The Nation of Lunda was a confederation of states in what is now the Democratic Republic of Congo, north-eastern Angola, north-western Zambia, its central state was in Katanga. The core of what would become the Lunda confederation was a commune called a N'Gaange in the kiLunda language, it was ruled over by a monarch called the Mwane-a- n'Gaange. One of these rulers, Ilunga Tshibinda, came from the nation of Luba where his brother ruled and married a royal woman from a nation to their south, their son became the first paramount ruler of the Lunda. The Lunda Kingdom controlled some 150,000 km2 by 1680; the state doubled in size to around 300,000 km2 at its height in the nineteenth century. The Mwane-a Yamvo of Lunda became powerful militarily from their base of 175,000 inhabitants. Along with this military strength through sheer numbers, the Lunda Kingdom received Muslim military advisors and some dated weapons from the cities of Nyangwe and Kabambare. Through marriage with descendants of the Luba kings, they gained political ties.
The Lunda people were able to settle and colonialize other areas and tribes, thus extending their kingdom through southwest Katanga into Angola and north-western Zambia, eastwards across Katanga into what is now the Luapula Province of Zambia. The kingdom became a confederation of a number of chieftainships that enjoyed a degree of local autonomy, with Mwata Yamvo as paramount ruler and a ruling council to assist with administration; the strength of the kingdom enabled it to conquer the territory of other tribes to the east. In the eighteenth century a number of migrations took place as far as the region to the south of Lake Tanganyika; the Bemba people of Northern Zambia descended from Luba migrants who arrived in Zambia throughout the seventeenth century. At the same time, a Lunda chief and warrior called Mwata Kazembe set up an Eastern Lunda kingdom in the valley of the Luapula River; the kingdom of Lunda came to an end in the nineteenth century, when it was invaded by the Chokwe, who were armed with guns.
The Chokwe established their own kingdom with their language and customs. Lunda chiefs and people were diminished in power. At the start of the colonial era, the Lunda heartland was divided between Portuguese Angola, King Leopold II of Belgium's Congo Free State and the British in North-Western Rhodesia, which became Angola, DR Congo and Zambia respectively. List of Rulers of the Lunda Kingdom Luba Empire Pogge, Im Reich des Muata Jamwo. 1883 Thornton, John. Africa and Africans in the Making of the Atlantic World, 1400-1800. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. P. 340 Pages. ISBN 0-521-62724-9. LIBRARY OF CONGRESS 1989f "Lunda and Chokwe Kingdoms" IN Country Study: Angola http://lcweb2.loc.gov Art and Life in Africa Project, The University of Iowa School of Art and Art History: "Lunda Information." Https://web.archive.org/web/20070125235118/http://www.uiowa.edu/~africart/ 03 Nov. 1998
Fall of the West Records is an independent record label based out of San Francisco, Oak Park and Amherst, Massachusetts. FOTW was started in May 2005 by Brian Van Alex Felsinger after networking on the internet, their releases consist of folk punk bands from across the United States and Canada. The name is tongue-in-cheek; the label was formed during the height of the Bush administration when conservative political pundits would argue that gay rights, an end to the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan, other leftist ideas would lead to an end to western civilization as we know it. The label is on hiatus and is trying to restructure after being robbed while having all of its major equipment malfunction. During these rebuilding efforts, the collective members have agreed to volunteer their time and not get paid. Van Slyke produced the releases in the basement of his Oak Park home, doing every step of the production with the exception of cutting the booklets—a task, now performed. Most production—with a few exceptions -- occurs in Van Slyke's residence in Amherst.
