Bantu Stephen Biko was a South African anti-apartheid activist. Ideologically an African nationalist and African socialist, he was at the forefront of a grassroots anti-apartheid campaign known as the Black Consciousness Movement during the late 1960s and 1970s, his ideas were articulated in a series of articles published under the pseudonym Frank Talk. Raised in a poor Xhosa family, Biko grew up in Ginsberg township in the Eastern Cape. In 1966, he began studying medicine at the University of Natal, where he joined the National Union of South African Students. Opposed to the apartheid system of racial segregation and white-minority rule in South Africa, Biko was frustrated that NUSAS and other anti-apartheid groups were dominated by white liberals, rather than by the blacks who were most affected by apartheid, he believed that when well-intentioned, white liberals failed to comprehend the black experience and acted in a paternalistic manner. He developed the view that to avoid white domination, black people had to organise independently, to this end he became a leading figure in the creation of the South African Students' Organisation in 1968.
Membership was open only to "blacks", a term that Biko used in reference not just to Bantu-speaking Africans but to Coloureds and Indians. He was careful to keep his movement independent of white liberals, but opposed anti-white racism and had various white friends and lovers; the white-minority National Party government were supportive, seeing SASO's creation as a victory for apartheid's ethos of racial separatism. Influenced by Frantz Fanon and the African-American Black Power movement and his compatriots developed Black Consciousness as SASO's official ideology; the movement campaigned for an end to apartheid and the transition of South Africa toward universal suffrage and a socialist economy. It organised Black Community Programmes and focused on the psychological empowerment of black people. Biko believed that black people needed to rid themselves of any sense of racial inferiority, an idea he expressed by popularizing the slogan "black is beautiful". In 1972, he was involved in founding the Black People's Convention to promote Black Consciousness ideas among the wider population.
The government came to see Biko as a subversive threat and placed him under a banning order in 1973 restricting his activities. He remained politically active, helping organise BCPs such as a healthcare centre and a crèche in the Ginsberg area. During his ban he received repeated anonymous threats, was detained by state security services on several occasions. Following his arrest in August 1977, Biko was beaten by state security officers, resulting in his death. Over 20,000 people attended his funeral. Biko's fame spread posthumously, he became the subject of numerous songs and works of art, while a 1978 biography by his friend Donald Woods formed the basis for the 1987 film Cry Freedom. During Biko's life, the government alleged that he hated whites, various anti-apartheid activists accused him of sexism, African racial nationalists criticised his united front with Coloureds and Indians. Nonetheless, Biko became one of the earliest icons of the movement against apartheid, is regarded as a political martyr and the "Father of Black Consciousness".
His political legacy remains a matter of contention. Bantu Stephen Biko was born on 18 December 1946, at his grandmother's house in Tarkastad, Eastern Cape; the third child of Mzingaye Mathew Biko and Alice'Mamcete' Biko, he had an older sister, Bukelwa, an older brother, a younger sister, Nobandile. His parents had married in Whittlesea. Mzingaye was transferred to Queenstown, Port Elizabeth, Fort Cox, King William's Town, where he and Alice settled in Ginsberg township; this was a settlement of around 800 families, with every four families sharing a water supply and toilet. Both Bantu African and Coloured people lived in the township, where Xhosa and English were all spoken. After resigning from the police force, Mzingaye worked as a clerk in the King William's Town Native Affairs Office, while studying for a law degree by correspondence from the University of South Africa. Alice was employed first in domestic work for local white households as a cook at Grey Hospital in King William's Town.
According to his sister, it was this observation of his mother's difficult working conditions that resulted in Biko's earliest politicisation. Biko's given name "Bantu" means "people"; as a child he was nicknamed "Goofy" and "Xwaku-Xwaku", the latter a reference to his unkempt appearance. He was raised in his family's Anglican Christian faith. In 1950, when Biko was four, his father fell ill, was hospitalised in St. Matthew's Hospital and died, making the family dependent on his mother's income. Biko spent two years at St. Andrews Primary School and four at Charles Morgan Higher Primary School, both in Ginsberg. Regarded as a intelligent pupil, he was allowed to skip a year. In 1963 he transferred to the Forbes Grant Secondary School in the township. Biko topped the class in his exams. In 1964 the Ginsberg community offered him a bursary to join his brother Khaya as a student at Lovedale, a prestigious boarding school in Alice, Eastern Cape. Within three months of Steve's arrival, Khaya was accused of having connections to Poqo, the armed wing of the Pan Africanist Congress, an African nationalist group which the government had banned.
Both Khaya and Steve were interrogated by the police.
