Oprah Winfrey is an American media executive, talk show host, television producer and philanthropist. She is best known for her talk show The Oprah Winfrey Show, the highest-rated television program of its kind in history and was nationally syndicated from 1986 to 2011 in Chicago. Dubbed the "Queen of All Media", she was the richest African American of the 20th century and North America's first black multi-billionaire, has been ranked the greatest black philanthropist in American history, she has been sometimes ranked as the most influential woman in the world. Winfrey was born into poverty in rural Mississippi to a teenage single mother and raised in inner-city Milwaukee, she has stated that she was molested during her childhood and early teens and became pregnant at 14. Winfrey was sent to live with the man she calls her father, Vernon Winfrey, a barber in Tennessee, landed a job in radio while still in high school. By 19, she was a co-anchor for the local evening news. Winfrey's emotional, extemporaneous delivery led to her transfer to the daytime talk show arena, after boosting a third-rated local Chicago talk show to first place, she launched her own production company and became internationally syndicated.
Credited with creating a more intimate confessional form of media communication, Winfrey popularized and revolutionized the tabloid talk show genre pioneered by Phil Donahue. Through this medium, Winfrey broke 20th-century taboos and allowed LGBT people to enter the mainstream through television appearances. In 1994, she was inducted into the National Women's Hall of Fame. By the mid-1990s, Winfrey had reinvented her show with a focus on literature, self-improvement and spirituality. Though she was criticized for unleashing a confession culture, promoting controversial self-help ideas, having an emotion-centered approach, she has been praised for overcoming adversity to become a benefactor to others. Winfrey had emerged as a political force in the 2008 presidential race, delivering about one million votes to Barack Obama in the razor close 2008 Democratic primary. In 2013, Winfrey was awarded the Presidential Medal of Freedom by President Obama and honorary doctorate degrees from Duke and Harvard.
In 2008, she formed Oprah Winfrey Network. Winfrey's first name was spelled "Orpah" on her birth certificate after the biblical figure in the Book of Ruth, but people mispronounced it and "Oprah" stuck, she was born in Mississippi, to an unmarried teenage mother. She said that her conception was due to a single sexual encounter and the couple broke up not long after, her mother, Vernita Lee, was a housemaid. Winfrey's biological father is noted as Vernon Winfrey, a coal miner turned barber turned city councilman, in the Armed Forces when she was born. However, Mississippi farmer and World War II veteran Noah Robinson Sr. has claimed to be her biological father. A genetic test in 2006 determined that her matrilineal line originated among the Kpelle ethnic group, in the area that today is Liberia, her genetic makeup was determined to be 89% Sub-Saharan African, 8% Native American, 3% East Asian. However, the East Asian markers may, given the imprecision of genetic testing be Native American. After Winfrey's birth, her mother traveled north, Winfrey spent her first six years living in rural poverty with her maternal grandmother, Hattie Mae Lee, so poor that Winfrey wore dresses made of potato sacks, for which the local children made fun of her.
Her grandmother taught her to read before the age of three and took her to the local church, where she was nicknamed "The Preacher" for her ability to recite Bible verses. When Winfrey was a child, her grandmother would hit her with a stick when she did not do chores or if she misbehaved in any way. At age six, Winfrey moved to an inner-city neighborhood in Milwaukee, with her mother, less supportive and encouraging than her grandmother had been as a result of the long hours she worked as a maid. Around this time, Lee had given birth to another daughter, Winfrey's younger half-sister, Patricia who died of causes related to cocaine addiction. By 1962, Lee was having difficulty raising both daughters so Winfrey was temporarily sent to live with Vernon in Nashville, Tennessee. While Winfrey was in Nashville, Lee gave birth to a third daughter, put up for adoption and was also named Patricia. Winfrey did not learn she had a second half-sister until 2010. By the time Winfrey moved back with her mother, Lee had given birth to a boy named Jeffrey, Winfrey's half-brother, who died of AIDS-related causes in 1989.
