James Jackson Jarves
James Jackson Jarves was an American newspaper editor, art critic, remembered above all as the first American art collector to buy Italian primitives and Old Masters. Jarves was the editor of an early weekly newspaper in the Polynesian. During the 1850s, Jarves relocated to Florence, Italy where he served as the U. S. collected art. When in 1871, the Yale University Art Gallery purchased 119 early Italian paintings from Jarves, spanning the centuries from the tenth to the seventeenth, refused by other American museums, they paid only $22,000. At the expiration of the loan, Yale prevented Jarves' intended auction of the works to another museum; the "Master of the Jarves Cassone" discovered to be Apollonio di Giovanni di Tomaso, was named after him. An honorary Hawaiian citizen, Jarves was awarded the order of Kamehameha I for his diplomatic services to Hawaii while empires fought to control it; the king of Italy appointed him Cavaliere della Corona d'Italia for his contribution to Italian art. His family includes Horatio, Chevalita and Anabel and Italia.
Anabel became Mrs Walter Raleigh Kerr of England and Italia the Duchess del Monte, Marigliano of Italy. Edith Wharton drew upon Jarves' well-known misfortunes in her novella False Dawn; some of his works: History of the Hawaiian or Sandwich Islands: Embracing Their Antiquities, Legends, Discovery by Europeans in the Sixteenth Century, Re-Discovery by Cook, with Their Civil and Political History, from the Earliest Traditionary Period to the Present Time Scenes and Scenery in the Sandwich Islands, a trip through Central America: being observations from my notebooks during the years 1837-1842 Parisian Sights and French Principles, Seen Through American Spectacles Parisian Sights and French Principles, Seen Through American Spectacles, Second Series Art-Hints, Architecture and Painting Italian Sights and Papal Principles, Seen Through American Spectacles Kiana: A Tradition of Hawaii Why and What Am I? The Confessions of an Inquirer, In Three Parts. Part I. Heart-Experience. A Brief Memoir of James Jackson Jarves, Jr.
This list is incomplete. Jarves, J. Jackson, Genius of Doré; the Atlantic Monthly, vol. 24, issue 143. Jarves, J. Jackson, Asceticism, or the Sanctuary of St. Francis; the Galaxy, vol. 8, issue 4. Jarves, J. Jackson, "The Art Journal", 1 August 1869. Jarves, J. Jackson, Museums of Art; the Galaxy, vol. 10, issue 1. Jarves, J. Jackson, A new Phase of Druidism; the Galaxy, vol. 10, issue 6. Jarves, James Jackson, the Home of a Mad Artist; the Atlantic Monthly, vol. 34, issue 203. Jarves, J. Jackson, Ethics of Taste; the Duty of Being Beautiful "The Art Journal", New Series Vol. 1 Jarves, James Jackson, American Museums of Art. Scribner's Monthly, vol. 18, issue 3. Jarves, James Jackson, The New School of Italian Painting and Sculpture. Harper's New Monthly Magazine, vol. 60, issue 358. Jarves, James Jackson and Modern Venetian Glass of Murano. Harper's New Monthly Magazine, vol. 64, issue 380. Jarves, James Jackson, The Gates of Paradise. Harper's New Monthly Magazine, vol. 65, issue 385. Coins of Hawaii Deming Jarves, his father Jarves's A Glimpse at the Art of Japan.
The Atlantic Monthly, vol. 37, issue 224. Jarves's Art-Hints; the North American Review, vol. 81, issue 169. Jarves's Art-Thoughts; the Atlantic Monthly, vol. 25, issue 148. Jarves's History of the Sandwich Islands; the North American Review, vol. 57, issue 120. Jarves's French Principles. Putnam's Monthly Magazine, vol. 7, issue 40. Sirén, Osvald. A Descriptive Catalogue of the Pictures in the Jarves Collection Belonging to Yale University Steegmuller, Francis; the Two Lives of James Jackson Jarves Sturgis, Russell. Manual of the Jarves Collection of Early Italian Pictures James Jackson Jarves, Dictionary of Art Historians James Jackson Jarves Papers and Archives, Yale University Library McKeever, Mary. Guide to the James Jackson Jarves Papers, Yale University Library, May 1972 James Jackson Jarves, Yale University Art Gallery The cleaning and restoration of Antonio Pollaiuolo's Hercules and Deianira, Yale University Art Gallery Hoeniger, Cathleen; the restoration of the early Italian "Primitives" during the 20th century: Valuing art and its consequences, Journal of the American Institute for Conservation 1999, Volume 38, Number 2, Article 3 Branch, Mark Alden.
