Sagas are stories about ancient Nordic and Germanic history, early Viking voyages, the battles that took place during the voyages, migration to Iceland and of feuds between Icelandic families. They were written in the Old Norse language in Iceland; the texts are tales in prose which share some similarities with the epic with stanzas or whole poems in alliterative verse embedded in the text, of heroic deeds of days long gone, "tales of worthy men," who were Vikings, sometimes pagan, sometimes Christian. The tales are realistic, except legendary sagas, sagas of saints, sagas of bishops and translated or recomposed romances, they are sometimes fantastic. The term saga originates from the Norse saga, refers to "what is said, statement" or "story, history", it is cognate with the English word saw, the German Sage. Icelandic sagas are based on oral traditions and much research has focused on what is real and what is fiction within each tale; the accuracy of the sagas is hotly disputed. Most of the manuscripts in which the sagas are preserved were taken to Denmark and Sweden in the 17th century, but returned to Iceland.
Classic sagas were composed in the 13th century. Scholars once believed that these sagas were transmitted orally from generation to generation until scribes wrote them down in the 13th century. However, most scholars now believe the sagas were conscious artistic creations, based on both oral and written tradition. A study focusing on the description of the items of clothing mentioned in the sagas concludes that the authors attempted to create a historic "feel" to the story, by dressing the characters in what was at the time thought to be "old fashioned clothing". However, this clothing is not contemporary with the events of the saga as it is a closer match to the clothing worn in the 12th century. There are plenty of tales of everyday people and larger than life characters; the sagas describe a part of the history of some of the Nordic countries. The British Isles, northern France and North America are mentioned, it was only that the tales of the voyages to North America were authenticated. Most sagas of Icelanders take place in the period 930–1030, called söguöld in Icelandic history.
The sagas of kings, contemporary sagas have their own time frame. Most were written down between 1190 and 1320, sometimes existing as oral traditions long before, others are pure fiction, for some we do know the sources: the author of King Sverrir's saga had met the king and used him as a source. Norse sagas are classified as: the Kings' sagas, sagas of Icelanders, Short tales of Icelanders, Contemporary sagas, Legendary sagas, Chivalric sagas, Saints' sagas and bishops' sagas. Kings' sagas are of the lives of Scandinavian kings, they were composed in the 12th to 14th centuries. The Icelanders' sagas, a.k.a. Family Sagas, are stories of real events, passed in oral form till they were recorded in the 13th century; these are the highest form of the classical Icelandic saga writing. Some well-known examples include Laxdæla saga and Grettis saga; the material of the Short tales of Icelanders sagas is similar to Íslendinga sögur, in shorter form. The narratives of the Contemporary Sagas are set in 12th- and 13th-century Iceland, were written soon after the events they describe.
Most are preserved in the compilation Sturlunga saga, though some, such as Arons saga Hjörleifssonar are preserved separately. Legendary Sagas blend remote history with legend; the aim is on entertainment. Scandinavia's pagan past was a heroic history for the Icelanders. Chivalric sagas are translations of Latin pseudo-historical works and French chansons de geste as well as native creations in the same style. While sagas are anonymous, a distinctive literary movement in the 14th century involves sagas on religious topics, with identifiable authors and a distinctive Latinate style. Associated with Iceland's northern diocese of Hólar, this movement is known as the North Icelandic Benedictine School. Styrbjarnar þáttr Svíakappa Hróa þáttr heimska Eymundar þáttr hrings Eindriða þáttr ok Erlings "Saga" is a word originating from Old Norse or Icelandic language. Saga is a cognate of the English word say: its various meanings in Icelandic are equivalent to "something said" or "a narrative in prose", along the lines of a "story", "tale" or "history".
