Dai County known by its Chinese name Daixian, is a county in Xinzhou, Shanxi Province, China. Its county seat at Shangguan is known as Daixian; the county had a population of 214,091 at the time of the 2010 census. The county is the home of the AAAAA-rated Yanmen Pass Scenic Area along the Great Wall, as well as the Bianjing Drum Tower, the Ayuwang Pagoda, the Zhao Gao Forest Park; as is usual in Chinese, the name "Daixian" is used for both the county as a whole and for the county seat at Shangguan. Because the English word "county" only describes the area, it's more common to use a transcription of the Chinese form of the name when talking about its seat of government. Dàixiàn is the pinyin romanization of the Mandarin pronunciation of the Chinese placename written as 代縣 in traditional characters and as 代县 in the simplified characters now used in mainland China; the same name was written as Tai County, Tai Hsien, or Tai-hsien in the Wade-Giles system. The name was most bestowed in 1912, during the organization of the Republic of China.
The county took its name from its predecessor Daizhou or Dai Prefecture, which had existed since AD 585. This name was written as Tai Chou or Tai-chou in Wade-Giles and as Taichow or Taichow Sha by the Chinese Post Office. Daizhou had taken its name from the abolished Dai Commandery, despite having never been part of it or the seat of the earlier "Dai" regions. Dai Commandery had been created by the Zhou state of Zhao to organize its northeastern conquests and was based in the former capital of the Baidi Kingdom of Dai; that city's native name was transcribed using the character 代, now read dài in Mandarin but with an Old Chinese pronunciation, reconstructed as /*lˤək-s/. It was near present-day Yuzhou in Hebei, its name was used for the rump kingdom of Zhao established by Prince Jia to oppose Qin in the 220s BC. These included the commanderies of Yunzhong and Yanmen in northern Shanxi along with the old Dai homeland in northwestern Hebei, spreading the name westward into Shanxi; the earlier name for the county had been Guangwu, with its eponymous county seat located southwest of present-day Shangguan.
It was known as Yanmen once the seat of Yanmen Commandery was moved to Guangwu from Yinguan under the Kingdom of Wei during China's Three Kingdoms Period. These names followed the posts, it ceased to be called Guangwu in 589 at the creation of Yanmen County. The town was briefly known as Sizhou under the Northern Zhou and early Sui after Si Prefecture was relocated to Shangguan in 579 from its original seat northwest of Xinzhou. Present day villages of New Guangwu and Old Guangwu along with the Guangwu section of the Great Wall are located in adjacent Shanyin County. Dai County's present territory covers 1,729 square kilometers, it lies in northeastern Shanxi Province between Taiyuan to the south and Datong to the north, with the Yanmen Pass forming a natural choke point which once controlled access to central Shanxi from the Eurasian Steppe. The main river is the Hutuo, its principal tributaries within the county are the E, the Zhongjie, the Yukou, the Guangou, the Qili. The highest points are the Heige Mantou Mountain.
Parts of the chains belonging to Mount Heng to the north and Mount Wutai to the east reach Dai County. Present-day Dai County lies to north of the historic heartland of ancient Chinese civilization in the Fen and Yellow River valleys; the Chinese knew their northern neighbors as the Di or "Northern Barbarians". The "White Di" are recorded originating in north Shaanxi west of the Yellow River but had settled in the Hutuo Valley by the 6th century BC; the Zhou state of Jin pushed sporadically northward through both invasions and bribery of the Di's ruling class until its disintegration at the end of the Spring and Autumn Period. King Yong of the Jin successor state of Zhao adopted nomad-style clothing and cavalry tactics in 307 BC, he organized these conquests together with Zhao-held Dai as the three commanderies of Yunzhong and Dai. He protected them by erecting long earthen barricades along what is now considered the Outer Great Wall, as well as a fortress overlooking Yanmen Pass in present-day Dai County.