Lost and Found, Yale Alumni Magazine, May 2000
An ambassador is an official envoy a high-ranking diplomat who represents a state and is accredited to another sovereign state or to an international organization as the resident representative of their own government or sovereign or appointed for a special and temporary diplomatic assignment. The word is often used more liberally for persons who are known, without national appointment, to represent certain professions and fields of endeavor such as sales. An ambassador is the ranking government representative stationed in a foreign capital; the host country allows the ambassador control of specific territory called an embassy, whose territory and vehicles are afforded diplomatic immunity in the host country. Under the Vienna Convention on Diplomatic Relations, an ambassador has the highest diplomatic rank. Countries may choose to maintain diplomatic relations at a lower level by appointing a chargé d'affaires in place of an ambassador; the equivalent to an ambassador exchanged among members of the Commonwealth of Nations are known as High Commissioners.
The "ambassadors" of the Holy See are known as Apostolic Nuncios. The term is derived from Middle English ambassadour, Anglo-French ambassateur of Latin origin from the word Ambaxus-Ambactus, meaning servant or minister; the first known usage of the term was recorded around the 14th century. The foreign government to which an ambassador is assigned must first approve the person. In some cases, the foreign government might reverse its approval by declaring the diplomat a persona non grata, i.e. an unacceptable person. This kind of declaration results in recalling the ambassador to their home nation. In accordance with the Congress of Vienna of 1815 and the 1961 Vienna Convention on Diplomatic Relations, the ambassador and embassy staff are granted diplomatic immunity and personal safety while living abroad. Due to the advent of modern technologies, today's world is a much smaller place in relative terms. With this in mind, it is considered important that the nations of the world have at least a small staff living in foreign capitals in order to aid travelers and visitors from their home nation.
As an officer of the foreign service, an ambassador is expected to protect the citizens of their home country in the host country. Another result of the increase in foreign travel is the growth of trade between nations. For most countries, the national economy is now part of the global economy; this means increased opportunities to trade with other nations. When two nations are conducting a trade, it is advantageous to both parties to have an ambassador and a small staff living in the other land, where they act as an intermediary between cooperative businesses. One of the cornerstones of foreign diplomatic missions is to work for peace; this task can grow into a fight against international terrorism, the drug trade, international bribery, human trafficking. Ambassadors help stop these acts; these activities are important and sensitive and are carried out in coordination with the Defense Ministry of the state and the head of the nation. The rise of the modern diplomatic system was a product of the Italian Renaissance.
The use of ambassadors became a political strategy in Italy during the 17th century. The political changes in Italy altered the role of ambassadors in diplomatic affairs; because many of the states in Italy were small in size, they were vulnerable to larger states. The ambassador system was used to protect the more vulnerable states; this practice spread to Europe during the Italian Wars. The use and creation of ambassadors during the 15th century in Italy has had long-term effects on Europe and, in turn, the world's diplomatic and political progression. Europe still uses the same terms of ambassador rights as they had established in the 16th century, concerning the rights of the ambassadors in host countries as well as the proper diplomatic procedures. An ambassador was used as a representative of the state in which they are from to negotiate and disseminate information in order to keep peace and establish relationships with other states; this attempt was employed in the effort to maintain peaceful relations with nations and make alliances during difficult times.
The use of ambassadors today is widespread. States and non-state actors use diplomatic representatives to deal with any problems that occur within the international system. Ambassadors now live overseas or within the country in which it is assigned to for long periods of time so that they are acquainted with the culture and local people; this way they are more politically effective and trusted, enabling them to accomplish goals that their host country desires. The Congress of Vienna of 1815 formalized the system of diplomatic rank under international law: Ambassadors are diplomats of the highest rank, formally representing the head of state, with plenipotentiary powers. In modern usage, most ambassadors on foreign postings as head of mission carry the full title of Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary. "Ordinary" ambassadors and non-plenipotentiary status are used, although they may be encountered in certain circumstances. The only difference between an extraordinary ambassador and an ordinary ambassador is that while the former's mission is permanent, the latter serves only for a specific purpose.
