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Kingdom of Israel (Samaria)

According to the Hebrew Bible, the Kingdom of Israel was one of two successor states to the former United Kingdom of Israel and Judah. Historians refer to the Kingdom of Israel as the "Northern Kingdom" or as the "Kingdom of Samaria" to differentiate it from the Southern Kingdom of Judah; some researchers in modern scholarship, incorporating textual criticism and archaeology, have challenged the biblical account that the northern kingdom of Israel broke off from a united monarchy with the southern kingdom of Judah, suggesting instead that the northern Kingdom of Israel developed independently of Judah, that it first reached the political, economic and architectural sophistication of a kingdom under the Omride dynasty around 884 BCE. The Kingdom of Israel existed from 930 BCE until 720 BCE, when it was conquered by the Neo-Assyrian Empire; the major cities of the kingdom were Shechem, Samaria and Dan. In the Hebrew Bible, the Kingdom of Israel has been referred to as the "House of Joseph", it is frequently referenced as Ephraim, the tribe whose territory housed the capital cities and the royal families.

It has been referred to as "Israel in Samaria". According to the Hebrew Bible, the territory of the Kingdom of Israel comprised the territories of the tribes of Zebulun, Asher, Dan, Ephraim and Gad, its capital was Samaria according to the Book of Isaiah. The United Kingdom of Israel and Judah is said to have existed from about 1030 to about 930 BCE, it was a union of all the twelve Israelite tribes living in the area that presently approximates modern Israel and the other Levantine territories including much of western Jordan, western Syria. After the death of Solomon in about 931 BCE, most of the Israelite tribes except for Judah and Benjamin refused to accept Rehoboam, the son and successor of Solomon, as their king; the rebellion against Rehoboam arose after he refused to lighten the burden of taxation and services that his father had imposed on his subjects. Jeroboam, not of the Davidic line, was sent forth from Egypt by the malcontents; the Tribe of Ephraim and all Israel raised the old cry, "Every man to his tents, O Israel".

Rehoboam fled to Jerusalem, in 930 BCE, Jeroboam was proclaimed king over all Israel at Shechem. After the revolt at Shechem at first only the tribe of Judah remained loyal to the house of David, but soon after the tribe of Benjamin joined Judah. The northern kingdom continued to be called the Kingdom of Israel or Israel, while the southern kingdom was called the Kingdom of Judah 2 Chronicles 15:9 says that members of the tribes of Ephraim and Simeon fled to Judah during the reign of Asa of Judah. Both Eusebius and Josephus place the division in 997 BCE. Shechem was the first capital of the Kingdom of Israel. Afterwards it was Tirzah. King Omri built his capital in Samaria, which continued as such until the destruction of the Kingdom by the Assyrians. Today, among archaeologists, Samaria is one of the most universally accepted archaeological sites from the biblical period At around 850 BCE, the Mesha Stele, written in Old Hebrew alphabet, records a victory of King Mesha of Moab against king Omri of Israel and his son Ahab.

According to the Bible, for the first sixty years, the kings of Judah tried to re-establish their authority over the northern kingdom, there was perpetual war between them. For the following eighty years, there was no open war between them, for the most part, they were in friendly alliance, co-operating against their common enemies against Damascus; the conflict between Israel and Judah was resolved when Jehoshaphat, King of Judah, allied himself with the house of Ahab through marriage. Jehosophat's son and successor, Jehoram of Judah, married Ahab's daughter Athaliah, cementing the alliance. However, the sons of Ahab were slaughtered by Jehu following his coup d'état around 840 BCE. In c. 732 BCE, Pekah of Israel, while allied with Rezin, king of Aram, threatened Jerusalem. Ahaz, king of Judah, appealed to the king of Assyria, for help. After Ahaz paid tribute to Tiglath-Pileser Tiglath-Pileser sacked Damascus and Israel, annexing Aram and territory of the tribes of Reuben and Manasseh in Gilead including the desert outposts of Jetur and Nodab.

