War of the Sixth Coalition
In the War of the Sixth Coalition, sometimes known in Germany as the War of Liberation, a coalition of Austria, Russia, the United Kingdom, Sweden, Spain and a number of German States defeated France and drove Napoleon into exile on Elba. After the disastrous French invasion of Russia of 1812, the continental powers joined Russia, the United Kingdom and the rebels in Spain who were at war with France; the War of the Sixth Coalition saw major battles at Lützen and Dresden. The larger Battle of Leipzig was the largest battle in European history before World War I. Napoleon's earlier setbacks in Russia and Germany proved to be the seeds of his undoing. With their armies reorganized, the allies drove Napoleon out of Germany in 1813 and invaded France in 1814; the Allies defeated the remaining French armies, occupied Paris, forced Napoleon to abdicate and go into exile. The French monarchy was revived by the allies, who handed rule to the heir of the House of Bourbon in the Bourbon Restoration; this was not, the end of the Napoleonic Wars.
Napoleon subsequently escaped from his captivity and returned to power in France, sparking the War of the Seventh Coalition in 1815, until he was defeated again for the final time. In June 1812, Napoleon invaded Russia to compel Emperor Alexander I to remain in the Continental System; the Grande Armée, consisting of as many as 650,000 men, crossed the Neman River on 23 June 1812. Russia proclaimed a Patriotic War, while Napoleon proclaimed a "Second Polish War", but against the expectations of the Poles, who supplied 100,000 troops for the invasion force, having in mind further negotiations with Russia, he avoided any concessions toward Poland. Russian forces fell back, destroying everything of use to the invaders until giving battle at Borodino where the two armies fought a devastating battle. Despite the fact that France won a tactical victory, the battle was inconclusive. Following the battle the Russians withdrew. By 14 September, the French had occupied Moscow but found the city empty. Alexander I refused to capitulate, leaving the French in the abandoned city of Moscow with little food or shelter and winter approaching.
In these circumstances, with no clear path to victory, Napoleon was forced to withdraw from Moscow. So began the disastrous Great Retreat, during which the retreating army came under increasing pressure due to lack of food and harsh winter weather, all while under continual attack by the Russian army led by Commander-in-Chief Mikhail Kutuzov, other militias. Total losses of the Grand Army were at least 370,000 casualties as a result of fighting and the freezing weather conditions, 200,000 captured. By November, only 27,000 fit soldiers re-crossed the Berezina River. Napoleon now left his army to return to Paris and prepare a defence of Poland against the advancing Russians; the situation was not as dire. However, they had the advantage of shorter supply lines and were able to replenish their armies with greater speed than the French because Napoleon's losses of cavalry and wagons were irreplaceable. On 9 January 1812, French troops occupied Swedish Pomerania to end the illegal trade with the United Kingdom from Sweden, in violation of the Continental System.
Swedish estates were confiscated and Swedish officers and soldiers were taken as prisoners. In response, Sweden declared neutrality and signed the secret Treaty of Saint Petersburg with Russia against France and Denmark–Norway on 5 April. On 18 July, the Treaty of Örebro formally ended the wars between Britain and Sweden and Britain and Russia, forming an alliance between Russia and Sweden. However, when Napoleon marched on Moscow in June–September 1812, neither Britain nor Sweden would give any military support to Russia, left on its own; the alliance existed only on paper. After the French Grande Armée retreated from Moscow on 18/19 October 1812 and suffered heavy casualties due to extreme cold, food shortages and repeated Russian attacks, Napoleon did not seem to be as invincible as before. On 14 December, the last French troops had left Russian soil, Paris' allies were considering rebellion and joining the Tsar's side; the Convention of Tauroggen was a truce signed 30 December 1812 at Tauroggen, between Generalleutnant Ludwig Yorck von Wartenburg on behalf of his Prussian troops, by General Hans Karl von Diebitsch of the Russian Army.