Among European powers, the ambassador extraordinary and plenipotentiary was regarded as the personal representative of the Sovereign. The custom of dispatching ambassadors to the h
Rwanda–United States relations
Rwanda–United States relations are bilateral relations between Rwanda and the United States. According to the 2012 U. S. Global Leadership Report, 76% of Rwandans approve of U. S. leadership, with 17% disapproving and 7% uncertain. U. S. Government interests have shifted since the 1994 genocide from a humanitarian concern focusing on stability and security to a strong partnership with the Government of Rwanda focusing on sustainable development; the largest U. S. Government programs are the President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief and the President's Malaria Initiative, which aim to reduce the impact of these debilitating diseases in Rwanda. Other activities support good governance and decentralization. Overall U. S. foreign assistance to Rwanda has increased fourfold over the past four years. A major focus of bilateral relations is the U. S. Agency for International Development's program. In support of the overall Government of Rwanda development plan, USAID aims to improve the health and livelihoods of Rwandans and increase economic and political development.
To achieve this, USAID activities focus on: Prevention and care of HIV/AIDS. The Mission is implementing a number of activities related to the goals above, is working with the Millennium Challenge Corporation to obtain approval of the Threshold Country Plan submitted by the Government of Rwanda in November 2007. Once approved, the plan will be implemented by USAID and will focus on strengthening the justice sector and civic participation, promoting civil rights and liberties; the State Department's Public Affairs section maintains a cultural center in Kigali, which offers public access to English-language publications and information on the United States. American business interests have been small. S. investment is limited to the tea industry and small holdings in service and manufacturing concerns. Annual U. S. exports to Rwanda, under $10 million annually from 1990–93, exceeded $40 million in 1994 and 1995. Although exports decreased in the years after the genocide, in 2007 they were estimated at $17 million, a 20% increase over 2006.
Principal U. S. Officials include Ambassador Donald W. Koran, Deputy Chief of Mission Jessica Lapenn, USAID Program Director George Lewis; the U. S. maintains an embassy in Rwanda. In July 2013, the US warned Rwanda to end its support for the March 23 Movement rebels in the Democratic Republic of Congo, after evidence was found that Rwandan military officials were involved. In November 2015, the US criticized a vote by Rwandan lawmakers to approve a change to their constitution to allow President Paul Kagame to serve a third term. A State Department spokesman did not explicitly threaten that US aid to its traditionally close African friend would be cut, but warned ties could be reviewed. Foreign relations of Rwanda Foreign relations of the United States This article incorporates public domain material from the United States Department of State website https://www.state.gov/r/pa/ei/bgn/index.htm. History of Rwanda - U. S. relations Media related to Relations of Rwanda and the United States at Wikimedia Commons
Kingdom of Hawaii
The Kingdom of Hawaiʻi originated in 1795 with the unification of the independent islands of Hawaiʻi, Oʻahu, Molokaʻi, Lānaʻi under one government. In 1810, the whole Hawaiian Islands became unified when Kauaʻi and Niʻihau joined the Kingdom of Hawai‘i voluntarily and without bloodshed or war. Two major dynastic families ruled the House of Kalākaua; the Kingdom won recognition from major European powers. The United States became its chief trading partner; the U. S. watched over the Kingdom. Hawaii was forced to adopt a new constitution in 1887 when King Kalākaua was threatened with violence by the Honolulu Rifles, a white, anti-monarchist militia, to sign it. Queen Liliʻuokalani, who succeeded Kalākaua in 1891, tried to abrogate the 1887 constitution and promulgate a new constitution, but was overthrown in 1893 at the hands of the Committee of Safety, a group of residents consisting of Hawaiian subjects and foreign nationals of American and German descent. Hawaii became a republic until the United States annexed it using The Newlands Resolution, a joint resolution passed on July 4, 1898, by the United States Congress creating the Territory of Hawaii.