The Xhosa Wars were a series of nine wars or flare-ups between the Xhosa Kingdom and European settlers in what is now the Eastern Cape in South Africa. These events were the longest-running military action in the history of African colonialism; the reality of the conflicts between the Europeans and Xhosa involves a balance of tension. At times, tensions existed between the various Europeans in the Cape region, tensions between Empire administration and colonial governments, tensions within the Xhosa Kingdom e.g. chiefs rivalling each other which led to Europeans taking advantage of that and meddle in the Xhosa kingdom politics. A perfect example of this is his uncle chief Ndlambe; the first European settlers in the Cape were the Dutch, who established a small supply station in 1652 at present-day Cape Town for their trading ships to stop for supplies en route to and from the East Indies. European settlement in and around Cape Town spread into the valleys. By the second half of the 18th century, predominantly trekboers, moved eastward up the coast and encountered the Xhosa in the region of the Great Fish River.
The Xhosa were established in the area and herded cattle. Competition for land ensued after the arrival of several groups of British settlers in 1820; the Europeans invaded using force when land they had seized restricted them from expanding their stock farming activities. The Dutch East India Company, responsible for what is referred to as "founding" several urban areas, like towns and cities in populated areas of the west of South Africa, continually changed the boundaries in the Cape Colony, establishing the Great Fish River as the eastern frontier in 1778; the First Xhosa War broke out in 1779 between the Xhosa. In December 1779 an armed clash started, the war resulted from allegations of cattle theft by Xhosa people; this led to Adreaan Van Jaarsveld capturing a large number of cattle from the Xhosa and claiming to have driven them out of Zuurveld by July 1781. The second war involved a larger territory, it started when the Gqunukhwebe clans of the Xhosa started to penetrate back into the Zuurveld, a district between the Great Fish and the Sundays Rivers.
Some frontiersmen, under Barend Lindeque, allied themselves with Ndlambe to repel the Gqunukhwebe. Panic ensued and farms were abandoned; the third war started in January 1799 with a Xhosa rebellion that General T. P. Vandeleur crushed. Discontented Khoikhoi revolted, joined with the Xhosa in the Zuurveld, started attacking white farms, reaching Oudtshoor by July 1799. Commandos from Graaf-Reinet and Swellendam started fighting in a string of clashes. Fearing general Khoi rising, the government made peace with the Xhosa and allowed them to stay in Zuurveld. In 1801 another Graaff-Reinet rebellion started forcing farm abandonments; the commandos could achieve no result, so in February 1803 a peace was arranged, leaving the Xhosas still in Zuurveld. The Fourth War was the first experienced under British rule; the Zuurveld acted as a buffer zone between the Cape Colony and Xhosa territory, empty of the Boers and British to the west and the Xhosa to the east. In 1811, the Xhosa occupied the area, flashpoint conflicts with the settlers followed.
A mixed force under Colonel John Graham that included British soldiers drove the Xhosa back beyond the Fish River in an effort that the first Governor of the Cape Colony, Lt-General John Cradock, characterized as involving no more bloodshed "than was necessary to impress on the minds of these savages a proper degree of terror and respect". About four thousand British immigrants subsequently settled on the Fish River. "Graham's Town" arose on the site of Colonel Graham's headquarters. The fifth frontier war known as the "War of Nxele" developed from an 1817 judgment by the Cape Colony government about stolen cattle and their restitution by the Xhosa. An issue of overcrowding brought on a civil war between the Gcaleka Xhosa. A Cape Colony-Ngqika defence treaty required military assistance to the Ngqika request; the Xhosa prophet-chief Maqana Nxele emerged at this time and promised “to turn bullets into water.” Under the command of Mdushane, AmaNdlambe's son, Maqana led a 10,000 Xhosa force attack on Grahamstown, held by 350 troops.
A Khoikhoi group led by Jan Boesak enabled the garrison to repulse Maqana, who suffered the loss of 1,000 Xhosa. Maqana was captured and imprisoned on Robben Island; the British pushed the Xhosa further east beyond the Fish River to the Keiskamma River. The resulting empty territory was designated as a buffer zone for loyal Africans' settlements, but was declared to be off limits for either side's military occupation, it came to be known as the "Ceded Territories". The Albany district was established in 1820, on the Cape's side of the Fish River, was populated with some 5,000 Britons; the Grahamstown battle site continues to be called "Egazini", a monument was erected there for the fallen Xhosa. During the Fifth Frontier War in 1818 after a two-decade long conflict, Chief Ngqika ka Mlawu and his uncle Ndlambe’s people clashed again in a battle called the Battle of Amalinde over several issues, including land ownership; the chief appointed his eldest son Maqoma and the renowned Jingqi to lead the fight that lasted from midday to the evening.