Winfrey has stated she was molested by her cousin, a family friend, starting when she was nine years old, something she first announced to her viewers on a 1986 episode of her TV show regarding sexual abuse. When Winfrey discussed the alleged abuse with family members at age 24, they refused to believe her account. Winfrey once commented that she had chosen not to be a mother because she had not been mothered well. At 13, after suffering what she described as years of abuse, Winfrey ran away from home; when she was 14, she became pregnant but her son was born prematurely and he died shortly after birth. Winfrey stated she felt betrayed by the family member who had sold the story of her son to the National Enquirer in 1990, she began attending Lincoln High School in Milwaukee, but after early success i
Hanna-Barbera Productions, Inc. was an American animation studio, founded in 1957 by Tom and Jerry creators and former Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer animation directors William Hanna and Joseph Barbera, in partnership with film director George Sidney. The studio was a prominent force and a leader in American television animation for over three decades in the mid-20th century as it created a wide variety of popular animated characters and produced a succession of cartoon series, including The Flintstones, The Yogi Bear Show, The Jetsons, Wacky Races, Scooby-Doo, Where Are You! and Smurfs. Hanna and Barbera's cartoons won them seven Academy Awards, eight Emmy Awards, a Governors Award and a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame. With their studio now established as a successful company, the two men and original investor Sidney sold it to Taft Broadcasting on December 29, 1966. Taft would run it for the next quarter-century. By the mid-1980s, when the profitability of Saturday-morning cartoons was eclipsed by weekday afternoon syndication, Hanna-Barbera's fortunes had declined.
Turner Broadcasting System purchased the studio from Taft in late 1991 and used much of its back catalog as programming for its new channel, Cartoon Network. After Turner purchased the company and Barbera continued to serve as creative consultants and mentors; the studio became a subsidiary of Warner Bros. Animation in 1996 following Turner Broadcasting's merger with Time Warner, was absorbed into Warner Bros. Animation in 2001; as of 2019, Warner Bros. now distributes subsequent Hanna-Barbera cartoons, as well as now owning the rights to its back catalogue. William Hanna, a native of Melrose, New Mexico and Joseph Barbera, born of Italian heritage in New York City, first met at the Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer studio in 1939, while working at its animation division and thus began a partnership that would last for six decades, their first cartoon together, the Oscar-nominated Puss Gets the Boot, featuring a cat named Jasper and an unnamed mouse, was released to theaters in 1940 and served as the pilot for the long-running short subject theatrical series Tom and Jerry.
Hanna and Barbera served as directors of the shorts for over 20 years, with Hanna supervising the animation and Barbera in charge of the stories and pre-production. Hanna did the screams, yelps and yells of Tom. In addition being nominated for twelve Oscars, seven of the cartoons won seven Academy Awards for Best Short Subject between 1943 and 1953, awarded to producer Fred Quimby, not involved in the creative development of the shorts; the pair served as animation directors for the hybrid animated/live-action musical sequences in MGM's feature films Anchors Aweigh, Dangerous When Wet and Invitation to the Dance and wrote and directed a handful of one-shot cartoons for MGM: Gallopin' Gals, Officer Pooch, War Dogs and Good Will to Men, a 1955 remake of the 1939 MGM cartoon Peace on Earth. With Quimby's retirement in 1955, Hanna and Barbera became the producers in charge of the MGM animation studio's output, supervising the last seven shorts of Tex Avery's Droopy series and directing and producing a short-lived Tom and Jerry spin-off series and Tyke, which ran for two entries.
In addition to their work on the cartoons, the two men moonlighted on outside projects, including the original title sequences and commercials for the CBS sitcom I Love Lucy. With the rise of television, Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer decided in early 1957 to close its cartoon studio, as it felt it had acquired a reasonable backlog of shorts for re-release. While contemplating their future and Barbera began producing animated television commercials and during their last year at Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer, they had developed a concept for a new animated TV program about a dog and cat duo in various misadventures. After they failed to convince the studio to back their venture, live-action director George Sidney, who had worked with Hanna and Barbera on several of his theatrical features for MGM, offered to serve as their business partner and convinced Screen Gems, a television production subsidiary of Columbia Pictures, to make a deal with the producers. A coin toss would determine. Harry Cohn and head of Columbia Pictures, took an 18% ownership in Hanna and Barbera's new company, H-B Enterprises, provided working capital.