According to the Treaty of Tilsit, Prussia had to support Napoleon's invasion of Russia. This resulted in some Prussians leaving their army to avoid serving the French, like Carl von Clausewitz, who joined Russian service; when Yorck's immediate French superior Marshal MacDonald, retreated before the corps of Diebitsch, Yorck found himself isolated. As a soldier his duty was to break through, but as a Prussian patriot his position was more difficult, he had to judge. The Convention of Tauroggen armistice, signed by Diebitsch and Yorck, "n
Lošinj is a Croatian island in the northern Adriatic Sea, in the Kvarner Gulf. It is due south of the city of Rijeka and part of the Primorje-Gorski Kotar County; the settlements on Lošinj include Nerezine, Sveti Jakov, Ćunski, Mali Lošinj and Veli Lošinj. A regional road runs the length of the island. There is an airport on the island of Lošinj. Lošinj is part of the Cres-Lošinj archipelago; the Cres-Lošinj archipelago includes Cres and Lošinj, the smaller islands of Unije, Susak, Vele Srakane, Male Srakane and a number of uninhabited small islands. Cres is the biggest by area, Lošinj is second. Cres and Lošinj are connected by a small bridge at the town of Osor on Cres; the highest elevations are the mountains Televrin at Sv. Nikola at 557 m; the towns of Nerezine and Sveti Jakov lie at their base. The island is formed predominantly of chalk dolomite rocks. There are sand deposits in the western part of the Kurila peninsula. Lošinj is the 11th largest Adriatic island by area, 33 km long, with the width varying from 4.75 km in the north and middle of the island, to 0.25 km near the town of Mali Lošinj.
The total coastline of the island is 112.7 km. With around 2600 hours of sunshine a year, the island has become a popular destination for Slovenian and Italian tourists in the summer months. Average air humidity is 70%, the average summer temperature is 24 °C and 7 °C during the winter; the island has a mild evergreen vegetation. The highest elevations in the north have more sparse vegetation. Veli Lošinj, Čikat and the south-western coast are ringed by pine forests. Settlement on nearby Cres is known to date back around 12,000 years, the island of Lošinj is thought to have been inhabited since prehistoric times; this is evidenced around the port of Mali Lošinj. According to Ptolemy, the Romans called this island Apsorrus, referred to the islands of Lošinj and Cres collectively as Apsirtides. In several places, ruins of Roman villas have been excavated. Several small eremitic churches dating from the Roman era have been preserved. In the Middle Ages, Lošinj was the property of the clerical and secular nobility of Osor and unpopulated.
The first evidence of settlers from the mainland was in 1280. Pursuant to a contract with Osor, their settlements gained self-governance in 1389; the name Lošinj was first mentioned in 1384. Parallel with the gradual decline of Osor from the 15th century onwards, the settlements Veli Lošinj and Mali Lošinj played an important role. In the 18th and 19th centuries, trade and seafaring on the island developed more intensely. In 1771, Alberto Fortis visited Cres and Lošinj and wrote a travelogue about his visit: Saggio d'osservazioni sopra l'isola di Cherso ed Osero. After the fall of the Republic of Venice in 1797, Lošinj became part of the Austrian province of Istria under the Treaty of Campo Formio. By 1900 the population had reached 11,615. In 1921, it was given as 15,000. In 1919, Lošinj, with its Italian population, became part of Italy under the terms of the Treaty of Saint-Germain, as confirmed by the 1920 Treaty of Rapallo, it was held by them until 1943 when it was occupied by German Wehrmacht and Croatian troops during World War II as part of the Operational Zone Adriatic Coast.
In 1945 the island and the rest of Croatia became part of Yugoslavia, until Croatia declared independence from the Yugoslav Federation in 1991. The post-Second World War period saw a substantial exodus of its Italian-speaking population to Italy and to other countries. According to the last census the number of Italian-speaking citizens in Lošinj were 557. Before the independence of Croatia from the Yugoslav Federation, the official censi reported the Italian-speaking minority being much smaller. Expatriates in Italy and around the world publish a newsletter which keeps their memories and traditions alive. On the Island Italian is popular as a second language. Agostino Straulino was an Italian sailor and sailboat racer, who won one Olympic gold medal at the 1952 Summer Olympics and one silver medal at the 1956 Summer Olympics in the Star class, eight consecutive European championships and two world championships in this class and was world champion in the 5.5m-class. His first experiences were sailing in the Kvarner Gulf, he learned to sail going to school in his boat.
