The Kingdom of Naples known as the Kingdom of Sicily, comprised that part of the Italian Peninsula south of the Papal States between 1282 and 1816. It was established by the War of the Sicilian Vespers, when the island of Sicily revolted and was conquered by the Crown of Aragon, becoming a separate kingdom called the Kingdom of Sicily. For much of its existence, the realm was contested between Spanish dynasties. In 1816, it reunified with the island of Sicily to form the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies; the term "Kingdom of Naples" is in near universal use among historians, but it was not used by the government. Since the Angevins remained in power on the Italian peninsula, they kept the original name of the Kingdom of Sicily. At the end of the War of the Vespers, the Peace of Caltabellotta provided that the name of the island kingdom would be Trinacria. However, this usage did not become established, the island kingdom became known as the Kingdom of Sicily. In the late Middle Ages, it was common to distinguish the two Sicilies by noting its location relative to the rest of Italy and the Punta del Faro, i.e. the Strait of Messina.
The peninsular kingdom was known as Sicily citra Farum or al di qua del Faro, the island kingdom was known as Sicily ultra Farum or di la del Faro. When both kingdoms came under the rule of Alfonso the Magnanimous in 1442, this usage became official, although Ferdinand I preferred the simple title King of Sicily. By the late Middle Ages, the Kingdom of Sicily citra Farum had become known colloquially as the Kingdom of Naples, it was sometimes called the regno di Puglia, kingdom of Apulia. In the 18th century, the Neapolitan intellectual Giuseppe Maria Galanti argued that Apulia was the true "national" name of the kingdom. By the time of Alfonso the Magnanimous, the two kingdoms were sufficiently distinct that they were no longer seen as divisions of a single kingdom. Despite being in personal union, they remained administratively separate. In 1816, the two kingdoms merged to form the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies. Following the rebellion in 1282, King Charles I of Sicily was forced to leave the island of Sicily by Peter III of Aragon's troops.
Charles, maintained his possessions on the mainland, customarily known as the "Kingdom of Naples", after its capital city. Charles and his Angevin successors maintained a claim to Sicily, warring against the Aragonese until 1373, when Queen Joan I of Naples formally renounced the claim by the Treaty of Villeneuve. Joan's reign was contested by Louis the Great, the Angevin King of Hungary, who captured the kingdom several times. Queen Joan I played a part in the ultimate demise of the first Kingdom of Naples; as she was childless, she adopted Louis I, Duke of Anjou, as her heir, in spite of the claims of her cousin, the Prince of Durazzo setting up a junior Angevin line in competition with the senior line. This led to Joan I's murder at the hands of the Prince of Durazzo in 1382, his seizing the throne as Charles III of Naples; the two competing Angevin lines contested each other for the possession of the Kingdom of Naples over the following decades. In 1389 Louis II of Anjou son of Louis I managed to seize the throne from Ladislas of Naples son of Charles III, but was expelled by Ladislas in 1399.
Charles III's daughter Joan II adopted Alfonso V of Aragon and Louis III of Anjou as heirs alternately settling succession on Louis' brother René of Anjou of the junior Angevin line, he succeeded her in 1435. René of Anjou temporarily united the claims of senior Angevin lines. In 1442, Alfonso V conquered the Kingdom of Naples and unified Sicily and Naples once again as dependencies of Aragon. At his death in 1458, the War of the Neapolitan Succession erupted, after which the kingdom was again separated and Naples was inherited by Ferrante, Alfonso's illegitimate son; when Ferrante died in 1494, Charles VIII of France invaded Italy, using as a pretext the Angevin claim to the throne of Naples, which his father had inherited on the death of King René's nephew in 1481. This began the Italian Wars. Charles VIII expelled Alfonso II of Naples from Naples in 1495, but was soon forced to withdraw due to the support of Ferdinand II of Aragon for his cousin, Alfonso II's son Ferrantino. Ferrantino was restored to the throne, but died in 1496, was succeeded by his uncle, Frederick IV.
Charles VIII's successor, Louis XII reiterated the French claim. In 1501, he occupied Naples and partitioned the kingdom with Ferdinand of Aragon, who abandoned his cousin King Frederick; the deal soon fell through and Aragon and France resumed their war over the kingdom resulting in an Aragonese victory leaving Ferdinand in control of the kingdom by 1504. The Spanish troops occupying Calabria and Apulia, led by Gonzalo Fernandez de Cordova did not respect the new agreement, expelled all Frenchmen from the area; the peace treaties that continued were never definitive, but they established at least that the title of King of Naples was reserved for Ferdinand's grandson, the future Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor. Ferdinand continued in possession of the kingdom, being considered as the legitimate heir of his uncle Alfonso I of Naples and to the former Kingdom of Sicily; the kingdom continued as a focus of dispute between France and Spain for th
The African-American Shakespeare Company is a 5013 nonprofit professional regional theatre company in San Francisco, California. Since its founding in 1994 Sherri Young has been its Executive Director and in 2009 L. Peter Callender joined as its Artistic Director. AASC is a member of the Shakespeare Theatre Association. Sherri Young, a graduate of the American Conservatory Theater's Master of Fine Arts Program in 1992, believed there was a problem with theatre companies and color-blind casting as well as the "expectation that they would stick to'black plays' when they graduated". Young thought this was "inconceivable and unacceptable" which motivated her to create the African-American Shakespeare Company to provide opportunities for actors of color in mastering classical theatre. Sherri Young is on the board of Handful Players, a children's musical theatre, was Commissioner for the San Francisco Arts Commission where she was appointed by Gavin Newsom. L. Peter Callender joined the company as its Artistic Director in 2009.