Screen Gems became the new studio's distributor and its licensing agent, handling merchandizing of the characters from the animated programs. The duo's cartoon firm opened for business in rented offices on the lot of Kling Studios on July 7, 1957, two months after the Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer animation studio closed down. Sidney and several Screen Gems alumni became members of the studio's board of directors and much of the former MGM animation staff — including animators Carlo Vinci, Kenneth Muse, Lewis Marshall, Michael Lah and Ed Barge and layout artists Ed Benedict and Richard Bickenbach — became the new production staff for the H-B studio. Conductor and composer Hoyt Curtin was in charge of providing the music while many voice actors came on board, such as Daws Butler, Don Messick, Julie Bennett, Mel Blanc, Howard Morris, John Stephenson, Hal Smith and Doug Young. H-B Enterprises was the first major animation studio to produce cartoons for television. Animated programming was rebroadcasts of theatrical cartoons.
Its first animated TV original The Ruff and Reddy Show, premiered on NBC in December 1957. The
CBS Corporation is an American mass media corporation focused on commercial broadcasting and television production, with most of its operations in the United States. The current President and Acting CEO is Joseph Ianniello. Sumner Redstone, owner of National Amusements, controls CBS by way of his majority ownership of the company's Class A voting stock, it is the world's eighth largest entertainment company in terms of revenue after The Walt Disney Company, NBCUniversal, WarnerMedia, Bertelsmann and Sony Corporation. The company began trading on the NYSE on January 3, 2006; until the corporation was known as Viacom, is the legal successor to said company. A new company, keeping the Viacom name, was spun off from CBS. CBS, not Viacom, retains control of over-the-air television broadcasting, TV production and distribution, pay-cable, basic cable, recording owned by the larger company. CBS has its headquarters in the CBS Building, Manhattan, New York City, United States. Viacom was created in 1971 as the television syndication division of CBS, was spun off in 1971.
However, in 1999, Viacom acquired its former parent, by this time named CBS Corporation Westinghouse Electric. The prior CBS Corporation owned CMT and The Nashville Network, which remained Viacom properties after the 2005 split, but the prior CBS did not own UPN, Paramount Television, Paramount Parks, or Simon and Schuster. In March 2005, Viacom announced plans of looking into splitting the company into two publicly traded companies, amid issues of the stock price stagnating. On June 14, 2005, the Viacom Board of Directors approved the split of the company into two firms; the CBS Corporation name would be revived for one of the companies, to be headed by longtime television executive Leslie Moonves, would include CBS, UPN, Infinity Broadcasting, Viacom Outdoor, Showtime Networks, Paramount's television studio. The split was structured such that the new Viacom was spun off from the old Viacom, renamed CBS Corporation. In a sense, this was a repeat of the 1971 spinoff. However, in this case, CBS retained all of the prior firm's broadcast TV assets, including its various syndication companies.
With the split, the two new companies began trading on the NYSE on January 3, 2006. Investors anticipated Viacom benefiting from the split, but instead, it dropped 20 percent, while CBS rose 9 percent. Announced in January 2006, CBS and DIC Entertainment signed a multi-year deal in which DIC bought the Saturday morning airtime as "CBS's Saturday Morning Secret Slumber Party". In June 2006, DiC added a production partner AOL's KOL. Thus, this block would be called "KOL's Saturday Morning Secret Slumber Party on CBS". On January 24, 2006, CBS Corporation, Warner Bros. announced that they were to create a new broadcast network, The CW Television Network. The network debuted on September 18, 2006; the network formally debuted on September 20 with the 2 hour premiere of America's Next Top Model. The network is the result of a merger of The WB and UPN. CBS Corporation and Time Warner each own 50% of the network. Tribune Broadcasting and CBS Corporation will contribute its stations as new network affiliates.