People from these tribes including the Reubenite leader, were taken captive and resettled in the region of the Khabur River system. Tiglath-Pilesar captured the territory of Naphtali and the city of Janoah in Ephraim and an Assyrian governor was placed over the region of Naphtali. According to 2 Kings 16:9 and 15:29, the population of Aram and the annexed part of Israel was deported to Assyria; the remainder of the northern kingdom of Israel continued to exist within the reduced territory as an independent kingdom until around 720 BCE, when it was again invaded by Assyria and the rest of the population deported. During the three-year siege of Samaria in the territory of Ephraim by the Assyrians, Shalmaneser V died and was succeeded by Sargon II, who himself records the capture of that city thus: "Samaria I looked at, I captured. Thus, around 720 BCE, after two centuries, the kingdom of the ten tribes came to an end; some of the Israelite captives were resettled in the Khabur region, the rest in the land of the Medes, thus establishing Hebrew communities in Ecbatana and Rages.

The Book of Tobit additionally records that Sargon had taken other captives from the northern kingdom to the Assyrian capital of Nineveh, in

Ziconotide

Ziconotide is an atypical analgesic agent for the amelioration of severe and chronic pain. Derived from Conus magus, a cone snail, it is the synthetic form of an ω-conotoxin peptide, it is 1,000 times as powerful as morphine. In December 2004 the Food and Drug Administration approved ziconotide when delivered as an infusion into the cerebrospinal fluid using an intrathecal pump system. Ziconotide is derived from the toxin of the cone snail species Conus magus. Scientists have been intrigued by the effects of the thousands of chemicals in marine snail toxins since the initial investigations in the late 1960s by Baldomero Olivera. Olivera, now a professor of biology in the University of Utah, was inspired by accounts of the deadly effects of these toxins from his childhood in the Philippines. Ziconotide was discovered in the early 1980s by University of Utah research scientist Michael McIntosh, when he was out of high school and working with Baldomero Olivera. Ziconotide was developed into an artificially manufactured drug by Elan Corporation.

It was approved for sale under the name Prialt by the U. S. Food and Drug Administration on December 28, 2004, by the European Commission on February 22, 2005. Azur Pharma acquired worldwide rights to Prialt in 2010. Ziconotide is a hydrophilic molecule, soluble in water and is insoluble in methyl t-butyl ether. Ziconotide acts as a selective N-type voltage-gated calcium channel blocker; this action inhibits the release of pro-nociceptive neurochemicals like glutamate, calcitonin gene-related peptide, substance P in the brain and spinal cord, resulting in pain relief. Due to the profound side effects or lack of efficacy when delivered through more common routes, such as orally or intravenously, ziconotide must be administered intrathecally; as this is the most expensive and invasive method of drug delivery and involves additional risks of its own, ziconotide therapy is considered appropriate only for “management of severe chronic pain in patients for whom intrathecal therapy is warranted and who are intolerant of or refractory to other treatment, such as systemic analgesics, adjunctive therapies or IT morphine”.

Research is ongoing to determine whether ziconotide can be formulated in a way that would allow it to be administered by less invasive means. However, this must be weighed against the high level of pain management, both in terms of degree and length, the apparent lack of tolerance and other signs of dependence after extended treatment along with the need for alternatives to other therapies that have not worked for the patient. Ziconotide is contraindicated for patients with certain preexisting mental disorders due to evidence that they are more susceptible to certain severe side effects; the most common side effects are dizziness, confusion and headache. Others may include weakness, ataxia, abnormal vision, somnolence, unsteadiness on feet, urinary retention, increased sweating, nausea, asthenia, rigors, muscle spasms, insomnia, amnesia, tremor, memory impairment and induced psychiatric disorders. Other side effects which are less frequent but still clinically significant include auditory and visual hallucinations, thoughts of suicide, acute kidney failure, atrial fibrillation, cardiovascular accident, new or worsening depression, disorientation and seizures.