Ngqika was defeated, losing about 500 men during
British Kaffraria was a British colony/subordinate administrative entity in present-day South Africa, consisting of the districts now known as King Williams Town and East London. The British Kaffraria was established in 1847 when the British colonisers occupying South Africa invaded the Transkei region between the Keiskamma and Great Kei rivers and declared it a Crown Colony. Just 17 years it was incorporate into the Cape Colony after the Xhosa people suffered from a great famine following the Xhosa cattle-killing movement of 1856-7 and required relief from the colonisers’ government; the term Kaffraria stems from the now offensive word "Kaffir", used as a term for the Black African inhabitants of southern Africa. The word is derived from the Arabic kafir, translated into English as "disbeliever" or "non-believer", i.e. a non-Muslim or "one without religion". The word was applied to non Muslims in general, therefore to non-Muslim black peoples encountered along the Swahili coast by Arab traders.
The word "Kaffraria" came to refer to the Xhosa lands in what is now the Eastern Cape. The western Xhosa lands which fell under British rule came to be known as "British Kaffraria", while the independent Xhosa territory to the east was known as "Kaffraria", it was inhabited by the Ngqika people, the major branch of the Rharhabe Xhosa. A subsection of British Kaffraria was reconstituted by the Apartheid regime as the semi-independent homeland of Ciskei. Similar to elsewhere in southern Africa, the aboriginal inhabitants of the area were the Khoisan hunter gatherers and herders. Early on, these peoples were displaced by the Bantu expansion, when it crossed the Kei river from the north; the area was consolidated under the rule of a branch of the Xhosa people. The native Xhosa were ruled by the Ngqika Chiefs: Ngqika ka Rarabe, 1797 – 13 November 1829 Mgolombane Sandile, 13 November 1829 – 1 June 1878 The territory came under British rule in the 19th century. However, there was great disagreement on how it should be governed, with the Cape Colony being reluctant to take responsibility for its administration.
Its status therefore changed several times before it became part of the Cape Colony. The territory’s administration was handled by a British military officer, appointed as the chief commissioner; each administrative chief was assisted by assistant commissioners who acted as magistrates and arbitrators among the several Xhosa tribes. The authority of the Xhosa chiefs was recognised to a limited degree since their decisions were subject to review by the colonial administration. Any decisions made by the Xhosa chiefs could be reversed if they were contrary to the British colonisers’ agenda; the Xhosa Chiefs had to acknowledge the Queen of England and recognise their own subordination to the appointed British military commander. British commander Harry Smith arrived in the Cape Of Good Hope in 1828 to lead the British army, he led a British force in the Sixth Xhosa War of 1834-36. He returned from India in 1847 to become the governor of the Cape Colony, he attempted to unseat Chief Sandile of the Ngqika people in British Kaffraria when the Mlanjeni War erupted in 1850.
The war lasted until 1853 after Smith was recalled. After the 6th Frontier War, on 10 May 1835, the area was seized by the British Governor Sir Benjamin d'Urban, annexed to the Cape Colony as Queen Adelaide Province, it was established when the Xhosa people were driven across the Kei River and a new buffer zone was established with white settlers maintaining the new order. The province was divided into small chiefdoms that were controlled by magistrates who lived in the various chiefs’ Great Places. A location for the new province's government was selected, named King William's Town; the province was declared to be for the settlement of loyal African tribes, those rebel tribes who agreed to replace their leadership, the Fengu, who had arrived fleeing from the Zulu armies and had been living under Xhosa subjection. Magistrates were appointed to administer the territory in the hope that they would with the help of missionaries, undermine tribal authority; the area was named after Queen Adelaide, the wife of King William IV.
When the brutality of the annexation was reported to the colonial office in England, authorities were expressed their disapproval of D’Urban’s processes. The British government, along with the rest of Europe, was in the wake of the Romantic Age in 1835 and prescribed to a philanthropic approach. Lord Glenelg, the Secretary of State for War and the Colonies, stressed that the horrors of the war created by the British invaders in South Africa brought dishonour to the British name and "Queen Adelaide Province” would no longer be the name of the territory. Only a few months after its forcible joining to the Cape Colony, on 5 December 1835, the Cape Colony disallowed the annexation; the province's creation was condemned by London, as being uneconomical and unjust. Queen Adelaide was formally disannexed in December 1836, the Cape's border was re-established back at the Keiskamma river, new treaties were made with the chiefs responsible for order beyond the Fish River; the area was now renamed Queen Adelaide Land district, with Grahamstown as its capital.