The town of Guangwu, southwest of present-day Shangguan, was established under the Zhao as well. After Qin's conquest of Zhao in 228 BC, its Prince Jia tried to reëstablish his family's kingdom in its northern commanderies. Under the First Emperor's rule, an administrative overhaul abolished China's former states and provinces, making the small commanderies the highest level of regional government. Zhao's former holdings in northern Shanxi west of Mount Heng formed Qin's Yanmen Commandery, with its seat at Shanwu in present-
Chinese surnames are used by Han Chinese and Sinicized ethnic groups in Mainland China, Hong Kong, Malaysia, Taiwan, Singapore, Philippines and among overseas Chinese communities. In ancient times two types of surnames existed, namely xing or clan names, shi or lineage names. Chinese family names are patrilineal. Women do not change their surnames upon marriage, except in places with more Western influences such as Hong Kong. Traditionally Chinese surnames have been exogamous; the colloquial expressions laobaixing and bǎixìng are used in Chinese to mean "ordinary folks", "the people", or "commoners". Prior to the Warring States period, only the ruling families and the aristocratic elite had surnames. There was a difference between clan names or xing and lineage names or shi. Xing were surnames held by the noble clans, they are composed of a nü radical, taken by some as evidence they originated from matriarchal societies based on maternal lineages. Another hypothesis has been proposed by sinologist Léon Vandermeersch upon observation of the evolution of characters in oracular scripture from the Shang dynasty through the Zhou.
The "female" radical seems to appear at the Zhou period next to Shang sinograms indicating an ethnic group or a tribe. This combination seems to designate a female and could mean "lady of such or such clan"; the structure of the xing sinogram could reflect the fact that in the royal court of Zhou, at least in the beginning, only females were called by their birth clan name, while the men were designated by their title or fief. Prior to the Qin dynasty China was a fengjian society; as fiefdoms were divided and subdivided among descendants, so additional sub-surnames known as shi were created to distinguish between noble lineages according to seniority, though in theory they shared the same ancestor. In this way, a nobleman would hold a xing; the difference between xing and shi was blurring for women since the Spring and Autumn period. After the states of China were unified by Qin Shi Huang in 221 BC, surnames spread to the lower classes. Many shi surnames survive to the present day. According to Kiang Kang-Hu, there are 18 sources from which Chinese surnames may be derived, while others suggested at least 24.
These may be names associated with a ruling dynasty such as the various titles and names of rulers and dynasty, or they may be place names of various territories, towns and specific locations, the title of official posts or occupations, or names of objects, or they may be derived from the names of family members or clans, in a few cases, names of contempt given by a ruler. The following are some of the common sources: Xing: These were reserved for the central lineage of the royal family, with collateral lineages taking their own shi; the traditional description was what were known as the "Eight Great Xings of High Antiquity", namely Jiāng, Jī, Yáo, Yíng, Sì, Yún, Guī and Rèn, though some sources quote Jí as the last one instead of Rèn. Of these xings, only Jiang and Yao have survived in their original form to modern days as occurring surnames. Royal decree by the Emperor, such as Kuang. State name: Many nobles and commoners took the name of their state, either to show their continuing allegiance or as a matter of national and ethnic identity.
These are some of the most common Chinese surnames. Name of a fief or place of origin: Fiefdoms were granted to collateral branches of the aristocracy and it was natural as part of the process of sub-surnaming for their names to be used. An example is Marquis of Ouyangting, whose descendants took the surname Ouyang. There are some two hundred examples of this identified of two-character surnames, but few have survived to the present. Names of an ancestor: Like the previous example, this was a common origin with close to 500 or 600 examples, 200 of which are two-character surnames. An ancestor's courtesy name would be used. For example, Yuan Taotu took the second character of his grandfather's courtesy name Boyuan as his surname. Sometimes titles granted to ancestors could be taken as surnames. Seniority within the family: In ancient usage, the characters of meng, shu and ji were used to denote the first, second and fourth eldest sons in a family; these were sometimes adopted as surnames. Of these, Meng is the best known.
Occupation From official positions, such as Shǐ, Jí, Líng, Cāng, Kù, Jiàn, Shàngguān, Tàishǐ, Zhōngháng, Yuèzhèng, in the case of Shang's "Five Officials", namely Sīmǎ, Sītú, Sīkōng, Sīshì and Sīkòu.