Through the centuries, the word saga has gained a broader meaning in Nordic languages. In contemporary Swedish and Danish it describes a epic work of fiction. Folksaga means folk tale. Konstsaga is the Swedish term for a fairy tale by a known author, such as Hans Christian Andersen or Astrid Lindgren, while the Danish and Norwegian term is kunsteventyr. Saga can be a work of fantasy fiction. J. R. R. Tolkien's The Lord of the Rings series was translated into Swedish by Åke Ohlmarks with the title Sagan om ringen: "The Saga of the Ring"; the 2004 translation was titled a literal translation from the original. Icelandic journalist Þorsteinn Thorarensen translated the work into Hringadróttins saga meaning "Saga of the Lord of the Ri
Gizur, Gizurr or Gissur was a King of the Geats. He appears in The Battle of the Goths and Huns, included in the Hervarar saga and in editions of the Poetic Edda. Gizur was the foster-father of Heidrek, who made a coup-d'état in Reidgotaland, the land of the Goths; when Heidrek was dead, Gizur arrived in the Goth capital Arheimar on the Dniepr to pay homage to his foster-son. Heidrek's son Angantyr, the new king of the Goths, held a great banquet in the honour of his father. Heidrek's illegitimate son Hlöd, who had grown up among the Huns, arrived to claim his share of the inheritance. Angantyr offered a great many riches and a third of the Goth kingdom, but before Hlöd could answer, Gizur reminded Angantyr that Hlöd was only a bastard son and did not deserve such riches; this caused an invasion of the Hunnish Horde, prospects looked grim. Gizur supported Angantyr and helped him fight the Horde with his own Geatish forces. Since he helped the Goths, Hlöd mockingly called the king the Grýtingaliði, an Ostrogoth warrior and "Angantyr's man"
Hygelac was a king of the Geats according to the poem Beowulf. It is Hygelac's presence in the poem which has allowed scholars to tentatively date the setting of the poem as well as to infer that it contains at least some points of historical fact. Beowulf gives Hygelac's genealogy: according to the poem, he was the son of Hrethel and had two brothers Herebeald and Hæþcyn, as well as an unnamed sister, married to Ecgtheow and mother of the hero Beowulf. Hygelac was married to Hygd, they had a son Heardred and an unnamed daughter who married Eofor; when Hygelac's brother Hæþcyn was fighting with the Swedes, Hygelac arrived at Hrefnesholt one day too late to save his brother Hæþcyn, but he managed to rescue the surviving Geatish warriors, who were besieged by the Swedish king Ongentheow and his three sons. The Swedes were assaulted by the Geats. In the battle, the Swedish king was slain by Eofor. After the death of his brother Herebeald, Hygelac ascended the Geatish throne. After he was killed during a raid on Frisia, Hygelac was succeeded by Heardred, according to Beowulf.
The raid to Frisia enabled N. F. S. Grundtvig to approximate the date of Hygelac's death to ca 516, because a raid to France under a King Chlochilaicus, king of the Danes, is mentioned by Gregory of Tours. In that source he is recorded as invading the Frankish Kingdoms during the reign of Theodericus I, the son of Clovis, the king of the Franks in the early sixth century, was killed in the ensuing chaos after the Scandinavian raiders were caught by the sudden appearance of a military response force led by Theodebertus, the son of Theodocius. Gregory of Tours calls this king Chlochilaicus Danish, he is called the king of Getae in the Liber Monstrorum and king of the Goths in Liber historiae Francorum. After cutting the Geatish danger, the rest of the survivors took to sea in such disordered haste that they left their dead on the field, including their king; the Franks must have taken back whatever had been taken in pillage as well as spoils of the battlefield. There are two theories on how the account of Chlochilaicus' raid came to be preserved in the epic Beowulf, they have a bearing upon the date assigned to the poem.