Indigenous rule by and large re-established itself in much of the territory and the land remained a separate entity until 1847. After the 7th Frontier War, on 17 December 1847, the area was again seized by the new British Governor Ha
Charles Coghlan (politician)
Sir Charles Patrick John Coghlan, was a lawyer and politician who served as Premier of Southern Rhodesia from 1 October 1923 to his death. Having led the responsible government movement in the territory during the latter days of Company rule, he was Southern Rhodesia's first head of government after it became a self-governing colony within the British Empire. Born and educated in South Africa, of Irish descent, Coghlan moved to Bulawayo in 1900 to practise as a lawyer, he was elected to the Southern Rhodesian Legislative Council in 1908, representing the Western electoral district. Over the next decade he supported the renewal of the British South Africa Company's royal charter to administer the Rhodesias, opposed Southern Rhodesia's amalgamation with either Northern Rhodesia or the Union of South Africa, he led a delegation to London to discuss responsible government in 1921, two years Southern Rhodesia became a self-governing colony. Coghlan sat in the Legislative Assembly as Member for Bulawayo from 1924 to his death.
Coghlan was buried near Cecil Rhodes's grave, at "World's View" in the Matopos Hills near Bulawayo. Charles Patrick John Coghlan was born on 24 June 1863 in British Kaffraria, he had three elder brothers. His father, James Coghlan, was a Catholic. After fighting in the Eighth Xhosa War of 1850–53 with the 2nd Regiment of Foot, James was stationed in the Keiskamma mountains, they moved to King William's Town after Coghlan's discharge from the military and the birth of their first child, a boy called James. The elder James Coghlan would become a town councillor in King William's Town. Charles Coghlan was educated at home until January 1870, when he was enrolled at the Jesuit St Aidan's College in Grahamstown, he was awarded a bursary to the South African College, Cape Town, where he studied law with the intent of becoming a barrister, but these plans were disrupted by his father's death from dysentery. Short of money, Charles quit university in 1882 and went to work for Paley and Coghlan, the law firm where his eldest brother James was a partner, in Kimberley.
When Coghlan arrived to join his brother in 1882, Kimberley was a town of 22,000 in search of riches, according to John Smith Moffat. That same year, Cecil Rhodes incorporated the De Beers Mining Company and in 1883 was elected to the Cape Parliament as Member for the newly enfranchised Diamond Fields. Kimberley had come into being after diamonds were found on the De Beers brothers' farm on Colesberg Kopje in 1869. Dubbed "New Rush", the site was renamed after Lord Kimberley, the British Secretary of State for the Colonies, in 1873, it was 5 miles and 40 miles from the Orange Free State and the South African Republic, the latter of which had just had its independence restored following the First Boer War of 1880–81. Coghlan was admitted to practise as advocate in the courts of West Griqualand on 9 December 1886. Ten months after Paley's death and his elder brother formed the firm of Coghlan and Coghlan. Kimberley's position at the epicentre of the diamond trade led the brothers to develop expertise and a formidable reputation for their work in the mining industry.
Rhodes outmanoeuvred his main opponent Barney Barnato and brought all the mines under the control of his company, De Beers, in 1888. On 30 October of that year, through the signing of the Rudd Concession by King Lobengula of Matabeleland, he obtained exclusive mining rights across all of Lobengula's territories in Matabeleland and beyond for his soon-to-be-formed British South Africa Company. Queen Victoria granted the BSAC a royal charter to administer and develop these territories on 29 October 1889, for an initial period of 25 years; this charter included the right to take possession of, deal with, dispose of land. On 12 September 1890 Rhodes's Pioneer Column reached. Coghlan took an active part in public debates, he was loyal to Britain, but held that all parts of the British Empire should be internally self-governing, with each territory supporting the others. Arguing that this should extend to his ancestral home of Ireland, he expressed support for the Home Rule movement there, he disapproved of the policy of the South African Republic government under Paul Kruger of conscripting uitlanders for military service while denying them the electoral franchise.
