Kingdom (biology)

In biology, kingdom is the second highest taxonomic rank, just below domain. Kingdoms are divided into smaller groups called phyla. Traditionally, some textbooks from the United States and Canada used a system of six kingdoms while textbooks in countries like Great Britain, Greece and other countries used five kingdoms; some recent classifications based on modern cladistics have explicitly abandoned the term "kingdom", noting that the traditional kingdoms are not monophyletic, i.e. do not consist of all the descendants of a common ancestor. When Carl Linnaeus introduced the rank-based system of nomenclature into biology in 1735, the highest rank was given the name "kingdom" and was followed by four other main or principal ranks: class, order and species. Two further main ranks were introduced, making the sequence kingdom, phylum or division, order, family and species. In 1990, the rank of domain was introduced above kingdom. Prefixes can be added so subkingdom and infrakingdom are the two ranks below kingdom.

Superkingdom may be considered as an equivalent of domain or empire or as an independent rank between kingdom and domain or subdomain. In some classification systems the additional rank branch can be inserted between subkingdom and infrakingdom, e.g. Protostomia and Deuterostomia in the classification of Cavalier-Smith. From around the mid-1970s onwards, there was an increasing emphasis on comparisons of genes at the molecular level as the primary factor in classification. Taxonomic ranks, including kingdoms, were to be groups of organisms with a common ancestor, whether monophyletic or paraphyletic. Based on such RNA studies, Carl Woese thought life could be divided into three large divisions and referred to them as the "three primary kingdom" model or "urkingdom" model. In 1990, the name "domain" was proposed for the highest rank; this term represents a synonym for the category of dominion, introduced by Moore in 1974. Unlike Moore, Woese et al. did not suggest a Latin term for this category, which represents a further argument supporting the introduced term dominion.

Woese divided the prokaryotes into two groups, called Eubacteria and Archaebacteria, stressing that there was as much genetic difference between these two groups as between either of them and all eukaryotes. According to genetic data, although eukaryote groups such as plants and animals may look different, they are more related to each other than they are to either the Eubacteria or Archaea, it was found that the eukaryotes are more related to the Archaea than they are to the Eubacteria. Although the primacy of the Eubacteria-Archaea divide has been questioned, it has been upheld by subsequent research. There is no consensus on. In 2004, a review article by Simpson and Roger noted that the Protista were "a grab-bag for all eukaryotes that are not animals, plants or fungi", they held that only monophyletic groups should be accepted as formal ranks in a classification and that – while this approach had been impractical – it had now become possible to divide the eukaryotes into "just a few major groups that are all monophyletic".

On this basis, the diagram opposite showed the real "kingdoms" of the eukaryotes. A classification which followed this approach was produced in 2005 for the International Society of Protistologists, by a committee which "worked in collaboration with specialists from many societies", it divided the eukaryotes into the same six "supergroups". The published classification deliberately did not use formal taxonomic ranks, including that of "kingdom". In this system the multicellular animals are descended from the same ancestor as both the unicellular choanoflagellates and the fungi which form the Opisthokonta. Plants are thought to be more distantly related to fungi. However, in the same year as the International Society of Protistologists' classification was published, doubts were being expressed as to whether some of these supergroups were monophyletic the Chromalveolata, a review in 2006 noted the lack of evidence for several of the six proposed supergroups; as of 2010, there is widespread agreement that the Rhizaria belong with the Stramenopiles and the Alveolata, in a clade dubbed the SAR supergroup, so that Rhizaria is not one of the main eukaryote groups.

Beyond this, there does not appear to be a consensus. Rogozin et al. in 2009 noted that "The deep phylogeny of eukaryotes is an difficult and controversial problem." As of December 2010, there appears to be a consensus that the six supergroup model proposed in 2005 does not reflect the true phylogeny of the eukaryotes and hence how they should be classified, although there is no agreement as to the model which should replace it. The classification of living things into animals and plants is an ancient one. Aristotle classified animal species in his History of Animals, while his pupil Theophrastus wrote a parallel work, the Historia Plantarum, on plants. Carl Linnaeus laid the foundations for modern biological nomenclature, now regulated by the Nomenclature Codes, in 1735, he disting

Occupational lung disease

Occupational lung diseases are occupational, or work-related, lung conditions that have been caused or made worse by the materials a person is exposed to within the workplace. It includes a broad group of diseases, including occupational asthma, industrial bronchitis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, bronchiolitis obliterans, inhalation injury, interstitial lung diseases, lung cancer and mesothelioma; these diseases can be caused directly or due to immunological response to an exposure to a variety of dusts, proteins or organisms. Occupational cases of interstitial lung disease may be misdiagnosed as COPD, idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, or a myriad of other diseases. Asthma is a respiratory disease that can begin or worsen due to exposure at work and is characterized by episodic narrowing of the respiratory tract. Occupational asthma has a variety of causes, including sensitization to a specific substance, causing an allergic response. Exposure to various substances can worsen pre-existing asthma.

People who work in isocyanate manufacturing, who use latex gloves, or who work in an indoor office environment are at higher risk for occupational asthma than the average US worker. 2 million people in the US have occupational asthma. Bronchiolitis obliterans known as constrictive bronchiolitis or obliterative bronchiolitis is a respiratory disease caused by injury to the smallest airways, called bronchioles, it has been reported to occur from exposure to inhaled toxins and gases including sulfur mustard gas, nitrogen oxides, diacetyl, 2,3-pentanedione, fly ash and fiberglass. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is a respiratory disease that can encompass chronic bronchitis and/or emphysema. 15% of the cases of COPD in the United States can be attributed to occupational exposure, including exposure to silica and coal dust. People who work in mining, manufacturing and utilities are at higher risk for COPD than the average US worker. Hypersensitivity pneumonitis is an inflammation of the alveoli within the lung caused by hypersensitivity to inhaled organic dusts.