It may date to the early 8th century, but some have suggested that it was composed as late as the 10th century, the date of the sole surviving manuscript. One view considers the account to have kept alive by the oral tradition of heroic poetry until it was included in the epos, it has been suggested that the poem is dependent on Liber historiae Francorum, because it mentions the Attoarii, which in Beowulf become Hetware. One scholar considers it to be inconceivable that independent oral tradition would have faithfully transmitted such a detail. Walter Goffart estimated that Beowulf could not have been written with these historical details before 923. Hugleik Chlochilaicus Storms, Godfrid. "The Significance of Hygelac's Raid". Nottingham Mediaeval Studies. University of Nottingham. XIV: 3–26. Doi:10.1484/J. NMS.3.44
Gesta Danorum is a patriotic work of Danish history, by the 13th century author Saxo Grammaticus. It is the most ambitious literary undertaking of medieval Denmark and is an essential source for the nation's early history, it is one of the oldest known written documents about the history of Estonia and Latvia. Consisting of sixteen books written in Latin on the invitation of Archbishop Absalon, Gesta Danorum describes Danish history and to some degree Scandinavian history in general, from prehistory to the late 12th century. In addition, Gesta Danorum offers singular reflections on European affairs in the High Middle Ages from a unique Scandinavian perspective, supplementing what has been handed down by historians from Western and Southern Europe; the sixteen books, in prose with an occasional excursion into poetry, can be categorized into two parts: Books 1-9, which deal with Norse mythology and semi-legendary Danish history, Books 10-16, which deal with medieval history. Book 9 ends with Gorm the Old.
The last three books, which describe Danish conquests on the south shore of the Baltic Sea and wars against Slavic peoples, are valuable for the history of West Slavic tribes and Slavic paganism. Book 14 contains a unique description of the temple on the island of Rügen; when Gesta Danorum was written is the subject of numerous works. The last event described in the last book is King Canute VI of Denmark subduing Pomerania under Duke Bogislaw I, in 1186; however the preface of the work, dictated to Archbishop Anders Sunesen, mentions the Danish conquest of the areas north of the Elbe in 1208. Book 14, comprising nearly one-quarter of the text of the entire work, ends with Absalon's appointment to archbishop in 1178. Since this book is so large and Absalon has greater importance than King Valdemar I, this book may have been written first and comprised a work on its own, it is possible that Saxo enlarged it with Books 15 and 16, telling the story of King Valdemar I's last years and King Canute VI's first years.
It is believed that Saxo wrote Books 11, 12, 13. Svend Aagesen's history of Denmark, Brevis Historia Regum Dacie, states that Saxo had decided to write about "The king-father and his sons," which would be King Sweyn Estridson, in Books 11, 12, 13, he would add the first ten books. This would explain the 22 years between the last event described in the last book and the 1208 event described in the preface; the original manuscripts of the work are lost, except for four fragments: the Angers Fragment, Lassen Fragment, Kall-Rasmussen Fragment and Plesner Fragment. The Angers Fragment is the biggest fragment, the only one attested to be in Saxo’s own handwriting; the other ones are copies from. 1275. All four fragments are in the collection of the Danish Royal Library in Denmark; the text has, survived. In 1510–1512, Christiern Pedersen, a Danish translator working in Paris, searched Denmark high and low for an existing copy of Saxo’s works, which by that time was nearly all but lost. By that time most knowledge of Saxo’s work came from a summary located in Chronica Jutensis, from around 1342, called Compendium Saxonis.
It is in this summary that the name Gesta Danorum is found. The title Saxo. Christiern Pedersen found a copy in the collection of Archbishop Birger Gunnersen of Lund, Skåne, which he gladly lent him. With the help of printer Jodocus Badius, Gesta Danorum was printed; the first printed press publication and the oldest known complete text of Saxo’s works is Christiern Pedersen's Latin edition and published by Jodocus Badius in Paris, France on 15 March 1514 under the title of Danorum Regum heroumque Historiae. The edition features the following colophon:...impressit in inclyta Parrhisorum academia Iodocus Badius Ascensius Idibus Martiis. MDXIIII. Supputatione Romana.. The full front page reads in Latin: Danorum Regum heroumque Historiae stilo eleganti a Saxone Grammatico natione Zialandico necnon Roskildensis ecclesiae praeposito, abhinc supra trecentos annos conscriptae et nunc primum literaria serie illustratae tersissimeque impressae. Danish language: De danske Kongers og Heltes Historie, skrevet i pyntelig Stil for over 300 Aar siden af Saxo Grammaticus, en Sjællandsfar og Provst ved Kirken i Roskilde, og nu for første Gang oplyst ved et Register og omhyggeligt trykt.