Gaudentius of Ossero: Born c. 1000 AD and presided over the Diocese of Ossero as bishop and became a saint and patron of the island. Legend has it that he banished all venomous snakes from the islands while hiding in a cave from his persecutors, his remains now lie in the altar of the church bearing his name in Osor. The Cosulich family of shipbuilders originated in Lošinj prior to the 18th century and rose to prominence in the region establishing a successful s
Imperial Free City of Trieste
The Imperial Free City of Trieste and its Suburbs was a Holy Roman Empire possession from the 14th century to 1804, called in German as Reichsunmittelbare Stadt Triest und ihr Gebiet and in Italian as Città Imperiale di Trieste e Dintorni. In 1719 it was declared a free port by Holy Roman Emperor. Trieste was part of the Holy Roman Empire and of the German Confederation and the Austrian Littoral; the city administration and economy were dominated by the city's Italian population element. In the 19th and early 20th century, the city attracted the immigration of workers from the city's hinterlands, many of whom were speakers of Slovene. After the fall of the Western Roman Empire in 476, Trieste was a Byzantine military outpost. In 567 AD the city was destroyed in the course of their invasion of northern Italy. In 788 it became part of the Frankish kingdom, under the authority of their count-bishop. From 1081 the city came loosely under the Patriarchate of Aquileia, developing into a free commune by the end of the 12th century.
After two centuries of war, Trieste came with the signing of a peace treaty on 30 October 1370 in front of St. Bartholomew's Church in the village of Šiška under the Republic of Venice; the Venetians retained the town until 1378, when it became the property of the Patriarchate of Aquileia. Discontent with the patriarch's rule, the main citizens of Trieste in 1382 petitioned Leopold III of Habsburg, Duke of Austria to become part of his domains, in exchange for his defence; this united Charlemagne's southern marches under Habsburg rule, subsequently consolidated as the Austrian Littoral. Following an unsuccessful Habsburg invasion of Venice in the prelude to the War of the League of Cambrai, the Venetians occupied Trieste again in 1508, under the terms of the peace were allowed to keep the city; the Habsburg Empire recovered Trieste a little over a year however, when conflict resumed. With their acquisition by the Habsburgs and the Julian March ceased to act as an east-facing outpost of Italy against the unsettled peoples of the Danube basin, becoming a region of contact between the land-based Austrian domains and the maritime republic of Venice, whose foreign policy depended on control of the Adriatic.
Austro-Venetian rivalry over the Adriatic weakened each state's efforts to repel the Ottoman Empire's expansion into the Balkans, paving the way for the success of Napoleon's invasion. On the Habsburg's annexation, Trieste had a patriciate, a bishop and his chapter, two municipal chapters totalling 200 people, armed forces and institutions of higher education. Italian irredentism was continually popular — writing in 1917, the Italian nationalist Litta Visconti Arese described the city as: The last of the Italian Comuni still struggling in the twentieth century against the Germanic Empire and the Invasion of the Barbarians. Trieste became an important trade hub. In June 1717, it was made a free port within the Habsburg Empire by Emperor Charles VI, effective from his visit to the city on 10 September 1718, remained a free port until 1 July 1891, when it was eclipsed by Fiume. From June 1734, Charles VI began assembling a navy in the city; the reign of Charles VI's successor, Maria Theresa, marked the beginning of a flourishing era for the city, starting with her order for the dismantling of the city walls in 1749, in order to allow the freer expansion of the city, ordering expansive building works and canal dredging.
In 1768, the German art historian Johann Joachim Winckelmann was murdered by a robber in Trieste, while on his way from Vienna to Italy. Trieste was occupied by French troops three times during the Napoleonic Wars, in 1797, 1805 and in 1809. Between 1809 and 1813, it was annexed to the Illyrian Provinces, interrupting its status as a free port and causing a loss of the city's autonomy. For the French, the Illyrian Provinces provided a military frontier against the remaining Austrian lands and a military base against the Turks, as well as providing distant endowments for Marshals of the Empire; when Napoleon defeated the Republic of Venice in 1797, he found that Istria was populated by Italians on the coast and in the main cities, but the interior was populated by Croats and Slovenians. The restoration of Istria to the Austrian Empire was confirmed at the Congress of Vienna, but a nationalistic feud began to develop between the Slavs and the Italians. Following the Napoleonic Wars, Trieste continued to prosper as the free imperial city of Trieste, a status that granted economic freedom, but limited its political self-government.