Callender was trained at The Juillard School in New York, Webber Douglas Academy of Dramatic Art in England, Tadashi Suzuki Company of Toga in Japan. He has been an Associate Artist at California Shakespeare Theater for over 20 years and has appeared in productions by Marin Theatre Company, Berkeley Repertory Theatre, Aurora Theatre Company. Callender is a Visiting Instructor at Stanford University and has been nominated for and won numerous awards: Helen Hayes Award Nominations: Best Actor — Playboy of the West Indies, Oak and Ivy. AASC is a resident organization at the city-owned African American Art and Culture Complex with its office located at 762 Fulton Street Suite 306 in San Francisco, California, 94102. Since 2002, it has staged its productions at the 200-seat Buriel Clay Theater located on the ground floor of the AAACC building with an annual audience of over 7,500 patrons. However, for its 2016–17 season, it has moved its productions from the Buriel Clay Theater to the San Francisco War Memorial and Performing Arts Center's Herbst Theatre for Cinderella, Marines' Memorial Theatre for August Wilson's Jitney, San Francisco Opera's Taube Atrium Theatre for William Shakespeare's The Winter's Tale.
Callender states the reason for the move was due to "the business operations model of the Complex has changed under the new leadership, which has made it difficult to produce our works. The leadership has reduced our rehearsal time, tech time, preview times." Its signature production of the classic Cinderella fairytale is an annual holiday tradition. In addition to Cinderella, AASC produces two Shakespearean plays and one play by a contemporary playwright each season. Seasons lasts through May/June; the 2016–17 season will be its 22nd year. Past productions includes William Shakespeare's Othello and Cleopatra, The Comedy of Errors, Julius Caesar, The Merry Wives of Windsor and Juliet, The Taming of the Shrew, The Tempest, Twelfth Night. AASC offers; the goal of the program is to provide students with skills of tackling complex reading and strengthening comprehension skills through theatre techniques and games in a positive and creative environment. These are done through workshops which educators sign-up for and professional educators/artists lead the sessions.
In addition, AASC offers free student matinees for public schools where more than 2,200 students and their chaperones from all over the San Francisco Bay Area attend each season. AASC offers educators a Teacher's Night Out event for preview performances where educators can attend at no cost. Since 2015, AASC has hosted an annual free community outdoor performance series in the Fillmore District, Western Addition, Hayes Valley neighborhoods of San Francisco known as The Cultural Corridor; the goal of the series is to unite performing arts groups in the neighborhood and highlight the cultural diversity of the area. The series began in September/October 2015 with three one-hour performances at the Fillmore Mini Park leading up to the main three-hour performance at the PROXY open space. In 2016, it added another location to the performance series at Buchanan Street Mall and three additional one-hour performances. Participants included AfroSolo, The San Francisco Bay Area Theatre Company, Nitty Dupree Studio of Dance, Cultural Odyssey: The Medea Project, SambaFunk!, SFJAZZ, San Francisco Ballet, San Francisco Conservatory of Music and Friends of the San Francisco Youth Symphony, Citizen Film.
AASC partners with various organizations in the San Francisco Bay Area throughout the years. Macy's was a sponsor of its Cinderella student matinees and offered special invitation to AASC supporters to various events such as Black History Month celebration events at their Union Square store. AASC partnered with the Golden Thread Productions to produce Isfahan Blues, a story inspired by Duke Ellington's tour of Iran in 1963. In 2015 for its production of Romeo & Juliet, it partnered with Oakland School for the Arts to cast teen actors in title and supporting roles as well as Litquake for their Teenquake programming. AASC has collaborated with the San Francisco Opera for their Cinderella exploration workshop for families. 2013 San Fran
Attention Please is the seventeenth studio album by the Japanese experimental band Boris. The album was released on May 2011, through the label Sargent House, its original release date was April 26. The album features vocals in every track sung by Wata. Attention Please marks a departure from the Heavy Rocks sound, returning to the dream pop sound explored on New Album, but this time, it has elements from noise pop and alternative rock; the album was released on the same day and label as Heavy Rocks, with which it shares the song title "Aileron." The album features the tracks "Party Boy", "Hope", Les Paul Custom'86" and "Spoon" from New Album, though in altered forms. "Party Boy" and "Les Paul Custom'86" additionally have third versions on the Japanese New Album vinyl release. A version of "Tokyo Wonder Land" was released on the Golden Dance Classics split release with 9dw. Initial track list information included "16:47:52" as track 6, but the official preorder revealed it is replaced by "You."On February 25, the label released the track "Hope" as the only single from the album.