Xiu is a Chinese language on-line shopping vertical, e-commerce company that operates in the People's Republic of China. Xiu was founded by Ji Wenhong and Jin Huang in March 2008. Xiu.com sells middle to luxury brand name fashion products including shoes, ornaments and home decor. Xiu.com has buyer offices in New York City, Los Angeles, Australia, London, Korea, Hong Kong and Japan. In April 2011, KPCB invested $20 million in Xiu.com. In August 2011, xiu.com raised $100 million in joint funding from US private equity fund Warburg Pincus and venture capitalist KPCB. This was the largest B round money raised in the Chinese e-commerce industry and secured Xiu.com the top position in China's e-commerce fashion industry. Official website
Zhongshan was a small state that existed during the Warring States period, which managed to survive for 120 years despite its small size. Its origins and ethnic identity are a matter of contention between scholars; the origin of the Zhongshan state is disputed. Zhongshan occupies the same place as the earlier Xianyu state; the two countries, being Zhongshan and Xianyu, have a muddled history, as the term Zhongshan begins somewhat before the term Xianyu ends. Zhongshan, meaning central mountains, is first mentioned in 506 BC, by a Jin minister, as a hostile neighboring state; the last mention of the Xianyu, meanwhile, is in 489 BC, when Zhao Yang, a Jin minister, leads a military campaign against them. There are three reasons Zhongshan is considered a continuation of Xianyu: Both had similar relationships with Qi and Jin, the two states were located in exactly the same place, there is no historical record of Xianyu being conquered, it is considered possible that the name change marks a transition from a loosely-controlled confederation of Di tribes, to a more centralized state.
One challenge to this theory of continuation is that after Zhongshan was conquered in 407-406, by the state of Wei, Marquess Wen of Wei gave the land to his eldest son Ji, the state was based upon this. However this theory is contradicted by a line of the Shiji, in which it states that the new state of Zhongshan came some time after this; some theories postulate that this new state was a continuation of the earlier Xianyu, others saying the ruling family of the new Zhongshan came from a line of the Zhou. Because of this, there is no definitive answer as to the ethnicity of Zhongshan, or to the ethnicity of the royal family; the first major event of Zhongshan was the capital being placed at Gu, in 414 BC, during the reign of Duke Wu, traditionally considered the founding of the country itself. Soon after this, in 407, Zhongshan was conquered by Wei troops, led by general Yue Yang, it is said that Yue Yang's son was living in Zhongshan when war was declared, was taken hostage. He was paraded before Yue Yang in order to weaken morale, but when this failed, they killed his son and made him into stew, before sending part of said stew to Yue Yang, which he drank in front of the Zhongshan messenger to show resolve.
Shortly after, in 381, Zhongshan won its independence back. Zhongshan invaded Yan in 315, after Yan's king, Zi Kuai, abdicated his throne to his chancellor, Zi Zhi. Qi and Zhongshan both separately invaded Yan. Zhongshan seized copper mines in this war, which had belonged to the Donghu, but, taken by Yan in war. Zhongshan's troops were led by Sima Zhou. In 306, after the state of Zhao, under King Wuling of Zhao, finished a military reform, adopting the uniforms and tactics of the Hu nomads, they invaded Zhongshan. After ten years of war Zhao annexed them in 296. Zhongshan was unusual in that despite being such a small nation, it managed to survive for a long time, considering that many countries and small, of the Warring States period lived short lifespans. Guo Songtao credits this to shrewd diplomacy, saying: "In the rises and falls of the Warring States, Zhongshan seems to be the unnoticed hub and lynchpin." Despite their small size, they demonstrated impressive strength. In 323 BC, Zhongshan formed a vertical alliance, allying itself with Wei, Han and Yan, in order to defend themselves against larger states like Qin, Qi, Chu.
This alliance allowed the states in it to claim the title of wang. King Wei of Qi, who had 11 years earlier taken the title of wang for himself, objected to this, saying: "I am ashamed to be a king if the ruler of Zhongshan can be one too", he went on to say: "I am a state of ten thousand chariots and Zhongshan is one of a thousand chariots, how dare she assume a title the equal of mine?". An important part of this statement can be seen in his reason for denouncing them claiming kingship is not that they were non-Chinese, which would likely have been mentioned in the insult if it were true; the fact that Zhongshan was invited to the five state alliance is seen as another proof of them being Chinese, as a barbarian country would never be invited to such an alliance. After this, King Wei of Qi asked Wei and Zhao to join him in attacking Zhongshan, to force them to abolish their title of wang, King Cuo sent an advisor, Zhang Deng, to these states, sowed discord and distrust amongst them, no such alliance was formed.