Three days after the announcement of The CW, on January 27, CBS announced that it was selling its Paramount Parks division. On May 23, 2006, CBS Corporation sold Paramount Parks to the Cedar Fair Entertainment Company. With this acquisition, Cedar Fair became the third-largest theme park operator. On June 30, 2006, Cedar Fair announced that it has completed its acquisition of Paramount Parks from CBS Corporation in a cash transaction valued at US$1.24 billion. The transaction included a 10-year license that allowed Cedar Fair to use the Paramount name in the parks through the 2017 season. On February 7, 2007, CBS announced it was selling seven stations in Providence, Rhode Island, Texas, Salt Lake City and West Palm Beach, Florida to Cerberus Capital Management for US$185 million, it sold another station, WFRV-TV in Green Bay and its satellite station, WJMN-TV in Escanaba, Michigan, to Liberty Media on February 13, 2007. News reports estimate the deal at about US$234 million. CBS is swapping the stations and US$170 million in cash for 7.59 million shares of CBS common stock held by Liberty Media.
On February 26, CBS announced that it will invest in Electric Sheep, a virtual world content developer. CBS hired Electric Sheep to develop some projects, including the creation of "The L-Word in Second Life". CBS shot a commercial within the virtual world Second Life to promote its show Two and a Half Men. Another project that Electric Sheep was working on for CBS was a Star Trek-themed area in Second Life. By investing in Electric Sheep, CBS hoped to expand its activity "beyond the living room". On March 20, CBS/CSTV had acquired an online high school sports network. On April 12, CBS Corporation announced the creation of the CBS Interactive Audience Network. On May 30, CBS Interactive bought Last.fm for £140 million. On May 15, 2008, CBS Interactive announced that it had agreed t
The Oprah Winfrey Show
The Oprah Winfrey Show referred to as Oprah, is an American syndicated talk show that aired nationally for 25 seasons from September 8, 1986, to May 25, 2011, in Chicago, Illinois. Produced and hosted by its namesake, Oprah Winfrey, it remains the highest-rated daytime talk show in American television history; the show was influential, many of its topics have penetrated into the American pop-cultural consciousness. Winfrey used the show as an educational platform, featuring book clubs, self-improvement segments, philanthropic forays into world events; the show did not attempt to profit off the products. Oprah had its roots in A. M. Chicago, a half-hour morning talk show airing on WLS-TV, an ABC owned-and-operated station in Chicago. Winfrey took over as host on January 2, 1984 and, within a month, took it from last place to first place in local Chicago ratings. Following Winfrey's success in—and Academy Award and Golden Globe nominations for-her performance as Sofia in the film The Color Purple, on September 8, 1986, the talk show was relaunched under its current title and picked up nationally.
For the premiere, the show's producers tried rigorously to book Miami Vice's Don Johnson as the first guest trying to bribe him with Dom Pérignon and a pair of rhinestone sunglasses. All attempts to book Johnson failed and Winfrey decided to "do what we do best, and, a show about and with everyday people"; the topic for the premiere show was "How to Marry the Man or Woman of Your Choice". Oprah was one of the longest-running daytime television talk shows in history; the show received 47 Daytime Emmy Awards before Winfrey chose to stop submitting it for consideration in 2000. In 2002, TV Guide ranked it at #49 on TV Guide's 50 Greatest TV Shows of All Time. In 2013, they ranked it as the 19th greatest TV show of all time. In November 2009, Winfrey announced that the show would conclude in 2011 following its 25th and final season; the series finale aired on May 25, 2011. Winfrey interviewed a plethora of public figures and everyday people during the show's 25-year history; when celebrities and newsmakers were ready to share their most intimate secrets their first stop was Winfrey's couch and when a serious story hit, the Oprah show focused on putting a human face on the headlines.
Winfrey claims her worst interviewing experience was with Elizabeth Taylor in the show's second season. Just before the interview, Taylor asked Winfrey not to ask any questions about her relationships. Winfrey found this to be a challenge considering. Taylor returned to the show in 1992, apologized to Winfrey and told her that she was in excruciating back and hip pain at the time. On February 10, 1993, Winfrey sat down in a prime-time special broadcast with Michael Jackson, who had performed nine days earlier in the Super Bowl XXVII halftime show, for what would become the most-watched interview in television history. Jackson, an intensely private entertainer, had not given an interview in 14 years; the event was broadcast live from Jackson's Neverland Ranch and was watched by 90 million people worldwide result his studio album Dangerous on the top-ten charts. Jackson discussed missing out on a normal childhood and his strained relationship with his father, Joe Jackson. During the interview, Jackson attempted to dispel many of the rumors surrounding him and told Winfrey he suffered from the skin-pigment disorder known as vitiligo when asked about the change in the color of his skin.