English language: Histories of the Kings and heroes of the Danes, composed in elegant style by Saxo Grammaticus, a Zealander and provost of the church of Roskilde, over three hundred years ago, now for the first time illustrated and printed in a learned compilation. The source of all existing translations and new editions is Christiern Pedersen's Latin Danorum Regum heroumque Historiae. There exist a number of different translations today, some complete, some partial: Christiern Pedersen, Danorum Regum heroumque Historiae Johannes Oporinus, Saxonis Grammatici Danorum Historiae Libri XVI Philip Lonicer, Danica Historia Libris XVI Stephan Hansen Stephanius, Saxonis Grammatici Historiæ Danicæ Libri XVI Christian Adolph Klotz, Saxonis Grammatici Historiae Danicae libri XVI Peter Erasmus Müller, Saxonis Grammatici Historia Danica Alfred Holder, Saxonis Grammatici Gesta Danorum Jørgen Olrik.
The Huns were a nomadic people who lived in Central Asia, the Caucasus, Eastern Europe, between the 4th and 6th century AD. According to European tradition, they were first reported living east of the Volga River, in an area, part of Scythia at the time. By 370 AD, the Huns had arrived on the Volga, by 430 the Huns had established a vast, if short-lived, dominion in Europe, conquering the Goths and many other Germanic peoples living outside of Roman borders, causing many others to flee into Roman territory; the Huns under their King Attila made frequent and devastating raids into the Eastern Roman Empire. In 451, the Huns invaded the Western Roman province of Gaul, where they fought a combined army of Romans and Visigoths at the Battle of the Catalaunian Fields, in 452 they invaded Italy. After Attila's death in 453, the Huns ceased to be a major threat to Rome and lost much of their empire following the Battle of Nedao. Descendants of the Huns, or successors with similar names, are recorded by neighbouring populations to the south and west as having occupied parts of Eastern Europe and Central Asia from about the 4th to 6th centuries.
Variants of the Hun name are recorded in the Caucasus until the early 8th century. In the 18th century, the French scholar Joseph de Guignes became the first to propose a link between the Huns and the Xiongnu people, who were northern neighbours of China in the 3rd century BC. Since Guignes' time, considerable scholarly effort has been devoted to investigating such a connection; the issue remains controversial. Their relationships to other peoples known collectively as the Iranian Huns are disputed. Little is known about Hunnic culture and few archaeological remains have been conclusively associated with the Huns, they are believed to have used bronze cauldrons and to have performed artificial cranial deformation. No description exists of the Hunnic religion of the time of Attila, but practices such as divination are attested, the existence of shamans likely, it is known that the Huns had a language of their own, however only three words and personal names attest to it. Economically, they are known to have practiced a form of nomadic pastoralism.
They do not seem to have had a unified government when they entered Europe, but rather to have developed a unified tribal leadership in the course of their wars with the Romans. The Huns ruled over a variety of peoples, who spoke various languages and some of whom maintained their own rulers, their main military technique was mounted archery. The Huns may have stimulated the Great Migration, a contributing factor in the collapse of the Western Roman Empire; the memory of the Huns lived on in various Christian saints' lives, where the Huns play the roles of antagonists, as well as in Germanic heroic legend, where the Huns are variously antagonists or allies to the Germanic main figures. In Hungary, a legend developed based on medieval chronicles that the Hungarians, the Székely ethnic group in particular, are descended from the Huns. However, mainstream scholarship dismisses a close connection between the Huns. Modern culture associates the Huns with extreme cruelty and barbarism; the origins of the Huns and their links to other steppe people remain uncertain: scholars agree that they originated in Central Asia but disagree on the specifics of their origins.