Therefore, it is contraindicated in people with a history of psychosis, clinical depression, bipolar disorder. Recent incidents suggesting a link between intrathecal ziconotide treatment and increased risk of suicide have led to calls for strict and ongoing psychiatric monitoring of patients to avoid suicide occurring in vulnerable individuals. There is no known antidote. Ziconotide is a peptide with the amino acid sequence H-Cys-Lys-Gly-Lys-Gly-Ala-Lys-Cys-Ser-Arg-Leu-Met-Tyr-Asp-Cys-Cys-Thr-Gly-Ser-Cys-Arg-Ser-Gly-Lys-Cys-NH2 and contains 3 disulfide bonds; the drug was patented by Neurex Corp. a U. S. company purchased in 1998 by plc of Ireland. U. S. patents assigned to Elan include 5,859,186, 5,795,864 5,770,690, 5,587,454, 5,587,454. Leconotide Ralfinamide Lacosamide, approved for partial-onset seizures and diabetic neuropathic pain Manufacturer website "FDA approves new drug for severe pain", a December 2004 Associated Press article Press release announcing FDA approval from Elan Ziconotide Effectiveness and Safety Trial in Patients with Chronic Severe Pain

Christopher Histed

Christopher Histed is a British businessman and entrepreneur with a career in media, the Internet and consultancy. Born in 1964, he attained a Postgraduate Diploma in Journalism from City University, London and a BSc in Combined Studies at the University of Leicester, following his education at Eltham College. Histed serves as Past Master and is a liveryman of the Worshipful Company of Information Technologists, the 100th livery company of the City of London which received a Royal Charter in June 2010, he is a Freeman of the City of London, a Liveryman of the Worshipful Company of Pewterers. In addition to his business activities, he has been a member of the Parliamentary IT Committee, his pro bono activities include providing guidance and online services to charities and voluntary sector bodies. His pro-bono work has included projects for World Autism Awareness Day, the Royal Corps of Signals, Autistica, UK disability charity Radar Citizens Advice, the Parliamentary All Party Group on Autism, e-Skills UK, IT 4 Communities, National Autistic Society & others.

Chris has been a Governor at Lilian Baylis Technology School in Lambeth, Trustee at The Vision Charity, has served in the Territorial Army, served as a board director at the Association of Business Communicators. Histed is the co-founder of Publitas Consulting, which provides strategic advice and guidance to board and head-of-service level at local authorities, NHS, universities and central government; the first decade of his career was spent running traditional media portfolios starting in 1986 at Centaur Media plc, followed by seven years at Emap Business Communications where he became a publishing director. Internet ventures and interactive television were the theme for the second decade of Histed's career, in 1997 he moved to become head of Aspen Interactive and was responsible for major interactive projects including e-ticketing for GNER. Histed became general manager of Sky Interactive Production at British Sky Broadcasting, with P/L responsibility for Sky's web businesses, directing the teams which developed SkySports Active and SkyNews Active, the world's first interactive TV services.

Following a period as vice president at FT.com he was appointed director of strategy and UK general manager at Silicon Media Group, sold to NASDAQ-listed CNET Networks in 2002. Next, as chief operating officer, he assisted the sale of Parliamentary Communications Ltd to Huveaux plc. In 2003 he founded Public Technology Ltd and as CEO launched the Public Technology online information network. In 2004 he founded and ran the e-Government National Awards, the UK's public sector annual technology competition; this has been supported since inception by Cabinet Office ministers, the UK's government CIO, has had prime ministerial input from Number 10 Downing Street and support from David Cameron, Gordon Brown & Tony Blair. In 2009 he sold Public Technology Ltd to Sift Media Ltd. Histed, Chris, ed.. The Worshipful Company of Information Technologists: A celebration of 25 years as the 100th Livery Company of the City of London. ISBN 9780956601155. Histed, Chris, ed.. May the Fourth 2017 at Guildhall: The Worshipful Company of Information Technologists.

ISBN 9780956601193. Histed, Chris, ed.. A Celebration of the Granting of the Royal Charter to the Information Technologists Company. ISBN 9780956601100. Parliament 10 Downing Street PublicTechnology.net e-Government National Awards Photo galleries from the e-Government National Awards Worshipful Company of Information Technologists becomes charitable beneficiary of the e-Government National Awards Worshipful Company of Information Technologists website Silicon.com British Sky Broadcasting Publitas Consulting LLP