While admitting to getting a nose job, he denied all other plastic surgery rumors. In the interview, Jackson was joined by his close friend Elizabeth Taylor, her third appearance on the show. Winfrey's interview with Tom Cruise, broadcast on May 23, 2005 gained notoriety. Cruise "jumped around the set, hopped onto a couch, fell rapturously to one knee and professed his love for his then-girlfriend, Katie Holmes." This scene became part of American pop-cultural discourse and was parodied in media. Celine Dion appeared on the show 28 times, the most of any celebrity, besides Gayle King, Winfrey's best friend, who appeared 141 times. Winfrey interviewed Chicago's "Guardian Angels" and Raymond Lear in 1988. Winfrey interviewed Kathy Bray three weeks after her 10-year-old son, was accidentally killed by a friend who had found his father's gun. Viewers commented that the interview changed their feelings about having guns in their homes. In the 1989–90 season, Truddi Chase—a woman, diagnosed with dissociative identity disorder, having 92 distinct personalities—appeared on the show.
Chase had been violently and sexually abused beginning at the age of two and said her old self ceased to exist after that. After introducing Chase, there to promote her book When Rabbit Howls, Winfrey unexpectedly broke down in tears while reading the teleprompter, relating her own childhood molestation to that of the guest. Unable to control herself, Winfrey asked producers to stop filming. Erin Kramp, a mother dying of breast cancer, appeared on the show in 1998. After realizing that her six-year-old daughter, would have to grow up without her, Kramp began recording videotapes filled with motherly advice on everything from makeup tips to finding a husband, she wrote letters and bought gifts for Peyton to open every Christmas and birthday she was gone. Kramp lost her battle with cancer on October 31, 1998, she had recorded over a hundred audiotapes for her daughter. Jo Ann Compton's daughter Laurie Ann was stabbed to death in 1988—and a decade the mom was tangled in her grief. "I hope they're in the same hell
Walter Andrew Brennan was an American actor. He won the Academy Award for Best Supporting Actor in 1936, 1938, 1940, making him one of only three male actors to win three Academy Awards. Brennan was born in Lynn, less than two miles from his family's home in Swampscott, Massachusetts, he was the second of three children born to William John Brennan. His parents were both of Irish descent, his father was an engineer and inventor, young Brennan studied engineering at Rindge Technical High School in Cambridge, Massachusetts. While in school, Brennan became interested in acting, he began to perform in vaudeville at the age of 15. While working as a bank clerk, he enlisted in the U. S. Army and served as a private with the 101st Field Artillery Regiment in France during World War I, he served in France for two years. After the war, he worked as a financial reporter for a newspaper in Boston, he only made it as far as Los Angeles. During the early 1920s, he made a fortune in the real estate market, but lost most of his money during the 1925 real estate slump.
Finding himself penniless, Brennan began taking parts as an extra in films at Universal Studios in 1924, starting at $7.50 a day. He wound up working at Universal on for the next ten years, his early appearances included Webs of Steel, Lorraine of the Lions, The Calgary Stampede, a Hoot Gibson Western. Brennan was in Watch Your Wife, The Ice Flood, The Collegians, Flashing Oars, Sensation Seekers, Tearin' Into Trouble, The Ridin' Rowdy, Alias the Deacon, Blake of Scotland Yard, Hot Heels, Painting the Town, The Ballyhoo Buster; the latter was directed by Richard Thorpe. Brennan could be glimpsed in The Racket from Howard Hughes, The Michigan Kid and Saddles, The Cohens and Kellys in Atlantic City, Smilin' Guns and The Lariat Kid with Gibson, he worked as a stand in. Brennan was in His Lucky Day, Frank Capra's Flight, One Hysterical Night, The Last Performance, The Long, Long Trail with Gibson and The Shannons of Broadway. Other Brennan appearances included Dames Ahoy, Captain of the Guard, King of Jazz, The Little Accident, Parlez Vous, a short), See America Thirst with Harry Langdon and Slim Summerville and Ooh La-La, another short).