Classical sources assert that they appeared in Europe around 370. Most Roman writers' attempts to elucidate the origins of the Huns equated them with earlier steppe peoples. Roman writers repeated a tale that the Huns had entered the domain of the Goths while they were pursuing a wild stag, or else one of their cows that had gotten loose, across the Kerch Strait into Crimea. Discovering the land good, they attacked the Goths. Jordanes' Getica relates that the Goths held the Huns to be offspring of "unclean spirits" and Gothic witches. Since Joseph de Guignes in the 18th century, modern historians have associated the Huns who appeared on the borders of Europe in the 4th century AD with the Xiongnu who had invaded China from the territory of present-day Mongolia between the 3rd century BC and the 2nd century AD. Due to the devastating defeat by the Chinese Han dynasty, the northern branch of the Xiongnu had retreated north-westward. Scholars discussed the relationship between the Xungnu, the Huns, a number of people in central Asia were known as or came to be identified with the name "Hun" or "Iranian Huns", the Chionites, the Kidarites, the Hephthalites being the most prominent.
Otto J. Maenchen-Helfen was the first to challenge the traditional approach, based on the study of written sources, to emphasize the importance of archaeological research. Since Maenchen-Helfen's work, the identification of the Xiongnu as the Huns' ancestors has become controversial. Additionally, several scholars have questioned the identification of the "Iranian Huns" with the European Huns. Walter Pohl cautions that none of the great confederations of steppe warriors was ethnically homogenous, the same name was used by different groups for reasons of prestige, or by outsiders to describe their lifestyle or geographic origin, it is therefore futile to speculate about identity or blood relationships between Hiung-nu, Attila's Huns, for instance. All we can safely say is that the name Huns, in
Wiglaf is a character in the Anglo-Saxon epic poem Beowulf. He is the son of Weohstan, a Swede of the Wægmunding clan who had entered the service of Beowulf, king of the Geats. Wiglaf is called Scylfing as a metonym for Swede. While in the service of the Scylfing Onela, king of the Swedes, Weohstan killed the rebel prince Eanmund and took his sword as a trophy. Weohstan belonged to the clan of the Wægmundings, the same clan Beowulf's father Ecgþeow belonged to. Wiglaf first appears in Beowulf at line 2602, as a member of the band of thanes who go with Beowulf to seek out the dragon that has attacked Geat-Land; this is the first time. He is called a "praise-worthy shield-warrior", a "prince of the Scylfings", mæg ælfheres, "kinsman of Ælfhere."When Beowulf damages his sword wounding the dragon and is burned by the dragon's fire, Wiglaf is the only man of Beowulf's band to overcome his fear of the dragon. He goes to Beowulf's aid crying words of encouragement. Wiglaf does not retreat; when Beowulf wounds the dragon a second time, striking so hard his sword shatters, Wiglaf strikes at the open wound with his own sword, tearing at the dragon's throat so it can no longer breathe fire.
His hand is badly burned. The poet says of Wiglaf, "So should a man be, a thane at need!"At Beowulf's command, Wiglaf gathers treasure from the dragon's lair and piles it where Beowulf can see it. The dying Beowulf tells Wiglaf to "watch his people's needs" He tells Wiglaf to build him a funeral mound and gives Wiglaf his rings and mail-shirt, he says that Wiglaf is now "the last of the Wægmundings."The other eleven men that came with Beowulf gather around the body, Wiglaf condemns them for their failure of duty and declares that he will order them exiled. He sends a messenger to tell the other Geats; when the Geats have gathered, Wiglaf addresses them, mourning Beowulf's death and expressing dismay at the bleak future of the Geats without Beowulf to guard them. Wiglaf's last appearance is at line 3120, where he chooses seven thanes to help him push the dragon's corpse over the cliff into the sea, loot the lair, lay the treasure on Beowulf's funeral pyre. An apparent example of etymological refraction can be found within Beowulf through Wiglaf's name.