The label has become collectivized and a group of friends have come together to assist with the production of the label's 14 releases. Bookends Captain Chaos The Capstan Shafts David and the Bear The English Work Standard Forgotten Voices Gator Country Giant Squid March on Washington The Le Nouns Mancub On the Strings Of The Riot Before Tennessee and the Wolf This One's on Me This Ship Will Burn Fall of the West Official Site Official Myspace Page
Merion Estes is a Los Angeles-based painter. She earned a B. F. A. at the University of New Mexico, in Albuquerque, an M. F. A. at the University of Colorado, in Boulder. Estes was raised in San Diego from the age of four, she first showed her work at the Woman's Building in Los Angeles. As a founding member of Grandview 1 & 2, she was involved in the beginnings of Los Angeles feminist art organizations including Womanspace, the feminist arts group, "Double X," along with artists Judy Chicago, Nancy Buchanan, Faith Wilding, Nancy Youdelman. In 2014, Un-Natural, at the Los Angeles Municipal Art Gallery in Los Angeles, which included Estes' work, was named one of the best shows in a non-profit institution in the United States by the International Association of Art Critics. Estes in the 1970s through the 1980s was a pioneer in the Decoration movement. Suzanne Muchnic wrote in the Los Angeles Times, "What's interesting about this art is that Estes pulls warm textures from slick materials and builds soft forms from hard-edge patterns…her real concerns are light and color transformation achieved by repetition and a rigid system."Estes was featured in a five-year solo survey of her work at the Los Angeles Municipal Art Gallery, Barnsdall Park, in 1979, curated by Josine Ianco-Starrels.
A group exhibition of the Double X group was presented the next year at Los Angeles Contemporary Exhibitions. Estes was included in several exhibits of work by artists with studios Downtown L. A. including the first exhibition at the ARCO Center Gallery in 1976. In 2005, Fisher Galleries at the University of Southern California organized Contemporary Soliloquies on the Natural World: Karen Carson, Merion Estes, Constance Mallinson, Margaret Nielsen, Takako Yamaguchi; the exhibition was curated by Max Schultz. Los Angeles Times art critic David Pagel wrote that Estes' paintings were a "dizzying collision of extravagantly patterned fabrics onto which the artist has splashed and stained various mixtures of oil and acrylic." He cited the "funky verve of her collaged paintings, which are the show's high point." In the exhibition catalogue, curator Schultz writes that Estes' art has "rooted in the nether and cloudborn worlds of sea and sky intensely for enough years to produce a complex artful weave of realistic and abstract cellular, animal and mineral forms."In September 2006, Pomona College, California, mounted a major 35-year retrospective of Estes' work.
Michael Duncan, in Art in America wrote, Estes is "one of L. A.'s most underrated, yet most inventive artists who has explored the intersection of nature and decoration in brash, vigorously constructed, brightly colored oil and acrylic paintings."Critic Betty Brown wrote a catalogue essay for Lost Horizons, at Galerie Anais, Santa Monica, describing Estes' paintings at the exhibition in 2009, as both beautiful and difficult. "They maintain this apparent contradictory state because the joy we feel through sight--the sheer visual delight derived from her unabashedly exuberant shapes and colors and textures--is tempered by the sorrow we feel as we recognize the environmental devastation undermining the luxurious abundance of her scintillating surfaces."Estes' work is included in an online exhibition of work by artists working with the theme of nature. Curator and writer Constance Mallinson writes, "Through her multiple references to natural life from the sea to the air, Estes evokes a sublime sense of endangered and fragile beauty that extends globally."About Un-natural, an exhibition sponsored by the Los Angeles Municipal Art Gallery, installed at Barnsdall Park, Fabrik magazine art critic Peter Frank writes that the "expansive and complex formulations of Merion Estes, brimming with stylized references and visual montages…seem to be coding and recording how humanity interacts with nature."