The state of Zhao surrounded Zhongshan entirely, with only Zhongshan's northeastern border being outside of Zhao. For this reason, they were considered to be a "disease in the belly" by the Zhao kings. From 307 BC on, Zhao attacked Zhongshan every year, until, in 301, the king of Zhongshan was forced to take refuge in Qi. During this time Qi invaded Chu. Due to commonality of finds of iron agricultural tools in the southern part of Zhongshan, compared to the commonality of animal skeletons in the northern part, it is believed that the southern land's economy was agriculture, the northern land's was from animal husbandry. Zhongshan used, it is known that these co
Abdication is the act of formally relinquishing monarchical authority. Abdications have played various roles in the succession procedures of monarchies. While some cultures have viewed abdication as an extreme abandonment of duty, in other societies, abdication was a regular event, helped maintain stability during political succession. Abdications have either occurred by force or voluntarily; some rulers are ruled to have abdicated in absentia, vacating the physical throne and thus their position of power, although these judgments were pronounced by successors with vested interest in seeing the throne abdicated, without or despite the direct input of the abdicating monarch. Due to the ceremonial nature of the regnant in many constitutional monarchies, many monarchs have abdicated due to old age, such as the monarchs of Spain and the Netherlands; the word abdication is derived from the Latin abdicatio meaning to renounce. In its broadest sense abdication is the act of renouncing and resigning from any formal office, but it is applied to the supreme office of state.
In Roman law the term was applied to the disowning of a family member, such as the disinheriting of a son. Today the term applies to monarchs, or to those who have been formally crowned. An elected or appointed official is said to resign rather than to abdicate. A notable exception is the voluntary relinquishing of the office of Bishop of Rome by the Pope, called Papal resignation or Papal renunciation. In certain cultures, the abdication of a monarch was seen as a profound and shocking abandonment of royal duty; as a result, abdications only occurred in the most extreme circumstances of political turmoil or violence. For other cultures, abdication was a much more routine element of succession. Among the most notable abdications of antiquity are those of Lucius Cornelius Sulla, the Dictator, in 79 BC; the most notable abdication in recent history is that of King Edward VIII of the United Kingdom and the Dominions. In 1936 Edward abdicated to marry American divorcée Wallis Simpson, over the objections of the British establishment, the governments of the Commonwealth, the Royal Family and the Church of England.
It was the first time in history that the British or English crown was surrendered voluntarily. Richard II of England, for example, was forced to abdicate after power was seized by his cousin, Henry Bolingbroke, while Richard was abroad. During the Glorious Revolution in 1688, James II of England and VII of Scotland fled to France, dropping the Great Seal of the Realm into the Thames, the question was discussed in Parliament whether he had forfeited the throne or had abdicated; the latter designation was agreed upon in spite of James's protest, in a full assembly of the Lords and Commons it was resolved "that King James II having endeavoured to subvert the constitution of the kingdom, by breaking the original contract between king and people, and, by the advice of Jesuits and other wicked persons, having violated the fundamental laws, having withdrawn himself out of this kingdom, has abdicated the government, that the throne is thereby vacant." The Scottish parliament pronounced a decree of deposition.
In Scotland, Queen of Scots, was forced to abdicate in favour of her one-year-old son, James VI. Today, because the title to the Crown depends upon statute the Act of Settlement 1701, a royal abdication can be effected only by an Act of Parliament. To give legal effect to the abdication of King Edward VIII, His Majesty's Declaration of Abdication Act 1936 was passed. In Japanese history, abdication was used often, in fact occurred more than death on the throne. In those days, most executive authority resided in the hands of regents, the Emperor's chief task was priestly, containing so many repetitive rituals that it was deemed the incumbent Emperor deserved pampered retirement as an honored retired emperor after a service of around ten years. A tradition developed that an Emperor should accede to the throne young; the high-priestly duties were deemed possible for a walking child. Thus, many Japanese Emperors have acceded as children, some only 8 years old. Childhood helped the monarch to endure tedious duties and to tolerate subjugation to political power-brokers, as well as sometimes to cloak the powerful members of the imperial dynasty.
All Japanese empresses and dozens of Emperors abdicated and lived the rest of their lives in pampered retirement, wielding influence behind the scenes with more power than they had had while on the throne. Several Emperors abdicated while still in their teens; these traditions show in Japanese folklore, theater and other forms of culture, where the Emperor is described or depicted as an adolescent. Before the Meiji Restoration, Japan had eleven reigning empresses. Over half of Japanese empresses abdicated once a suitable male descendant was considered to be old enough to rule. Since the Meiji Restoration and the subsequent reorganization of imperial succession, no Emperor has abdicated and all have died o
Wei was one of the seven major states during the Warring States period of ancient China. It was created from the three-way Partition of Jin, together with Zhao, its territory lay between the states of Qin and Qi and included parts of modern-day Henan, Hebei and Shandong. After its capital was moved from Anyi to Daliang during the reign of King Hui, Wei was called Liang. Surviving sources trace the ruling house of Wei to the Zhou royalty: Gao, Duke of Bi, was a son of King Wen of Zhou, his descendants took their surname from his fief. After the destruction of Bi by the Xionites, Bi Wan escaped to Jin, where he became a courtier of Duke Xian's, accompanying his personal carriage. After a successful military expedition, Bi Wan was granted Wei, from which his own descendants founded the house of Wei. Jin's political structure was drastically changed after the slaughter of its ruling dynasty during and after the Li Ji Unrest. Afterwards, "Jin ha no princely house" and its political power diffused into extended relations of the ruling family, including the Wei.
