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Kingdom of Lindsey

The Kingdom of Lindsey or Linnuis was a lesser Anglo-Saxon kingdom, absorbed into Northumbria in the 7th century. The name Lindsey derives from the Old English toponym Lindesege, meaning "Isle of Lind". Lindum Colonia was the Roman name of the settlement, now the City of Lincoln in Lincolnshire. Lindum was a Latinized form of a native Brittonic name, reconstructed as *Lindon. Lindsey lay between the Humber estuary and the Wash, forming its inland boundaries from the courses of the Witham and Trent rivers, the Foss Dyke between them. A marshy region south of the Humber known as the Isle of Axholme was included, it is believed that Roman Lindum was the capital of Lindsey: the continuity of the place name suggests continuity of settlement traditions: in 625, Bede recounts, the missionary Paulinus of York was received by the praefectus of Lindum. Place-name evidence indicates that the Anglian settlement known as Lindisfaras spread from the Humber coast. Lindsey means the'island of Lincoln': it was surrounded by water and wet land.

Lincoln was in the south-west part of the kingdom. During the Anglo-Saxon settlement of Britain, from about 450, Lindsey was one of the lesser kingdoms. Although it has its own list of kings, at an early date it came under external influence, it was from time to time part of Deira, of the Northumbrian kingdom and later, of Mercia. Lindsey lost its independence long before the arrival of the Danish settlers; the kingdom's prominence was before the historical period. By the time of the first historical records of Lindsey, it had become a subjugated polity, under the alternating control of Northumbria and Mercia, its subjugation may have occurred around AD 500, during the period when the mythical British leader known as Arthur fought his second and fourth battles of twelve in'Linnuis.' His twelfth victory held back Anglo-Saxon expansion for fifty years. All trace of Lindsey's separate status had vanished before the Viking assault in the late ninth century, its territories were absorbed into the historical English county of Lincolnshire, the northern part of, called Lindsey.

The Anglian collection of genealogies, created in the last years of the reign of Offa of Mercia, gives a pedigree for Aldfrið, presumed to have been ruler of Lindsey. It traces him to the Anglo-Saxon god, Woden made ancestor of the other Anglo-Saxon dynasties, provides Woden's ancestry for several further generations. Geot – Compare the Geats who are mentioned in Beowulf's story. Godulf Finn Frioðulf Frealaf Woden, the god. Winta – Compare Winteringham and Winterton, Lincolnshire. Cretta Cuelgils Caedbaed Bubba Beda Biscop Eanferð Eatta AldfriðNone of the individuals can be securely dated, though the name Biscop, Old English for'bishop', suggests a time after conversion; the practice of agnatic inheritance akin to blood tanistry in the Anglo-Saxon kingdoms means that it cannot be determined which of the listed male-line ancestors of Aldfrið ruled the kingdom. It is uncertain at what point between Aldfrið and Woden the pedigree ceases to be historical, since this pedigree is the sole source for all of the individuals named, except Aldfrið.

With regard to Aldfrið, Frank Stenton referred to the witness list for an Anglo-Saxon charter which includes an "Ealfrid rex", dated its writing to some time between the years 787 and 796. Scholars now believe that the name on the witness list should read "Ecgfrið Rex", refers to Offa's son, he was anointed King of the Mercians in 787, nine years before his succession in 796, would have been styled rex. Stenton suggested that the name'Biscop' came from the title'bishop' and must post-date Paulinus's mission to Lindsey of 628 CE. But, as Sarah Foot has pointed out, Biscop does not need to have been derived from an external origin; the other genealogies in the Anglian collection close with historic personages whose dates are known, such as Edwin of Deira, Ethelred of Mercia and Ethelbert II of Kent, but this wide range offers little help in dating Aldfrið. Lindisfaras Lindsey, Lincolnshire Bishop of Lindsey Leahy, Kevin; the Anglo-Saxon Kingdom of Lindsey: The Archaeology of an Anglo-Saxon Kingdom.

History Press. ISBN 978-0752441115. Lindisware at History Files

John Richardson, Baron Richardson

John Samuel Richardson, Baron Richardson, Bt. LVO FRCP was President of the General Medical Council, 1973 -- 80, etc.. He trained at, worked for St Thomas' Hospital. During his career he attended King George VI and Harold Macmillan, he was proud of his role as chairman of the Joint Consultants' Committee from 1967 to 1972. He represented the JCC on the so-called Cogwheel Working Party. Richardson was appointed a Member of the Royal Victorian Order in 1943, reclassified as Lieutenant on 31 December 1984, he was knighted in 1960, created a Baronet'of Ecclesall in the West Riding of Yorkshire' on 20 November 1963. On 2 February 1979 Sir John was created a life peer taking the title Baron Richardson, of Lee in the County of Devon, he married the artist Sybil Trist in 1933. They remained married until her death in 1991