The city's role as main Austrian trading port and shipbuilding centre was emphasised with the foundation of the merchant shipping line Austrian Lloyd in 1836, whose headquarters stood at the corner of the Piazza Grande and Sanità. By 1913, Austrian Lloyd had a fleet of 62 ships comprising a total of 236,000 tons. With the introduction of the constitutionalism in the Austrian Empire in 1860, the municipal autonomy of the city was restored, with Trieste becoming capital of the Adri
Revolutions of 1848 in the Austrian Empire
A set of revolutions took place in the Austrian Empire from March 1848 to November 1849. Much of the revolutionary activity had a nationalist character: the Empire, ruled from Vienna, included ethnic Germans, Slovenes, Czechs, Ruthenians, Croats and Serbs; the nationalist picture was further complicated by the simultaneous events in the German states, which moved toward greater German national unity. Besides these nationalists and socialist currents resisted the Empire's longstanding conservatism; the events of 1848 were the product of mounting social and political tensions after the Congress of Vienna of 1815. During the "pre-March" period, the conservative Austrian Empire moved further away from ideas of the Age of Enlightenment, restricted freedom of the press, limited many university activities, banned fraternities. Conflicts between debtors and creditors in agricultural production as well as over land use rights in parts of Hungary led to conflicts that erupted into violence. Conflict over organized religion was pervasive in pre-1848 Europe.
Tension came both between members of different confessions. These conflicts were mixed with conflict with the state. Important for the revolutionaries were state conflicts including the armed forces and collection of taxes; as 1848 approached, the revolutions the Empire crushed to maintain longstanding conservative minister Klemens Wenzel von Metternich's Concert of Europe left the empire nearly bankrupt and in continual need of soldiers. Draft commissions led to brawls between civilians. All of this further agitated the peasantry. Despite lack of freedom of the press and association, there was a flourishing liberal German culture among students and those educated either in Josephine schools or German universities, they published newspapers discussing education and language. These middle class liberals understood and accepted that forced labor is not efficient, that the Empire should adopt a wage labor system; the question was. Notable liberal clubs of the time in Vienna included the Legal-Political Reading Club and Concordia Society.
They, like the Lower Austrian Manufacturers' Association were part of a culture that criticized Metternich's government from the city's coffeehouses and stages, but prior to 1848 their demands had not extended to constitutionalism or freedom of assembly, let alone republicanism. They had advocated relaxed censorship, freedom of religion, economic freedoms, above all, a more competent administration, they were opposed to the universal franchise. More to the left was a impoverished intelligentsia. Educational opportunities in 1840s Austria had far outstripped employment opportunities for the educated. In 1846 there had been an uprising of Polish nobility in Austrian Galicia, only countered when peasants, in turn, rose up against the nobles; the economic crisis of 1845-47 was marked by food shortages throughout the continent. At the end of February 1848, demonstrations broke out in Paris. Louis Philippe of France abdicated the throne. After news broke of the February victories in Paris, uprisings occurred throughout Europe, including in Vienna, where the Diet of Lower Austria in March demanded the resignation of Prince Metternich, the conservative State Chancellor and Foreign Minister.
With no forces rallying to Metternich's defense, nor word from Ferdinand I of Austria to the contrary, he resigned on 13 March. Metternich fled to London, Ferdinand appointed new, nominally liberal, ministers. By November, the Austrian Empire saw several short-lived liberal governments under five successive Ministers-President of Austria: Count Kolowrat, Count Ficquelmont, Baron Pillersdorf, Baron Doblhoff-Dier and Baron Wessenberg; the established order collapsed because of the weakness of the Austrian armies. Field Marshal Joseph Radetzky was unable to keep his soldiers fighting Venetian and Milanese insurgents in Lombardy-Venetia, had to, order the remaining troops to evacuate. Social and political conflict as well as inter and intra confessional hostility momentarily subsided as much of the continent rejoiced in the liberal victories. Mass political organizations and public participation in government became widespread. However, liberal ministers were unable to establish central authority.