The exhibition earned honors from the International Association of Art Critics. Dystopia, CB1 Gallery, Los Angeles, 2015 Un-Natural, Municipal Art Gallery at Barnsall Park, Los Angeles, 2012 Painting Per Se: Los Angeles Paintings from the Seventies, David Richard Contemporary Gallery, Santa Fe, New Mexico, 2011 Urbanature, An online exhibition of artists working with the theme of nature, Times Quotidian, Constance Mallison, curator, 2010 Merion Estes: Lost Horizons, Galerie Anais, Bergamot Station, Santa Monica, California, 2009 Women Artists in So Cal: Then & Now, Track 16 Gallery, Bergamot Station, Santa Monica, California, 2007 Merion Estes: Recent Paintings, Cardwell-Jimmerson Gallery, Culver City, California, 2007 A Sea of Possibilities: Works by Merion Estes 1971-2006, Pomona College Museum of Art, California, 2006 Contemporary Soliloquies on the Natural World: Karen Carson, Merion Estes, Constance Mallinson, Margaret Nielsen, Takako Yamaguchi, USC Fisher Galleries, Los Angeles, 2005 LAPD, Rosamond Felsen Gallery, Bergamot Station, Santa Monica, California, 2003 Post Cool, San Jose Museum of Art, San Jose, California, 2004 Joan Mitchell Foundation Grant, Residency: Santa Fe Art Institute, Santa Fe, New Mexico, 2007 J. Paul Getty Trust Fund for the Visual Arts, Artist Fellowship, 1996 CETA Grant, Art in Public Spaces, 1980 California Arts Commission grant, 1980 CB1 Gallery https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=L40KeWsQFgo
Technology computer-aided design is a branch of electronic design automation that models semiconductor fabrication and semiconductor device operation. The modeling of the fabrication is termed Process TCAD, while the modeling of the device operation is termed Device TCAD. Included are the modelling of process steps, modelling of the behavior of the electrical devices based on fundamental physics, such as the doping profiles of the devices. TCAD may include the creation of compact models, which try to capture the electrical behavior of such devices but do not derive them from the underlying physics. From the diagram on the right: See SPICE for an example of a circuit simulator See semiconductor device modeling for a description of modeling devices from dopant profiles. See semiconductor process simulation for the generation of these profiles See BACPAC for an analysis tool that tries to take all of these into account to estimate system performance Technology files and design rules are essential building blocks of the integrated circuit design process.
Their accuracy and robustness over process technology, its variability and the operating conditions of the IC — environmental, parasitic interactions and testing, including adverse conditions such as electro-static discharge — are critical in determining performance and reliability. Development of these technology and design rule files involves an iterative process that crosses boundaries of technology and device development, product design and quality assurance. Modeling and simulation play a critical role in support of many aspects of this evolution process; the goals of TCAD start from the physical description of integrated circuit devices, considering both the physical configuration and related device properties, build the links between the broad range of physics and electrical behavior models that support circuit design. Physics-based modeling of devices, in distributed and lumped forms, is an essential part of the IC process development, it seeks to quantify the underlying understanding of the technology and abstract that knowledge to the device design level, including extraction of the key parameters that support circuit design and statistical metrology.
Although the emphasis here is on Metal Oxide Semiconductor transistors — the workhorse of the IC industry — it is useful to overview the development history of the modeling tools and methodology that has set the stage for the present state-of-the-art. The evolution of technology computer-aided design — the synergistic combination of process and circuit simulation and modeling tools — finds its roots in bipolar technology, starting in the late 1960s, the challenges of junction isolated, double-and triple-diffused transistors; these devices and technology were the basis of the first integrated circuits. With these early generations of IC, process variability and parametric yield were an issue — a theme that will reemerge as a controlling factor in future IC technology as well. Process control issues — both for the intrinsic devices and all the associated parasitics — presented formidable challenges and mandated the development of a range of advanced physical models for process and device simulation.
Starting in the late 1960s and into the 1970s, the modeling approaches exploited were dominantly one- and two-dimensional simulators. While TCAD in these early generations showed exciting promise in addressing the physics-oriented challenges of bipolar technology, the superior scalability and power consumption of MOS technology revolutionized the IC industry. By the mid-1980s, CMOS became the dominant driver for integrated electronics. Nonetheless, these early TCAD developments set the stage for their growth and broad deployment as an essential toolset that has leveraged technology development through the VLSI and ULSI eras which are now the mainstream. IC development for more than a quarter-century has been dominated by the MOS technology. In the 1970s and 1980s NMOS was favored owing to speed and area advantages, coupled with technology limitations and concerns related to isolation, parasitic effects and process complexity. During that era of NMOS-dominated LSI and the emergence of VLSI, the fundamental scaling laws of MOS technology were codified and broadly applied.