Coghlan was elected to the Kimberley town council in 1897. The following year Colonel Frederick Schermbrucker's youngest daughter Gertrude Mary Schermbrucker, described as an attractive and sociable woman, arrived to stay at the house Coghlan shared with his sister and mother. Coghlan married Gertrude in Wynberg, a southern suburb of Cape Town, on 10 January 1899. Around this time Coghlan's friend Percy Ross Frames invited him to join him in Bulawayo, one of the main settlements in Rhodesia, as Matabeleland and the adjoining areas were now collectively called. Coghlan was receptive to the idea, but was compelled to stay in Kimberley by the outbreak of the Second Boer War in October 1899. Kimberley was besieged by Boer forces, cut off by rail and telephone, from 14 October until its relief by General John French on 15 February 1900. After a break in Cape Town and his wife left Kimberley for Bulawayo on 30 July 1900. There, they found the conditions to be basic and the buildings, ramshackle; the settlers enjoyed
The Amathole Museum the Kaffrarian Museum is a natural and cultural history museum located in King William's Town in the Eastern Cape province of South Africa. The museum houses the second largest collection of mammals in South Africa and includes the taxidermied body of Huberta, the hippopotamus; the Xhosa Gallery, housed in the old post office building, concentrates on the cultural history of all tribes of the Xhosa nation. The history section has artefacts and photographs of local interest dating back to the 19th century; the Missionary Museum contains information on missionary endeavours in this area. The museum was founded in 1884 and was opened to the public in October 1898; the name of the museum was changed from the Kaffrarian Museum to the Amathole Museum in 1999. Homepage of Amathole Museum website
Adelaide, Eastern Cape
Adelaide is a rural town and area in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa. Adelaide is situated near the Great Winterberg Mountain range; the modern day area of Adelaide was first inhabited by Bushmen, but in the late 18th and 19th century the Xhosa and white settlers arrived. The Bushmen are no longer found in the area. Adelaide's origins date back to 1835 when a British officer named Captain Alexander Boswell Armstrong established a military encampment which he named Fort Adelaide after the wife of King William IV. Despite the earlier English settlers, who were part of the 1820 Settlers on a large number of both Scottish and Afrikaans people soon immigrated here too; the Scottish were the first to erect a church in the local area. Adelaide is an important centre of sheep farming. Beef, mutton and citrus fruit are important products; the specialised abbatoir for venison operating from central town provides much needed employment to the local residents. About 2,300 of the San-Bushmen's far-away descendents, the Westernised Coloureds, reside in the Bezuidenhoutville township 3 km from central town, represent 19% of Adelaide's inhabitants.
Lingelethu is the largest Black African township in Adelaide, with a census exceeding 6,000 and a population share of 77% of the municipal area
Amatola, Amatole or Amathole are a range of densely forested mountains, situated in the Eastern Cape province of South Africa. The word Amatole means ‘calves’ in Xhosa, Amathole District Municipality, which lies to the south, is named after these mountains; the Amatola Mountains form part of the southern portion of the Great Escarpment, rising over 1,800 metres above sea level. The escarpment slopes are densely covered in ancient forests of yellowwoods, white stinkwoods, Cape chestnuts and other indigenous trees. Deep indigenous woods like Kologha and Kubusie are some of the largest swaths of forest in South Africa; the mountains are capped with flower-rich montane grassland. Albany thickets feature prominently in the surrounding area; the mountains are famous for their scenic beauty with lush forests, ravines and panoramic views. The 6 day Amatola hiking trail is one of the top hiking trails in South Africa; the Amatola Mountains’ geology is characterised by the Beaufort Group, which forms part of the Karoo sequence.
The sediments were formed by depositions in river channels and swamps. These mountains - like all of South Africa - was home to the Khoisan hunter gatherers; the Nguni migrations saw the arrival of the Xhosa herders from the north and the displacement of the Khoisan inhabitants. Many of the current settlements in the Amatola region - like Adelaide and Fort Beaufort - began life as military outposts; this is because, in the 19th Century, this region formed the border between the Cape Colony, the Xhosa nation to the east. Frequent wars were fought along this border the 7th Frontier War; these wars were fought over farming land, cattle theft and legal jurisdiction and they saw the steady movement of the Cape's border eastward, into Xhosa lands. It was into the Amatola mountains' forested ravines, in fact, that the Xhosa armies retreated after the setbacks of these wars, so the Cape built the military towns in an effort to secure these borderlands for its farmers. King William's Town is the old centre of the region.
In this city there is the Amathole Museum, with old collections. At the foot of the mountains, in the town of Alice, is the campus of the University of Fort Hare. Stutterheim, beneath the Kologha range to the east served as a settlement for disbanded soldiers who had fought in the'Amatola War'. Hogsback's first residents were farmers; this town is a popular holiday destination, reputed to have inspired Tolkien's Middle Earth. The nearby town of East London is South Africa's only river port; the city is out of the main administration centre for the Amatola region. Geography of South Africa The Great Escarpment Geology of the Karoo Cape Fold Mountains List of mountain ranges of South Africa SAS Amatola - a Valour-class frigate of the South African Navy Xhosa Wars Amatola Mountains and Hogsback, Eastern Cape Amatola Hiking Trail