Provisional governments in Venice and Milan expressed a desire to be part of an Italian confederacy of states. A new Hungarian government in Pest announced its intentions to break away from the Empire and elect Ferdinand its King, a Polish National Committee announced the same for the Kingdom of Galicia and Lodomeria; the victory of the party of movement was looked at as an opportunity for lower classes to renew old conflicts with greater anger and energy. Several tax boycotts and attempted murders of tax collectors occurred in Vienna. Assaults against soldiers were common, including against Radetzky's troops retreating from Milan; the archbishop of Vienna was forced to flee, in Graz, the convent of the Jesuits was destroyed. The demands of nationalism and its co
Republic of Venice
The Republic of Venice or Venetian Republic, traditionally known as La Serenissima was a sovereign state and maritime republic in northeastern Italy, which existed for over a millennium between the 7th century and the 18th century from 697 AD until 1797 AD. It was based in the lagoon communities of the prosperous city of Venice, was a leading European economic and trading power during the Middle Ages and the Renaissance; the Venetian city state was founded as a safe haven for the people escaping persecution in mainland Europe after the decline of the Roman Empire. In its early years, it prospered on the salt trade. In subsequent centuries, the city state established a thalassocracy, it dominated trade on the Mediterranean Sea, including commerce between Europe and North Africa, as well as Asia. The Venetian navy was used in the Crusades, most notably in the Fourth Crusade. Venice achieved territorial conquests along the Adriatic Sea. Venice became home to an wealthy merchant class, who patronized renowned art and architecture along the city's lagoons.
Venetian merchants were influential financiers in Europe. The city was the birthplace of great European explorers, such as Marco Polo, as well as Baroque composers such as Vivaldi and Benedetto Marcello; the republic was ruled by the Doge, elected by members of the Great Council of Venice, the city-state's parliament. The ruling class was an oligarchy of aristocrats. Venice and other Italian maritime republics played a key role in fostering capitalism. Venetian citizens supported the system of governance; the city-state employed ruthless tactics in its prisons. The opening of new trade routes to the Americas and the East Indies via the Atlantic Ocean marked the beginning of Venice's decline as a powerful maritime republic; the city state suffered. In 1797, the republic was plundered by retreating Austrian and French forces, following an invasion by Napoleon Bonaparte, the Republic of Venice was split into the Austrian Venetian Province, the Cisalpine Republic, a French client state, the Ionian French departments of Greece.
Venice became part of a unified Italy in the 19th century. It was formally known as the Most Serene Republic of Venice and is referred to as La Serenissima, in reference to its title as one of the "Most Serene Republics". During the 5th century, North East Italy was devastated by the Germanic barbarian invasions. A large number of the inhabitants moved to the coastal lagoons. Here they established a collection of lagoon communities, stretching over about 130 km from Chioggia in the south to Grado in the north, who banded together for mutual defence from the Lombards and other invading peoples as the power of the Western Roman Empire dwindled in northern Italy; these communities were subjected to the authority of the Byzantine Empire. At some point in the first decades of the eighth century, the people of the Byzantine province of Venice elected their first leader Ursus, confirmed by Constantinople and given the titles of hypatus and dux, he was the first historical Doge of Venice. Tradition, first attested in the early 11th century, states that the Venetians first proclaimed one Anafestus Paulicius duke in 697, though this story dates to no earlier than the chronicle of John the Deacon.
Whichever the case, the first doges had their power base in Heraclea. Ursus's successor, moved his seat from Heraclea to Malamocco in the 740s, he represented the attempt of his father to establish a dynasty. Such attempts were more than commonplace among the doges of the first few centuries of Venetian history, but all were unsuccessful. During the reign of Deusdedit, Venice became the only remaining Byzantine possession in the north and the changing politics of the Frankish Empire began to change the factional divisions within Venetia. One faction was decidedly pro-Byzantine, they desired to remain well-connected to the Empire. Another faction, republican in nature, believed in continuing along a course towards practical independence; the other main faction was pro-Frankish. Supported by clergy, they looked towards the new Carolingian king of the Franks, Pepin the Short, as the best provider of defence against the Lombards. A minor, pro-Lombard faction was opposed to close ties with any of these further-off powers and interested in maintaining peace with the neighbouring Lombard kingdom.
The successors of Obelerio inherited a united Venice. By the Pax Nicephori, the two emperors had recognised that Venice belonged to the Byzantine sphere of influence. Many centuries the Venetians claimed that the treaty had recognised Venetian de facto independence, but the truth of this claim is doubted by modern scholars. A Byzantine fleet sailed to Venice in 807 and deposed the Doge, replacing him with a Byzantine governor. During the reign of the Participazio family, Venice grew into its modern form. Though Heraclean by birth, the first Participazio doge, was an early immigrant to Rialto and his dogeship was marked by the expansion of Venice towards the sea via the construction of bridges, bulwarks and stone buildings; the modern Venice, at one with the sea, was being bor
Ferdinand I of Austria
Ferdinand I was the Emperor of Austria from 1835 until his abdication in 1848. As ruler of Austria, he was President of the German Confederation, King of Hungary and Bohemia, King of Lombardy–Venetia and holder of many other lesser titles. Ferdinand succeeded on the death of his father Francis II and I on 2 March 1835, he was incapable of ruling his empire because of his mental deficiency, so his father, before he died, made a will which promulgated that Ferdinand should consult Archduke Louis on all aspects of internal policy and urged him to be influenced by Prince Metternich, Austria's Foreign Minister. Following the Revolutions of 1848, Ferdinand abdicated on 2 December 1848, he was succeeded by Franz Joseph. Following his abdication, he lived in Hradčany Palace, until his death in 1875. Ferdinand married Maria Anna of the sixth child of Victor Emmanuel I of Sardinia, they had no children. Ferdinand was the eldest son of Francis II, Holy Roman Emperor and Maria Theresa of Naples and Sicily.