In ancient Hawaii, society was divided into multiple classes. At the top of the class system was the aliʻi class with each islands ruled by a separate aliʻi nui. All of these rulers were believed to come from a hereditary line descended from the first Polynesian, who would become the earth mother goddess of the Hawaiian religion. Captain James Cook was the first European to encounter the Hawaiian Islands, on his fourth voyage, he was killed in a dispute over the taking of a longboat. Three years the Island of Hawaii was passed to Kalaniʻōpuʻu's son, Kīwalaʻō, while religious authority was passed to the ruler's nephew, Kamehameha. A series of battles, lasting 15 years, was led by the warrior chief; the Kingdom of Hawaii was established with the help of western weapons and advisors, such as John Young and Isaac Davis. Although successful in attacking both Oʻahu and Maui, he failed to secure a victory in Kauaʻi, his effort hampered by a storm and a plague that decimated his army. Kauaʻi's chief swore allegiance to Kamehameha.
The unification ended the ancient Hawaiian society, transforming it into an independent constitutional monarchy crafted in the traditions and manner of European monarchs. From 1810 to 1893, the Kingdom of Hawaiʻi was ruled by two major dynastic families: the House of Kamehameha and the Kalākaua Dynasty. Five members of the Kamehameha family led the government styled as Kamehameha. Lunalilo was a member of the House of Kamehameha through his mother. Liholiho and Kauikeaouli were direct sons of Kamehameha the Great. During Liholiho's and Kauikeaouli's reigns, the primary wife of Kamehameha the Great, Queen Kaʻahumanu, ruled as Queen Regent and Kuhina Nui, or Prime Minister. Economic and demographic factors in the 19th century reshaped the islands, their consolidation into one unified political entity led to international trade. Under Kamehameha, sandalwood was exported to China; that led to the introduction of trade throughout the islands. Following Kamehameha's death the succession was overseen by his principal wife, Ka'ahumanu, designated as regent over the new king, a minor.
Queen Ka'ahumanu eliminated various prohibitions governing women's behavior. They included women eating bananas, she overturned the old religion as the Christian missionaries arrived in the islands. The main contribution of the missionaries was to develop a written Hawaiian language; that led to high levels of literacy in Hawaii, above 90 percent in the latter half of the 19th century. The development of writing aided in the consolidation of government. Written constitutions enumerating the power and duties of the King were developed. In 1848, the Great Māhele was promulgated by the king, it instituted formal property rights to the land. It followed the customary control of the land prior to this declaration. Ninety-eight percent of the land was assigned to chiefs or nobles. Two percent went to the commoners. No land could be only transferred to lineal descendant land manager. For the natives, contact with the outer world represented demographic disaster, as a series of unfamiliar diseases such as smallpox decimated the natives.
The Hawaiian population of natives fell from 128,000 in 1778 to 71,000 in 1853 and kept declining to 24,000 in 1920. Most lived in remote villages. American missionaries converted most of the natives to Christianity; the missionaries and their children became a powerful elite into the mid-19th century. They provided the chief advisors and cabinet members of the kings and dominated the professional and merchant class in the cities; the elites promoted the sugar industry. American capital set up a series of plantations after 1850. Few natives were willing to work on the sugar plantations and so recruiters fanned out across Asia and Europe; as a result, between 1850 and 1900 some 200,000 contract laborers from China, the Philippines and elsewhere came to Hawaii under fixed term contracts. Most returned home on schedule. By 1908 about 180,000 Japanese workers had arrived. No more were allowed in; the Hawaiian army and navy developed from the warriors of Kona under Kamehameha I, who unified Hawaii in 1810.
