King in Prussia

King in Prussia was a title used by the Prussian kings from 1701 to 1772. Subsequently, they used the title King of Prussia; the House of Hohenzollern ruled Brandenburg as Prince-Electors, were subjects of the Holy Roman Emperor. Since 1618, the Electors of Brandenburg had ruled the Duchy of Prussia, which lay outside the empire, in a personal union; the dual state was known unofficially as Brandenburg-Prussia. The dukes of Prussia held the fief as vassals of the King of Poland, until the Treaties of Labiau and Bromberg, with which Frederick William, the Great Elector, achieved full sovereignty from the Polish Crown. In 1701 Elector Frederick III wanted to show his greatness by adopting the title king. In the Crown Treaty of 16 November 1700, in return for Hohenzollern assistance in the War of the Spanish Succession and support for the Habsburg candidate in the subsequent election, Emperor Leopold I allowed Frederick to crown himself "King in Prussia". Only two royal titles were permitted within the borders of the Holy Roman Empire–King of the Romans and King of Bohemia.

However, Prussia lay outside the empire, the Hohenzollerns were sovereign over it. Frederick thus argued; the title "King in Prussia" reflected the legal fiction that Frederick was only sovereign over his former duchy. In Brandenburg and the other Hohenzollern domains within the borders of the empire, he was still an elector under the ultimate overlordship of the emperor. By this time, the emperor's authority had become purely nominal; the rulers of the empire's member states acted as the rulers of sovereign states, only acknowledged the emperor's suzerainty in a formal way. Hence though Brandenburg was still part of the empire and ruled in personal union with Prussia, it soon came to be treated as a de facto part of Prussia. On 17 January 1701, Frederick dedicated the royal coat of arms, the Prussian black eagle with the motto "suum cuique" imprinted. On 18 January, he crowned himself and his wife Sophie Charlotte in a baroque ceremony in Königsberg Castle. So, Frederick's move was controversial, only became accepted after the Treaty of Utrecht in 1713.

The title "King of Prussia" implied lordship over the entire Prussian region, not the former Duchy of Prussia, now the Kingdom of Prussia. The assumption of such a title by the Hohenzollern margraves would have threatened neighboring Poland. Throughout the 18th century, the Hohenzollerns increased their power, they were victorious over the Austrian Habsburg Monarchy in the three Silesian Wars increasing their power through the acquisition of Silesia. King Frederick II adopted the title King of Prussia in 1772, the same year he annexed most of Royal Prussia in the First Partition of Poland; the kings of Prussia continued to be Electors of Brandenburg until the empire's dissolution in 1806. Brandenburg was made a Prussian province, Berlin became the kingdom's capital. List of monarchs of Prussia

Palace of Nestor

The Palace of Nestor was an important centre in Mycenaean times, described in Homer's Odyssey and Iliad as Nestor's kingdom of "sandy Pylos". The palace featured in the story of the Trojan War, as Homer tells us that Telemachus: The site is the best preserved Mycenaean Greek palace discovered; the palace is the primary structure within a larger Late Helladic era settlement, once surrounded by a fortified wall. The palace was a two-storey building with store rooms, baths, light wells, reception rooms and a sewage system; the settlement had been long occupied with most artifacts discovered dating from 1300 BC. The palace complex was destroyed by fire around 1200 BC. In June 2016 the site re-opened to the public after the roof was replaced by a modern structure with raised walkways for visitors; the site is on the hill of Epano Englianos, situated close to the road 4 kilometres south of Chora and 17 kilometres north of Pylos, at 150 metres above sea level and in an area of 170 metres by 90 metres.

In 1912 and 1926 two tholos tombs north of the Bay of Navarino were excavated. One contained three decorated jars and the other a collection of Early Mycenaean and Middle Helladic pots. A joint Hellenic-American expedition was formed with the Greek Archaeological Service and the University of Cincinnati and trial excavations of Epano Englianos were started on 4 April 1939. From the first day stone walls, fresco fragments, Mycenaean pottery and inscribed tablets were found. During excavation in 1939 around 1,000 Linear B tablets were found which after translation showed that they consisted of part of the royal archive. A systematic excavation was impossible throughout World War II and excavations resumed in 1952. From 1952 to 1966 the Palace was uncovered with areas around the acropolis being further explored. In 2015 the University of Cincinnati uncovered; this undisturbed burial of a Mycenaean warrior, called the "griffin warrior" by the team, yielded gold rings, bronze weapons, many other artifacts.

The iconography of the artifacts displays a mixture of Mycenaean culture. The Linear B clay tablets confirm that the palace served as the administrative and financial centre of Mycenaean Messenia. Enkheljāwōn, a person whom modern scholars regard as a possible king of Mycenaean Pylos Blegen, Carl William. A Guide to the Palace of Nestor, Mycenaean Sites in its Environs and the Chora Museum, ASCSA, ISBN 978-0876616406 Blegen, Carl William. 1. The buildings and their contents, by C. W. Blegen and M. Rawson. Pt. 1. Text. pt. 2. Illustrations. v. 2. The frescoes, by M. L. Lang. v. 3. Acropolis and lower town: tholoi, grave circle, chamber tombs. Pylos Project, University of Minnesota Garland, Daily life of the ancient Greeks, ABC-CLIO, ISBN 9780313358142 The Griffin Warrior Tomb


Beizhen is a city in west-central Liaoning province of Northeast China. It is under the administration of Jinzhou City. In 1123, the Jin Dynasty set Guangning County in nowadays Beizhen. In Ming Dynasty, the town of Guangning became a base of the Ming troops in Liaotung and a prosperous border trading center. In 1913, the name was changed to Beizhen, an alternative name of the Yiwulü Mountain meaning "the guarding mountain of the North". In 1995, Beizhen County became Beining City, the name of, changed to the current name. There are three subdistricts, 14 towns, six townships under the city's administration. Subdistricts: Beizhen Subdistrict, Guangning Subdistrict, Guanyin'ge Subdistrict Towns: Dashi, Zheng'an, Zhong'an, Changxingdian, Lüyang, Liaotun, Gaoshanzi, Zhaotun Townships: Futun Township, Baojia Township, Datun Township, Liujia Township, Wucheng Township, Liaocheng Township, Beizhen