol of all those who endure insults, torture for their ideas". Guttuso spoke publicly about "The Crocifissione", saying "this is a time of war. I wish to paint the torment of Christ as a contemporary scene... as a symbol of all those who, because of their ideas, endure outrage and torment". He did not stop working during the years of World War II, his work ranging from landscape glimpses of the Gulf of Palermo to a collection of drawings entitled Massacri, that clandestinely denounced slaughters such as the Fosse Ardeatine. In 1945 Guttuso, along with artists Birolli, Marchiori and others, founded the "Fronte Nuovo delle Arti' as a vessel for the promotion of the work of those artists, bound by fascist rule. During this time, he met and befriended Pablo Picasso.
Their friendship would last until Picasso's death in 1973. Socio-political themes dominated Guttuso's work during this area, depicting the day-to-day lives of peasants and blue-collar workers. In 1950, he was given the World Council of Peace Prize in Warsaw. Guttuso received the Lenin Piece Prize in 1972. In 1938 Guttuso met Mimise Dotti, whom he married in 1956. Poet Pablo Neruda was a witness at their wedding. Mimise would become his model. After the liberation of Italy from Nazi Germans he finished "Muratori in riposo", an artwork in china ink and watercolour of 1945, a symbol of rebirth of which Pier Paolo Pasolini wrote in 1962: In the following years Guttuso painted "Peasant Who Hoes" and "Peasants of Sicily" in which pictorial language became clear and free of all superfluous elements. Guttuso wrote that those were preparatory sketches for "Occupation of uncultivated lands of Sicily", exhibited in the Venice Biennale in 1950, asserting: I believe that these are legacies to my deeper and remote inspiration.
To my chi