The army and navy used both traditional canoes and uniforms including helmets made of natural materials and loincl
Mozambique–United States relations
Mozambique – United States relations are bilateral relations between Mozambique and the United States. Relations between the United States and Mozambique are good and improving. Besides Madagascar, Mozambique was the only East African country to be involved in importing African slaves to the Americas. By 1993, U. S. aid to Mozambique was prominent, due in part to significant emergency food assistance in the wake of the 1991-93 southern African drought, but more important in support of the peace and reconciliation process. During the process leading up to elections in October 1994, the United States served as a significant financier and member of the most important commissions established to monitor implementation of the Rome General Peace Accords; the United States is the largest bilateral donor to the country and plays a leading role in donor efforts to assist Mozambique. The U. S. Embassy opened in Maputo on November 8, 1975, the first American ambassador arrived in March 1976. In that same year, the United States extended a $10 million grant to the Government of Mozambique to help compensate for the economic costs of enforcing sanctions against Rhodesia.
In 1977, however motivated by a concern with human rights violations, the U. S. Congress prohibited the provision of development aid to Mozambique without a presidential certification that such aid would be in the foreign policy interests of the United States. Relations hit a nadir in March 1981, when the Government of Mozambique expelled four members of the U. S. Embassy staff. In response, the United States suspended plans to provide development aid and to name a new ambassador to Mozambique. Relations between the two countries languished in a climate of stagnation and mutual suspicion. Contacts between the two countries continued in the early 1980s as part of the U. S. administration's conflict resolution efforts in the region. In late 1983, a new U. S. ambassador arrived in Maputo, the first Mozambican envoy to the United States arrived in Washington, signaling a thaw in the bilateral relationship. The United States subsequently responded to Mozambique's economic reform and drift away from Moscow's embrace by initiating an aid program in 1984.
President of Mozambique Samora Machel paid a symbolically important official working visit to the United States in 1985, where he met U. S. President Ronald Reagan. After that meeting, a full U. S. Agency for International Development mission was established, significant assistance for economic reform efforts began. President Joaquim Chissano met with President George W. Bush in September 2003. Since taking office in February 2005, President Armando Guebuza has visited the United States on five occasions. In June 2005, President Guebuza visited Washington, D. C. to take part in President Bush's mini-summit on Africa, along with the leaders of Ghana, Namibia and Niger. That month, he attended the Corporate Council on Africa Business Summit in Baltimore. President Guebuza returned in September 2005 for the United Nations General Assembly in New York and in December 2005 attended the Fourth Development Cooperation Forum at the Carter Center in Atlanta. In 2006 he visited New York for the UN General Assembly, in 2007 he visited Washington, D.
C. for the signing of Mozambique's Millennium Challenge Corporation compact. Principal U. S. Embassy officials include: Ambassador—Leslie V. Rowe Chargé d'affaires, a.i.--Todd Chapman USAID Mission Director—Todd Amani Public Affairs Officer—Kristin Kane Defense Attaché—Lt. Col. John Roddy Peace Corps Director—David Bellama Centers for Disease Control Director—Lisa Nelson Management Officer—Jeremey Neitzke Regional Security Officer—Steve Jones Economic/Political Chief—Matt Roth Consular Officer—Sarah HortonThe U. S. Embassy in Mozambique is in Maputo; this article incorporates public domain material from the United States Department of State website https://www.state.gov/r/pa/ei/bgn/index.htm. History of Mozambique - U. S. relations Mozambique-US Relations during Cold War from the Dean Peter Krogh Foreign Affairs Digital Archives
Henry A. P. Carter
Henry Alpheus Peirce Carter known as Henry Augustus Peirce Carter, was an American businessman and diplomat in the Kingdom of Hawaii. Henry Alpheus Peirce Carter was born August 1837, in Honolulu, Hawaii, his father was Joseph Oliver Carter, mother Hannah Trufant Lord. His father was a merchant ship captain, thought to be a descendant of the Thomas Carter family of Massachusetts. Captain Carter left Boston to engage in trade in the Pacific some time in the 1820s. After his 1833 wedding in Honolulu the Carters bought a house and started a family while Captain Carter continued sandalwood trading voyages to China. Shortly after second son Henry was born they sailed to California but returned in 1838. In 1840 the family sailed to Boston via Tahiti; the sons were left to attend school, while Captain Carter purchased his own ship and sailed back to Honolulu with his wife in 1841. However, the Carter ship business had several failures, by 1849 the sons were sent back to Hawaii. Captain Carter retired from the ship business and started a boarding house called the Mansion House, but he died on August 1, 1850.