Numerous categories of ionizing radiation and mixtures, occupational exposures, metals and fibers have been linked to occurrence of lung cancer. Mesothelioma is a cancer of the mesothelium, part of, the pleura, the lining of the lungs. Mesothelioma is caused by exposure to asbestos. Pneumoconiosis are occupational lung diseases that are caused due to accumulation of dust in the lungs and body's reaction to its presence. Most common pneumoconiosis are silicosis, coal workers’ pneumoconiosis, asbestosis. Other examples include minerals, beryllium lung disease, hard metal disease and silicon carbide pneumoconiosis. Arsenic is a cause of lung cancer. Workers can be exposed to arsenic through work in copper smelting. Asbestos is a mineral, extensively used in the United States to fireproof buildings and textiles, among other items, in the 1950s-1980s. Workers are exposed to asbestos during demolition and renovation work, which can cause asbestosis and/or mesothelioma. Asbestos exposure can cause pleural effusion, diffuse pleural fibrosis, pleural plaques, non-mesothelioma lung cancer.

Smoking increases the lung cancer risk of asbestos exposure. Residents and workers of asbestos mining centers such as the town of Asbest, Russia suffer dangerous exposure to asbestos and asbestos dust. BCME is associated with small cell lung cancer in workers. Exposure can occur via its presence as a byproduct. Beryllium is classified as an IARC Group 1 carcinogen and can cause interstitial lung disease. Manufacturing workers, dental technicians, jewelers, electricians, precious metal reclamation workers, welders are at risk for beryllium exposure. Cadmium is classified as an IARC Group 1 carcinogen and it is a cause of several cancers, including lung cancer. Workers can be exposed to cadmium through welding, zinc smelting, copper smelting, lead smelting, battery manufacture, plastics manufacture, in alloying. Chromium is linked to lung cancer. Workers can be exposed to chromium via welding, steel manufacturing, pigment/dye manufacturing, electroplating. Exposure to coal dust is the cause of coalworker's pneumoconiosis called "black lung disease", is an interstitial lung disease caused by long-term exposure to coal dust.

Symptoms lowered pulmonary function. It can be fatal. Between 1970–1974, prevalence of CWP among US coal miners who had worked over 25 years was 32%, it can exacerbate or cause COPD. Diesel exhaust contains a variety of gaseous and particulate chemicals, including soot, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, other known carcinogens. Flocking is the technique of adding small pieces of nylon or other material to a backing a textile, to create a contrasting texture. Inhalation of flock can cause flock worker's lung. Indium lung is an interstitial lung disease caused by occupational exposure to indium tin oxide; the high surface area to volume ratio of nanoparticles may make them an inhalation hazard for workers ex

Clube Atl├ętico Juventus

The Clube Atlético Juventus known as Juventus, is a professional Brazilian football club based in Mooca, a São Paulo neighborhood. Although it was a Campeonato Brasileiro Série B winner once, Juventus nowadays competes only in São Paulo tournaments, like Campeonato Paulista; the team plays in maroon shirts and white shorts, is nicknamed Moleque Travesso. Clube Atlético Juventus was founded on April 20, 1924 by Cotonificio Rodolfo Crespi employees, as Extra São Paulo; the team colors were the colors of São Paulo state, black and red. The club changed its name to Cotonifício Rodolfo Crespi Futebol Clube in 1925, in 1930, the club changed its name again, to Clube Atlético Juventus, because Count Rodolfo Crespi was a supporter of Juventus of Italy, but the team colors are a homage to Italian club Torino Football Club, because Rodolfo Crespi's son, was a supporter of the club from Turin. Pelé states his most beautiful goal was scored at Rua Javari on a Campeonato Paulista match against Juventus on August 2, 1959.

As there was no video footage of this match, Pelé asked that a computer animation be made of this specific goal. This animation can be seen on a documentary about his career; the club won the Copa FPF for the first time in 2007, after defeating Linense in the final, competed in that season's edition of Recopa Sul-Brasileira. Juventus was eliminated in the Campeonato Brasileiro Série C 2007's first stage. Campeonato Brasileiro Série B: Winners: 1983 Campeonato Brasileiro Série C: Runners-up: 1997 Copa FPF: Winners: 2007 Campeonato Paulista Série A2: Winners: 1929, 2005 Copa São Paulo de Futebol Júnior: Winners: 1985 Juventus' home stadium is Estádio Rua Javari, inaugurated in 1929, with a maximum capacity of 4,000 people. Season 2008 Season 2007 Basílio Candinho Edu Marangon Márcio Bittencourt The anthem's author is Carlos Alberto de Jesus Polastro; the club is nicknamed meaning the Mischievous Boy. The nickname was first used on September 14, 1930, by the journalist Thomaz Mazzoni, after Juventus beat Corinthians 2–1 at Estádio Parque São Jorge, Corinthian's home stadium at the time.

Juventus biggest rival is Nacional. Because of the poor performances of both teams on their championships, they've been relegated to different divisions and cannot play a match between them, since 2007. However, in 2014 Nacional AC was promoted from Second Division to Division A3, where Juventus has been played for a couple of years leading to a recent edition of the Juvenal in April 2015. Portuguesa is another direct rival of Juventus, their matches are known as The Immigrants' Derby. Official website Juventus Supporters website