In the last years of the Spring and Autumn period, the founders of Wei and Han joined to attack and kill the dominant house of Zhi in 453 BCE, resulting in the partition of Jin. King Weilie of Zhou legitimized the situation in 403 BCE, when he elevated the three houses' heads to the rank of marquess; the state reached its apogee during the reigns of its first two rulers, Marquess Wen of Wei and Marquess Wu of Wei. The third ruler, King Hui of Wei, declared himself an independent sovereign and concentrated on economic developments, including irrigation projects at the Yellow River. Hui felt that their land a barren waste, he focused on conquering the well-settled eastern lands. However, a series of battles including the battle of Maling in 341 BCE checked Wei's ambitions while Qin's expansion went unimpeded, boosting its economy and military strength. Early strengthening of the state of Wei resulted from adoption of Legalist reforms proposed by Li Kui. Wei lost the western Hexi region, a strategic area of pastoral land on the west bank of the Yellow River between the border of modern-day Shanxi and Shaanxi, to Qin.
Thereafter, it remained continuously at war with Qin, requiring the capital to be moved from Anyi to Daliang. Wei surrendered to Qin in 225 BCE, after the Qin general Wang Ben diverted the Yellow River into Daliang, destroying the capital in a flood. Marquess Wen of Wei, personal name Si or Du, Marquess Wu of Wei, personal name Ji, son of Marquess Wen, King Hui of Wei, personal name Ying, son of Marquess Wu, King Xiang of Wei, personal name Si or He, son of King Hui, King Zhao of Wei, personal name Chi, son of King Xiang, King Anxi of Wei,personal name Yu, son of King Zhao, King Jingmin of Wei, personal name Zeng or Wu, son of King Anxi, King Jia, personal name Jia, son of King Jingmin, According to Sima Qian's Records of the Grand Historian written in the 1st century BCE, the list of rulers is different: King Hui died in 335 BCE and was succeeded by his son King Xiang in 334 BCE. King Xiang died in 319 BCE and was succeeded by his son King Ai, who died in 296 BCE and was succeeded by his son King Zhao.
However, the majority of scholars and commentators believe that King Ai, whose personal name is not recorded, never existed. It seems that Sima Qian assigned the second part of the reign of King Hui to his son King Xiang and added King Ai to fill in the gap between 319 and 296 BCE. On the other hand, a minority of scholars believe. Li Kui, a Legalist philosopher and chancellor Yue Yang, ancestor of Yue Yi and prime minister of Zhongshan Pang Juan, a successful general, defeated by Lord Mengchang of Qi and Sun Bin at the battle of Maling According to the Han Feizi, King Anxi had a lover named Lord Long Yang, with whom he enjoyed fishing. One day, Long began to weep; when questioned, Long said. Happy to have the catch at first, Long Yang had wanted to throw it back when he caught a better fish, he wept, "I am a previously-caught fish! I will be thrown back!" To show his fidelity to Long Yang, the king declared that, "Anyone who dares to speak of other beauties will be executed along with his entire family".
In traditional Chinese astronomy, Wei is represented by one star in the "Twelve States" asterism of the "Girl" lunar mansion of the "Black Turtle" symbol and other star in the "Left Wall" of the "Heavenly Market" enclosure. Sources differ, however, in whether those two stars are 33 Capricorni and Delta Herculis or whether they are Chi Capricorni and Phi Capricorni. Liang, the earlier state of that name Liang, the continuation of the title in dynasties
Zhao was one of the seven major states during the Warring States period of ancient China. It was created from the three-way Partition of Jin, together with Han and Wei, in the 5th century BC. Zhao gained significant strength from the military reforms initiated during King Wuling's reign, but suffered a crushing defeat at the hands of Qin at the Battle of Changping, its territory included areas now in modern Inner Mongolia, Hebei and Shaanxi provinces. It bordered the Xiongnu, the states of Qin and Yan, its capital was Handan, in modern Hebei Province. Zhao was home to administrative philosopher Shen Dao, sophist Gongsun Long and the Confucian Xun Kuang; the Zhao clan within Jin had accumulated power for centuries, including annexing the Baidi state of Dai for themselves during the mid-5th century BC. At the end of the Spring and Autumn Period, Jin was divided up between three powerful ministers. In 403 BC, the king of Zhou formally recognized the existence of the State of Zhao along with two other States and Wei, marking the start of the Warring States Period.