As a result of his parents' genetic closeness, Ferdinand suffered from epilepsy, neurological problems, a speech impediment. He was educated by Baron Josef Kalasanz von Erberg, his wife Josephine, by birth a Countess von Attems. Ferdinand has been depicted as feeble-minded and incapable of ruling, but although he had epilepsy, he kept a coherent and legible diary and has been said to have had a sharp wit, but having as many as twenty seizures per day restricted his ability to rule with any effectiveness. Though he was not declared incapacitated, a Regent's Council steered the government; when Ferdinand married Princess Maria Anna of Savoy, the court physician considered it unlikely that he would be able to consummate the marriage. When he tried to consummate the marriage, he had five seizures, he is best remembered for his command to his cook: when told he could not have apricot dumplings because apricots were out of season, he said "I am the Emperor, I want dumplings!". As the revolutionaries of 1848 were marching on the palace, he is supposed to have asked Metternich for an explanation.
When Metternich answered that they were making a revolution, Ferdinand is supposed to have said "But are they allowed to do that?" He was convinced by Felix zu Schwarzenberg to abdicate in favour of his nephew, Franz Joseph who would occupy the Austrian throne for the next sixty-eight years. Ferdinand recorded the events in his diary: "The affair ended with the new Emperor kneeling before his old Emperor and Lord, to say, me, asking for a blessing, which I gave him, laying both hands on his head and making the sign of the Holy Cross... I embraced him and kissed our new master, we went to our room. Afterwards I and my dear wife heard Holy Mass... After that I and my dear wife packed our bags." Ferdinand was the last King of Bohemia to be crowned as such. Due to his sympathy with Bohemia he was given the Czech nickname "Ferdinand V, the Good". In Austria, Ferdinand was nicknamed "Ferdinand der Gütige", but ridiculed as "Gütinand der Fertige", he is interred in tomb number 62 in the Imperial Crypt in Vienna.
He used the titles:His Imperial and Royal Apostolic Majesty Ferdinand the First, By the Grace of God Emperor of Austria, King of Hungary, fifth by this name, King of the Lombardy and Venice, King of Dalmatia, Slavonia, Galicia and Illyria. Archduke of Austria Grand duke of Tuscany and Cracow. Lord of Trieste and over the Windic March. Ferdinand's parents were double first cousins. Therefore, Ferdinand only had four great-grandparents, being descended from each of them twice. Further back in his ancestry there is more pedigree collapse due to the close intermarriage between the Houses of Austria and Spain and other Catholic monarchies. Charles II of Spain List of heirs to the Austrian throne Rulers of Germany family tree, he was related to every other ruler of Germany. Tomáš Kleisner, "Medals of the Emperor Ferdinand the Good 1793-1875" Prague 2013 ISBN 978-80-7036-396-6 "Biography of Emperor Ferdinand" Literature by and about Ferdinand I in the German National Library catalogue Works by and about Ferdinand I of Austria in the Deutsche Digitale Bibliothek Ferdinand I In: Brockhaus Bilder-Conversations-Lexikon, 2, Leipzig, 1837, pp. 25–26 Ferdinand I In: Brockhaus' Kleines Konversations-Lexikon, 1, Leipzig, 1911, p. 569 Ferdinand I of Austria in: Austria-Forum Entry about Ferdinand I of Austria in the database Gedächtnis des Landes on the history of the state of Lower Austria
Carniola was a historical region that comprised parts of present-day Slovenia. Although as a whole it does not exist anymore, Slovenes living within the former borders of the region still tend to identify with its traditional parts Upper Carniola, Lower Carniola, to a lesser degree with Inner Carniola. In 1991, 47% of the population of Slovenia lived within the borders of the former Duchy of Carniola. A state of the Holy Roman Empire in the Austrian Circle and a duchy in the hereditary possession of the Habsburgs part of the Austrian Empire and of Austria-Hungary, the region was a crown land from 1849, when it was subdivided into Upper Carniola, Lower Carniola, Inner Carniola, until 1918, its capital was Krainburg, for a short period Stein, from the second half of the 13th century, Laibach or Ljubljana. Nowadays, its territory is entirely located in Slovenia, except for a small part in northwest Italy, around Fusine in Valromana. Carniola in its final form, established in 1815, encompassed 9,904 km2.