The following year Brennan could be glimpsed in Hello Russia, Many a Slip with Summerville, Heroes of the Flames a serial with Tim McCoy, Honeymoon Lane, Dancing Dynamite, Grief Street directed by Richard Thorpe, Is There Justice?. Brennan had a decent-sized role in Neck, directed by Richard Thorpe, his parts tended to remain small, however: A House Divided for director William Wyler, Scratch-As-Catch-Can, Texas Cyclone. In 1932 Brennan was in Law and Order with Walter Huston, The Impatient Maiden for James Whale, The Airmail Mystery, Scandal for Sale, he did another with Two Fisted Law though the star was Tim McCoy. Brennan was in Hello Trouble with Buck Jones, Speed Madness, Miss Pinkerton with Joan Bennett, Cornered with McCoy, The Iceman's Ball, Fighting for Justice with McCoy, The Fourth Horseman with Tom Mix, The All-American, Once in a Lifetime, Strange Justice, Women Won't Tell for Richard Thorpe, Afraid to Talk and Manhattan Tower. Brennan was in Sensation Hunters for Charles Vidor, Man of Action with McCoy, Parachute Jumper, Goldie Gets Along, Girl Missing, The Rustler's Roundup with Mix, The Cohens and Kellys in Trouble for director George Stevens, Lucky Dog, The Big Cage.
His scenes in William Wellman's Lilly Turner were deleted. Brennan did another serial, The Phantom of the Air Strange People for Thorpe, Meet the Champ, Sing Sinner Sing, One Year Later, Sailors Beware!, Golden Harvest, Ladies Must Love, Saturday's Millions, Curtain at Eight, My Woman. James Whale gave him a bit part in The Invisible Man, he could be seen in King for a Night, Fugitive Lovers, Cross Country Cruise, You Can't Buy Everything, Paradise Valley, Radio Dough, The Poor Rich, The Crosby Murder Case, George White's Scandals, Good Girl, Uncertain Lady, I'll Tell the World, Fishing for Trouble. Brennan was in the Three Stooges short Woman Haters did Half a Sinner, The Life of Vergie Winters, Murder on the Runaway Train, Whom the Gods Destroy, Gentlemen of Polish, Death on the Diamond, Great Expectations, Luck of the Game, Tailspin Tommy, There's Always Tomorrow, Cheating Cheaters. Brennan was b
Joan of Arc (1948 film)
Joan of Arc is a 1948 American hagiographic epic film directed by Victor Fleming, starring Ingrid Bergman as the French religious icon and war heroine. It was produced by Walter Wanger, it is based on Maxwell Anderson's successful Broadway play Joan of Lorraine, which starred Bergman, was adapted for the screen by Anderson himself, in collaboration with Andrew Solt. It is the only film of an Anderson play. Unlike the play Joan of Lorraine, a drama that shows how the story of Joan affects a group of actors who are performing it, the film is a straightforward recounting of the life of the French heroine, it begins with an painted shot of the inside of a basilica with a shaft of light descending from heaven, shining down from the ceiling, a solemn off-screen voice pronouncing the canonization of the Maid of Orleans. The opening page of what appears to be a church manuscript recounting Joan's life in Latin is shown on the screen, while some uncredited voiceover narration by actor Shepperd Strudwick sets up the tale.
The actual story of Joan begins, from the time she becomes convinced that she has been divinely called to save France to her being burnt at the stake at the hands of the English and the Burgundians. Joan of Arc was made in 1947–1948 by an independent company, Sierra Pictures, created for this production, not to be confused with the production company with the same name that made silent films. Filming began 16 September 1947 and was done at Hal Roach Studios, with location scenes shot in the Los Angeles area; the 1948 Sierra Pictures never produced another film after Joan of Arc. Bergman had been lobbying to play Joan for many years, this film was considered a dream project for her, it received mixed reviews and lower-than-expected box office, though it was not a "financial disaster" as is claimed. Donald Spoto, in a biography of Ingrid Bergman claims that "the critics' denunciations notwithstanding, the film earned back its investment with a sturdy profit"; the movie is considered by some to mark the start of a low period in the actress's career that would last until she made Anastasia in 1956.