At the onset of the Warring States period, Zhao was one of the weaker states. Despite its extensive territory, its northern border was subject to harassment by the Xiongnu and by other northern nomadic peoples. At the same time, Zhao was surrounded by strong states and lacked the military strength of Wei or the prosperity of Qi. Zhao became a pawn in the struggle between the states of Wei and Qi, this struggle came to a climax in 354 BC when Wei invaded Zhao, Zhao had to seek aid from Qi; the resulting Battle of Guiling was a major victory for Qi, it lessened the threat to Zhao's southern border. Zhao remained weak until the military reforms of King Wuling of Zhao; the soldiers of Zhao were ordered to dress like their Xiongnu neighbours and to replace war chariots with cavalry archers. This reform proved to be a brilliant strategy. With the advanced technology of the Chinese states and nomadic tactics, the cavalry of Zhao became a powerful force; the result was that the newly strengthened Zhao was evenly matched against its greatest enemy, the state of Qi.
Zhao demonstrated its enhanced military prowess by conquering the State of Zhongshan in 295 BC after a prolonged war, annexing territory from its neighbouring states of Wei and Qin. During this time, the cavalry of Zhao occasionally intruded into the state of Qi in campaigns against the state of Chu. Several brilliant military commanders of the period appeared concurrently, including Lian Po, Zhao She and Li Mu. Lian Po proved instrumental in defending Zhao against the Qin. Zhao She was most active in the east. Li Mu defended Zhao from the Xiongnu and from Qin. By the end of the Warring States Period, Zhao was the only state strong enough to oppose the powerful Qin state. An alliance with Wei against Qin commenced in 287 BC but ended in defeat at Huayang in 273 BC; the struggle culminated in the bloodiest battle of the whole period, the Battle of Changping in 260 BC. The troops of Zhao were defeated by Qin. Although the forces of Wei and Chu saved Handan from a follow-up siege by the victorious Qin, Zhao would never recover from the enormous loss of men in the battle.
In 229 BC, invasions led by the Qin general Wang Jian were opposed by Li Mu and his subordinate officer Sima Shang until 228 BC. Li Mu was one of the best generals of the Warring States era, although he was unable to defeat Wang Jian, Wang Jian was unable to make headway either; the invasion developed into a stalemate. Realizing that he had to get rid of Li Mu to conquer Zhao, the emperor of Qin, Qin Shihuang, attempted to sow discord among the Zhao leadership. Zhao King Youmiu fell for the scheme: acting on faulty advice from disloyal court officials and Qin infiltrators, he ordered the execution of Li Mu and relieved Sima Shang from his duties. Li Mu's replacement, Zhao Cong, was promptly defeated by Wang Jian. Qin captured King Youmiu and conquered Zhao in 228 BC. Prince Jia, the stepbrother of King Qian, was proclaimed King Jia at Dai and led the last Zhao forces against the Qin; the regime lasted until 222 BC, when the Qin army defeated his forces at Dai. In 154 BC, an unrelated Zhao, headed by Liu Sui, the Prince of Zhao kingdom, participated in the unsuccessful Rebellion of the Seven States against the newly installed second emperor of the Han dynasty.
Before the state of Qin unified China in 221 BC, each region had their own unique customs and culture, although they were all dominated by an upper class that shared a common culture. In the Yu Gong, a section of the Book of Documents, most composed in the 4th century BC, the author describes a China, divided into nine regions, each with its own distinctive peoples and products; the core theme of this section is that these nine regions are unified into one state by the travels of the eponymous sage, Yu the Great and by sending each region's unique goods to the capital as tribute. Other texts discussed these regional variations in culture and physical environments. One of these texts was Wuzi, a Warring States military treatise written in response to a query by Marquis Wu of Wei on how to cope with the other states. Wu Qi, the author of the work, declared that the government and nature of the people were linked to the physical environment and territory they live in. Of Zhao, he said: The two states of Han and Zhao train their troops rigorously but have difficulty in applying their skills to the battlefield.
Han and Zhao are states of the Central Plain. Theirs are a gentle p