The children needed to support themselves, so a 12-year-old Henry went to San Francisco to work in the California Gold Rush. He never attended high school; some time he returned to work in the Honolulu post office, as a typesetter for the Honolulu Advertiser newspaper. When about 19 he became a clerk in C. Brewer & Co. a shipping business, run earlier by Henry A. Peirce, of whom he was a namesake. By 1862 he became a full partner in the business. On February 27, 1862, he married Sybil Augusta Judd, daughter of missionary physician turned politician Gerrit P. Judd, they had seven children: Frances Isabelle Carter was born on January 18, 1863. She moved to Massachusetts and married Frederic Morton Crehore in 1897. Charles Lunt Carter was born on November 30, 1864, married Mary Eliza Horton Scott in 1888, he died after being shot in the 1895 Counter-Revolution in Hawaii. George Robert Carter was born December 28, 1866, became Territorial Governor of Hawaiʻi, died February 11, 1933. Agnes Carter was born on October 15, 1869, married John Randolf Galt in 1892.
Sybil Augusta Carter was born on February 16, 1873, died on July 12, 1874 Cordelia Judd Carter was born on May 18, 1876, married Charles Atherton Hartwell, son of American Civil War General Alfred S. Hartwell, she died on February 21, 1921. Joshua Dickson Carter was born on February 8, 1880, died young on February 20, 1882, his nephew Alfred Wellington Carter managed the Parker Ranch for many years. His brother Joseph Oliver Carter married Mary Ladd, daughter of the founder of early trading company Ladd & Co. William Ladd; the American Civil War caused an increase in demand for sugar, C. Brewer became involved in the business of agent, buying the raw product from sugarcane plantations in the Hawaiian Islands and shipping it to the mainland where it was refined. After two other partners retired, Carter owned two thirds of the firm. In 1873, he advocated for a free trade treaty to reduce tariffs instead of annexation by the United States as advocated by others, he was sent in October 1874 to Washington, DC to assist Elisha Hunt Allen in negotiating what became the Reciprocity Treaty of 1875.
This included attending a state visit by King Kalākaua to Ulysses S. Grant at the White House. On his return to Hawaii, European countries were protesting the treaty, because it violated most favored nation clauses in their treaties. On December 5, 1876, he was appointed minister of foreign affairs, left his business again to travel to Great Britain and Germany in 1877, he met with Otto von Bismarck, Foreign Minister of Prussia at the time. He resigned from the cabinet on March 1, 1878, returned to managing the business at C. Brewer in 1879. Soon he was called back into the government. On September 27, 1880, he was appointed minister of the interior for Kalākaua until December 4, 1881. In 1882 he was sent again to Europe, where he negotiated a treaty with Portugal to allow immigration to Hawaii for labor on sugar plantations. After Allen died at the White House, Carter became envoy to the US on February 9, 1883, served until his death. In June 1884 he was president of a family reunion in Boston for his American cousins.
In January 1887 Carter was appointed US Minister from the Samoan Islands by Malietoa Laupepa, but he never presented those credentials. This was part of a failed plan by Walter M. Gibson to form a pan-Pacific confederation; the resulting Samoan crisis ended up in the partitioning of Samoa into German Samoa in the west and American Samoa in the east. During this time, the free trade treaty was renewed, with a controversial clause that guaranteed the use of Pearl Harbor as a US Navy base; this would prove unpopular with many Hawaiians. He coordinated another state visit between Queen Kapiʻolani and Grover Cleveland in May 1887, he was appointed to various boards and commissions during his government service. The McKinley Tariff act in 1891 removed the advantages given by earlier treaties, the Hawaiian sugar industry became unprofitable. Carter scrambled to negotiate another treaty with Secretary of State James G. Blaine. However, Kalākaua had died in January, Queen Liliʻuokalani rejected the new treaty.
Carter became ill on a visit to Germany, died November 1, 1891, at Everett House in New York City. After a funeral in Washington, DC, he was buried in Oahu Cemetery, he was survived by his mother, sometimes said to the first caucasian woman to marry in Hawaii, who died January 29, 1898. A modern historian said:Henry Alpheus Peir