In 1914, before the beginning of World War I, it had a population of under 530,000 inhabitants. The Julian and Karavanken Alps traverse the country; the highest mountain peaks are 4,200 feet. The principal rivers are Sava, Tržič Bistrica, Kamnik Bistrica, Ljubljanica, Mirna and Kolpa, which serves as a boundary with Croatia; the principal lakes are Black Lake, spreading into seven lakes, of which the highest is over 6,000 feet above sea level. It was known to the Romans as Lugea palus, is a natural curiosity. Dante Alighieri mentions it in his Divine Comedy; the Ljubljana Marshes cover an area of 76 square miles. Hot and mineral springs are to be found at Sušica, Šmarjetske, Medijske. There is an interesting cave at Postojna. Agriculture thrives better in Upper than in Lower Carniola; the Vipava Valley is famous for its wine and vegetables, for its mild climate. The principal exports are all kinds of vegetables, clover-seed, carvings and honey. In the mineral kingdom the principal products are iron, quicksilver, manganese and zinc.
Upper Carniola has the most industries, among the products being lumber, woollen stuffs, lace, straw hats, wicker-work, tobacco. The railroads are the Juzna, the Prince Rudolf, the Bohinjska, the Kamniska, the Dolenjska, the Vrhniska; the principal cities and towns are: Kamnik, Kranj, Tržič, Vipava, Turjak, Metlika, Novo Mesto, Vače. The mean average temperature in spring is 56 °F. Of the inhabitants 95 per cent were Slovenes, kinsmen to the Croats. In the districts of Gottschee and Črnomelj dwell the people of White Carniola for a connecting link between the Croats and Slovenes. One-half of the Germans live in Gottschee, 5,000 in Ljubljana, 3,500 at Novo Mesto, 1,000 at Radovljica; the Germans at Gottschee were settled there by Otho, Count of Ortenburg, in the fourteenth century, they preserve their Tyrolean German dialect. After the fall of the Roman Empire, Lombards settled in Carniola, followed by Slavs around the sixth century AD; as a part of the Holy Roman Empire, the area was successively ruled by Bavarian and local nobility, by the Austrian Habsburgs continuously from 1335 to 1918, though beset by many raids from the Ottomans and rebellions by local residents against Habsburg rule from the 15th to the 17th centuries.
From about 900 AD until the 20th century, Carniola's ruling classes and urban areas spoke German, while the peasantry spoke Slovene. The capital of Carniola situated at Kranj, was moved to Kamnik and to the current capital of Slovenia, Ljubljana. Sixth century – Slovene settlements. Eighth century – Carniola a part of the Empire of Charlemagne. 10th century – Carniola a separate country. 1278 – Death of Ottokar II of Bohemia. Carniola absorbed in the Habsburg dominions. 14th century – The province under Albert III. 15th–16th centuries – Ravages of the Ottomans. 1527–1564 – Progress of the Reformation in Carniola. 1564 – Death of Ferdinand I. Carniola under the Archduke Charles. Religious persecutions begin. 1763 – Political administration of "Inner Austria" centralized at Graz. 1790 – Accession of Leopold II. Partial revival of autonomy. 1797 – First French invasion. 1805 – Second French invasion. 1809 – Treaty of Schönbrunn. Carniola under French rule. 1814 – Congress of Vienna. Carniola restored to Austria.
Before the coming of the Romans, the Taurisci dwelt in the north of Carniola, the Pannonians in the southeast, the Iapodes or Carni, a Celtic tribe, in the southwest. Carniola formed part of the Roman province of Pannonia. In the time of Augustus all the region from Aemona to the Kolpa river belonged to the province of Savia. After the fall of the Western Roman Emp