Llano Uplift

The Llano Uplift is a low geologic dome, about 90 miles in diameter. It consists of an island-like exposure of Precambrian igneous and metamorphic rocks surrounded by outcrops of Paleozoic and Cretaceous sedimentary strata. At their widest, the exposed Precambrian rocks extend about 65 miles westward from the valley of the Colorado River and beneath a broad, gentle topographic basin drained by the Llano River; the subdued topographic basin is underlain by Precambrian rocks and bordered by a discontinuous rim of flat-topped hills. These hills are the dissected edge of the Edwards Plateau, which consist of overlying Cretaceous sedimentary strata. Within this basin and along its margin are down-faulted blocks and erosional remnants of Paleozoic strata which form prominent hills; the Llano Uplift is well known for granite domes, such as Enchanted Rock. The area includes several major rock quarries like Granite Mountain that mine the distinctive pink granite. Further, the area contains the only known deposits of llanite.

The Llano Uplift can be considered an uplift by either its pattern on a geological or structural map of the top of the Precambrian rocks. It qualifies as an uplift because it consists of an extensive Precambrian basement high, exposed by virtue of its surface lying above in elevation the surface of surrounding Precambrian basement. However, the Llano Uplift may not have been uplifted as a distinct entity and at a single time as an basement high. Rather, it formed by the areas surrounding it having subsided around it and the Precambrian rocks underlying it having been elevated by the formation and interaction of multiple geologic structures at multiple times during the Carboniferous and Cretaceous periods. Precambrian rocks directly underlie the surface of the central and topographically lowest part of the Llano Uplift within a low-relief basin drained of the Llano River and eastward to the valley of the Colorado River; these rocks consist of about 900,000 km2 of Middle Proterozoic crystalline basement exposed in an erosional window eroded through overlying Phanerozoic sedimentary strata.

The Precambrian basement is cut by numerous normal and oblique-slip faults, the result of the Ouachita Orogeny, that juxtapose Paleozoic strata with the Precambrian rocks. The Precambrian rocks consist of multiply deformed, metasedimentary and metaplutonic rocks that range in age from 1.37 to 1.23 Ga. These metamorphic rocks have been intruded by 1.13 to 1.07 Ga, syntectonic to post-tectonic granites. These rocks can be divided into three fault-bounded blocks of strata called domains, they are called the Valley Spring and Coal Creek domains. Each of these domains contain distinctive rock types and ages and were either erupted, intruded, or deposited in three separate areas and tectonically juxtaposed during the Grenville Orogeny; the Valley spring domain consists of gneiss, composed of quartz and microcline feldspar with minor biotite and hornblende. This gneiss consists of metamorphosed sedimentary and intrusive rocks that include rhyolite lava flows and ash-flow tuffs; the age of these metamorphic rocks range from range from 1.29 to 1.23 Ga.

The Packsaddle domain consists of schists composed of hornblende, biotite and actinolite. These rocks were originally marine limestone and sandstone interbedded with mafic and felsic volcanic rocks and intrusive sills, they date from 1.27 to 1.25 Ga. Granitic sills that intrude these rocks have been dated from 1.255 to 1.250 Ga. The Coal Creek domain consists of a 6.4 kilometers -long mass of serpentinite, surrounded by meta-igneous quartz-plagioclase gneiss of the Big Branch Gneiss. The gneiss has been dated at 1.33 to 1.30 Ga and was metamorphosed about 1.29 Ga, earlier than any other Llano metamorphic rocks. Coal Creek domain contains diorite plutons, amphibolite, mafic schist, minor talc, smaller serpentinite bodies, all of which were metamorphosed about 1.26 Ga. The Coal Creek domain appears to represent fragments of an island arc with a slice of oceanic mantle faulted into it. After 1.2 Ga, a global cycle of continental collision and the resulting mountain formation, globally called the Grenville orogeny, locally called the Llano Orogeny, tectonically shoved and interleaved together these strata.

They were further altered by metamorphism into the rocks that outcrop today in the Llano Uplift. Large granitic plutons that locally form a large percentage of the outcrop in some areas and a llanite dike intruded them. During the 400-million year interval between the emplacement of llanite and the start of Middle Cambrian sedimentation, erosion removed several kilometers of Precambrian rock. Within and around the Llano uplift are erosional remnants and down-faulted blocks of Lower Paleozoic sedimentary strata. Within the Llano Uplift, these remnants and fault blocks form prominent hills; the Lower Paleozoic strata are composed of over 600 meters of Cambrian sandstones and dolomites of the Moore Hollow Group and Lower Ordovician limestone and dolomite of the Ellenburger Group. The Moore Hollow Group which consists of the Hickory sandstone, Cap Mountain limestone, Lion Mountain sandstone, the Wilberns Formation, which consists of sandstone, shale, an upper mixture of limestone and dolomite; the Ellenburger Group is an incomplete sequence of Lower Ordovician strata, known as from the base up, the Tanyard and Honeycut Formations.

Both formations contains both dolomites. The limestones and dolomites of th