It was during this period that TCAD reached maturity in terms of realizing robust process modeling which became an integral technology design tool, used universally across the industry. At the same time device simulation, dominantly two-dimensional owing to the nature of MOS devices, became the work-horse of technologists in the design and scaling of devices; the transition from NMOS to CMOS technology resulted in the necessity of coupled and 2D simulators for process and device simulations. This third generation of TCAD tools became critical to address the full complexity of twin-well CMOS technology, including issues of design rules and parasitic effects such as latchup. An abbreviated but prospective view of this period, through the mid-1980s, is given in. Today the requirements for and use of TCAD cross-cut a broad landscape of design automation issues, including many fundamental physical limits. At the core are still a host of process and device modeling challenges that support intrinsic device scaling and parasitic extraction.
Hong Kong Social Workers' General Union is a trade union for the social workers in Hong Kong. It was established in 1980; the current president, Cheung Kwok-che is the member in the Legislative Council of Hong Kong. It is one of the trade unions in pro-democratic Hong Kong Confederation of Trade Unions; the SWGU was founded in 1980 after the movement demanded the government to take efforts to resettle the boat people in Yaumatei's harbour. Many social workers supported the affected residents and were arrested under the Public Order Ordinance in 1979; the social workers leading the movement felt constrained by their official organisation, the Hong Kong Social Workers' Association because it worked cooperatively with the government and did not approve of activists' involvement with the movement. After the incident a group of social workers united and formed the SWGU on 4 May 1980. Together with the Hong Kong People's Council on Public Housing Policy, the Society for Community Organization, the Hong Kong Christian Industrial Committee, the Hong Kong Professional Teachers' Union, the Hong Kong Federation of Students, the pressure groups became the backbone of the civil movements in the 1980s, including against bus fares increases in 1980 to 1981, curbing increases in public utility charges in 1983, shelving the construction of the Daya Bay Nuclear Plant in 1986.
In the 2004 LegCo elections, Cheung Kwok-che, President of SWGU gained a seat in the Social Welfare functional constituency. In 2012 Cheung co-founded the Labour Party with the Lee Cheuk-yan, General Secretary of the Hong Kong Confederation of Trade Unions, SWGU's head union
ARA Spiro is the third ship of the MEKO 140A16 Espora class of six corvettes built for the Argentine Navy. The ship is the second ship to bear the name of the Greek-born Captain Samuel Spiro, who fought during the Argentine War of Independence and blew himself up with his ship rather than surrender to the Spanish forces following the battle of Arroyo de la China, in 1814, she is homeported at Puerto Belgrano Naval Base and is part of the Navy's 2nd Corvette Division with her five sister ships. Spiro and her sister ships were part of the 1974 Naval Constructions National Plan, an initiative by the Argentine Navy to replace old World War II-vintage ships with more advanced warships; the original plan called for six MEKO 360H2 destroyers, four of them to be built in Argentina, but the plan was modified to include four MEKO destroyers and six corvettes for anti-surface warfare and patrol operations. Spiro was constructed at the Río Santiago Shipyard of the Astilleros y Fábricas Navales del Estado state corporation.
Her keel was laid down on 2 October 1982, was launched on 24 June 1983. The ship was delivered to the Navy on 26 November 1987, formally commissioned on 9 May 1988. On 25 September 1990, Spiro and the destroyer Almirante Brown participated as part of a multinational task force in the United Nations-mandated blockade of Iraq following its invasion of Kuwait, she participated in patrol and escort missions as part of Operations Desert Shield and Desert Storm, returning to Argentina on 30 May 1991. Spiro participated in several naval exercises and conducted fishery patrol duties in the Argentine exclusive economic zone, capturing three illegal fishing ships between 1991 and 1994. In August 2012 she ran aground on a sandbank as she lost her sonar; this meant that her sister ARA Espora had to make an unscheduled deployment to replace Spiro on the Atlasur IX exercise off West Africa. Having left port with unresolved problems in her generators, Espora ended up spending 73 days in South Africa after three generators failed and Argentina struggled to find the money to repair them.
Guia de los buques de la Armada Argentina 2005-2006. Ignacio Amendolara Bourdette, ISBN 987-43-9400-5, Editor n/a