When he first enters battle alongside his lord the poet structures the words of the poem in such a way that reflect greater significance of Wiglaf's name. The separation and reversal and elements of the name within the manuscript form of Beowulf suggest that the name Wiglaf signifies being the inheritor of strength or being one, fulfilled through battle according to Dr. Patrick J. Gallacher and Dr. Helen Damico at the University of New Mexico. Wiglaf is able to be divided in this way; the elements combined are laf. An alternate understanding of the name in the context of a typical dithematic name, where the two elements may be as independent in meaning as separate names, "laf" could be read as "one who remains, one who survives or endures". Gallacher and Damico have acknowledged this alternative interpretation but feel that it is unnecessary to argue that one discernible element within a name submerges another as all interpretations are collectively useful in the pursuit of deep analysis. In the 1981 animated film Grendel Grendel Grendel, Wiglaf is portrayed as one of Hrothgar's thanes rather than an ally of Beowulf, is killed by Grendel.
In the 2007 film Beowulf, Wiglaf's role is larger. The film makes Wiglaf into the second-in-command and the best friend of the epic hero. In the 2018 Harry Potter fan-made film Voldemort: Origins of the Heir, the descendant of Rowena Ravenclaw is named Wiglaf Sigurdsson; the Wanderer
Peter Nicolai Arbo
Peter Nicolai Arbo was a Norwegian historical painter, who specialized in painting motifs from Norwegian history and images from Norse mythology. He is most noted for The wild Hunt of Odin, a dramatic motif based on the Wild Hunt legend and Valkyrie, which depicts a female figure from Norse mythology. Peter Nicolai Arbo grew up at Gulskogen Manor in a borough in Drammen, Norway, he was his wife Marie Christiane von Rosen. His brother Carl Oscar Eugen Arbo was a military medical doctor and a pioneer in Norwegian anthropologic studies. Arbo's childhood home, was built in 1804 as a summer residence for his older cousin, lumber dealer and industrialist Peter Nicolai Arbo. Arbo started his art education with a year at the Art School operated by Frederik Ferdinand Helsted in Copenhagen. After this, he studied at the art academy in Düsseldorf. From 1853 to 1855 he studied under of Karl Ferdinand Sohn, professor of Kunstakademie Düsseldorf, from 1857 to 1858 under Emil Hünten, a battle and animal painter.
At Düsseldorf he was for some time a private student of the history painter Otto Mengelberg. He had contact with Adolph Tidemand and became a good friend of Hans Gude both of whom were professors at the art academy in Düsseldorf, he is associated with the Düsseldorf school of painting. In 1861 Arbo returned to Norway and the following year he went on a study trip together with Gude and Frederik Collett. In 1863 he painted the first version of Horse flock on the high mountains, a motif he on took up again several times; the version from 1889 is at the National Museum of Art and Design in Oslo and is considered one of the most important of his works. In 1866 he was appointed a Knight of the Royal Norwegian Order of St. Olav and the Knight of Order of Vasa, he held numerous positions, including as a juror in Stockholm in 1866 and Philadelphia in 1876, was Commissioner of the Viennese art department exhibition in 1873. He was a member of the National Gallery Company from 1875 and director of the Christiania Art Society from 1882 until his death.
Drammens Museum is located on the southern side of the Drammen River. In earlier years this was an area of elegant country houses on the magnificent landed property known as Marienlyst. Exhibits of the museum include items from the cultural background of Norway. Drammen museum consists of five departments including Gulskogen Manor, the childhood home Peder Nicolai Arbo. In the many beautiful rooms of Gulskogen Manor, one will find works by this distinguished history-painter. Paintings by Peter Nicolai Arbo Marit I. Lange and Anne Berit Skaug Peter Nicolai Arbo 1831-1892 Leif Østby and Henning Alsvik, Norges billedkunst i det nittende og tyvende århundre Page at Norwegian Wikipedia Gulskogen Manor Drammens Museum