In April 1949, five months after the release of the film, before it had gone out on general release, the revelation of Bergman's extramarital relationship with Italian director Roberto Rossellini brought her American screen career to a temporary halt. The nearly two-and-a-half-hour film was subsequently drastically edited for its general release, was not restored to its original length for nearly fifty years. Bergman and co-star José Ferrer received Academy Award nominations for their performances; the film was director Victor Fleming's last project—he died only two months after its release. In Michael Sragow's 2008 biography of the director, he claims that Fleming, who was, according to Sragrow, romantically involved with Ingrid Bergman at the time, was unhappy with the finished product, wept upon seeing it for the first time. Sragrow speculates that the disappointment of the failed relationship and the failure of the film may have led to Fleming's fatal heart attack, but there is no real evidence to support this.
While contemporary critics may have agreed with Fleming's assessment of Joan of Arc, more recent reviewers of the restored complete version on DVD have not. The movie was first released in November 1948 by RKO; when the film was shortened for its general release in 1950, 45 minutes being cut out. The movie was first released in November 1948 by RKO; when the film was shortened for its general release in September 1950, it was distributed not by RKO, but by a company called Balboa Film Distributors, the same company which re-released Alfred Hitchcock's Under Capricorn starring Ingrid Bergman. The complete 145 minute version of Joan of Arc remained unseen in the U. S. for about forty-nine years. Although the complete Technicolor negatives remained in storage in Hollywood, the original soundtrack was thought to be lost; the movie was restored in 1998 after an uncut print in mint condition was found in Europe, containing the only known copy of the complete soundtrack. When it appeared on DVD, the restored complete version was hailed by online movie critics as being much superior to the edited version.
It was released on DVD in 2004. The edited version received its first television showing on CBS on the evening of April 12, 1968, has been shown on Ted Turner's WTCG and on cable several times. Although the complete, unedited version of the film was scheduled to be shown on American television for the first time on February 13, 2011, by Turner Classic Movies, with a broadcast window of 2-1/2 hours, it was pulled and the 100 minute edited version was presented on Sunday, February 27. However, the full-length version was shown on Turner Classic Movies on March 13, 2011; this marked the first time that the complete unedited version had been shown on American television. It appears to have supplanted the edited version. There are several differences between the full-length roadshow version of the film and the edited general release version. One, noticeable is that there is a snippet from Joan's trial during the opening narration in the edited version, whereas in the full-length version, the events of Joan's life are shown in chronological order.
The narration is more detailed in the edited version than in the complete ve
National Amusements, Inc. is an American privately-owned theater company and mass media holding company based in Dedham and incorporated in Maryland. It was the parent company of the first incarnation of Viacom, is the parent company of CBS Corporation and second incarnation of Viacom that were split off in 2006; as of December 2016, National Amusements and through subsidiaries, holds 79.8% of the Class A common stock of Viacom Inc. constituting 10% of the overall equity of the Company, holds 79.5% of the Class A common stock and 2.4% of the Class B common stock of CBS Corporation, constituting 9.1% of the overall equity of the Company. The company operates more than 1,500 movie screens across the Northeastern United States, the United Kingdom, Latin America, Russia under its Showcase Cinemas, Multiplex Cinemas, Cinema de Lux, KinoStar brands. At the end of 2008, the financial troubles of the owners, billionaires Sumner Redstone and Shari Redstone, started when Sumner Redstone had to dump $400 million of nonvoting shares.
It was released that National Amusements planned to sell $390 million of notes in another attempt to refinance a large part of the company's bank owed debt. In October 2009, the news was released that National Amusements would be selling $1 billion of stock they own in CBS and Viacom. National Amusements has sold 35 theaters to Rave Motion Pictures. Today these theatres have closed. National Amusements now exclusively operates theaters in the Northeast. Bow Tie Cinemas Cinemark Theatres Regal Entertainment Group Marcus Corporation Official website Showcase Cinemas website 2001 Box Office Magazine profile of the company Yahoo! - National Amusements Inc. Company Profile