Kingdom of Northumbria

The Kingdom of Northumbria was a medieval Anglian kingdom in what is now Northern England and south-east Scotland. The name derives from the Old English Norþan-hymbre meaning "the people or province north of the Humber", which reflects the approximate southern limit to the kingdom's territory, the Humber Estuary. Northumbria started to consolidate into one kingdom in the early seventh century, when the two earlier core territories of Deira and Bernicia entered into a dynastic union. At its height, the kingdom extended from the Humber, Peak District and the River Mersey on the south to the Firth of Forth on the north. Northumbria ceased to be an independent kingdom in the mid-tenth century, though a rump Earldom of Bamburgh survived around Bernicia in the north to be absorbed into the medieval kingdoms of Scotland and England. Today, Northumbria refers to a smaller region corresponding to the counties of Northumberland, County Durham and Tyne and Wear in North East England; the term is used in the names of some North East regional institutions the Northumbria Police, Northumbria University, the Northumbria Army Cadet Force, the regionalist Northumbrian Association.

The local Environment Agency office, located in Newcastle Business Park uses the term Northumbria to describe its area. However, the term is not the official name for the EU region of North East England; the Anglo-Saxon kingdom of Northumbria was two kingdoms divided around the River Tees: Bernicia was to the north of the river and Deira to the south. It is possible that both regions originated as native British Kingdoms which the Germanic settlers conquered, although there is little information about the infrastructure and culture of the British kingdoms themselves. Much of the evidence for them comes from regional names that are British rather than Anglo-Saxon in origin; the names Deira and Bernicia are British in origin, for example, indicating that some British place names retained currency after the Anglo-Saxon migrations to Northumbria. There is some archeological evidence to support British origins for the polities of Bernicia and Deira. In what would have been southern Bernicia, in the Cheviot Hills, a hill fort at Yeavering called Yeavering Bell contains evidence that it was an important centre for first the British and the Anglo-Saxons.

The fort is pre-Roman, dating back to the Iron Age at around the first century. In addition to signs of Roman occupation, the site contains evidence of timber buildings that pre-date Germanic settlement in the area that are signs of British settlement. Moreover, Brian Hope-Taylor has traced the origins of the name Yeavering, which looks deceptively English, back to the British gafr from Bede's mention of a township called Gefrin in the same area. Yeavering continued to be an important political centre after the Anglo-Saxons began settling in the north, as King Edwin had a royal palace at Yeavering. Overall, English place-names dominate the Northumbrian landscape, suggesting the prevalence of an Anglo-Saxon elite culture by the time that Bede—one of Anglo-Saxon England's most prominent historians—was writing in the eighth century. According to Bede, the Angles predominated the Germanic immigrants that settled north of the Humber and gained political prominence during this time period. While the British natives may have assimilated into the Northumbrian political structure contemporary textual sources such as Bede's Ecclesiastical History of the English People depict relations between Northumbrians and the British as fraught.

The Anglo-Saxon countries of Bernicia and Deira were in conflict before their eventual semi-permanent unification in 654. Political power in Deira was concentrated in the East Riding of Yorkshire, which included York, the North York Moors, the Vale of York; the political heartlands of Bernicia were the areas around Bamburgh and Lindisfarne and Jarrow, in Cumbria, west of the Pennines in the area around Carlisle. The name that these two countries united under, may have been coined by Bede and made popular through his Ecclesiastical History of the English People. Information on the early royal genealogies for Bernicia and Deira comes from Bede's Ecclesiastical History of the English People and Welsh chronicler NenniusHistoria Brittonum. According to Nennius, the Bernician royal line begins with son of Eoppa. Ida was able to annex Bamburgh to Bernicia. In Nennius’ genealogy of Deira, a king named Soemil was the first to separate Bernicia and Deira, which could mean that he wrested the kingdom of Deira from the native British.

The date of this supposed separation is unknown. The first Deiran king to make an appearance in Bede's Historia Ecclesiastica Gentis Anglorum is Ælle, the father of the first Roman Catholic Northumbrian king Edwin. A king of Bernicia, Ida's grandson Æthelfrith, was the first ruler to unite the two polities under his rule, he exiled the Deiran Edwin to the court of King Rædwald of the East Angles in order to claim both kingdoms, but Edwin returned in 616 to conquer Northumbria with Rædwald's aid. Edwin, who ruled from 616 to 633, was one of the last kings of the Deiran line to reign over all of Northumbria. Oswald's brother Oswiu succeeded him to the Northumbrian throne despite initial attempts on Deira's part to pull away again. Although the Bernician line became the royal line of Northumbria, a ser

2014 Bahrain Grand Prix

The 2014 Bahrain Grand Prix was a Formula One motor race held on 6 April at the Bahrain International Circuit in Sakhir, Bahrain. It was the third round of the 2014 Formula One season, the 900th Formula One World Championship event, the eleventh running of the race; the 57-lap race was won by Mercedes driver Lewis Hamilton. His teammate Nico Rosberg finished second and Force India driver Sergio Pérez came in third, it was Hamilton's second victory of the season, his first in Bahrain, the 24th of his Formula One career. Hamilton overtook him at the first corner. Both Mercedes drivers pulled away from the rest of the field and Rosberg conserved fuel which allowed him to attack Hamilton before the first round of pit stops on lap 19 with his teammate defending the lead, he extended his advantage over Rosberg over the next 22 laps before an incident between Pastor Maldonado and Esteban Gutiérrez caused the safety car to be deployed and his lead was reduced to nothing. Following instructions to bring the cars safely to the finish, Rosberg battled Hamilton for first place, but was unable to get ahead of him and Hamilton maintained a steady advantage when his teammate's soft compound tyres were worn out to win the race.

The result reduced Rosberg's lead over Hamilton in the Drivers' Championship to 11 points. Nico Hülkenberg moved from sixth to third after finishing in fifth place, while Fernando Alonso and Jenson Button fell one place each to round out the top five. Mercedes increased their advantage in the Constructors' Championship to be 68 points ahead of second-placed Force India who moved from fifth to second because of their strong result. McLaren were third with Red Bull and Ferrari in positions fourth and fifth with 16 races left in the season; the 2014 Bahrain Grand Prix was the third of 19 scheduled rounds of the 2014 Formula One season, the eleventh running of the event, as well as the 900th Formula One World Championship race. It was held on 6 April 2014 at the Bahrain International Circuit in Bahrain. Tyre supplier Pirelli brought two types of tyre to the race: two dry compounds; the drag reduction system had two activation zones for the race: one was on the straight between turns 10 and 11, the second was on the start/finish straight from the final to the first corners.

Going into the race, Mercedes driver Nico Rosberg led the Drivers' Championship with 43 points, ahead of teammate Lewis Hamilton in second, Fernando Alonso in third place. Jenson Button was fourth on 23 points, three ahead of his McLaren teammate Kevin Magnussen in fifth. Mercedes were leading the Constructors' Championship with 68 points, McLaren were in second on 43 points. Ferrari were third on 30 points, while Force India contended for fourth place. With the potential of a title challenge between the two Mercedes drivers, Hamilton felt their relationship would be unaffected by the race, noting that the two had a healthy working association. Rosberg said that he recognised that his relationship with Hamilton could change as the season progressed, noting that the two drivers had battled for a championship when they were competing in go-karts, he was confident. Hamilton aimed to secure his first victory at the circuit, while Rosberg stated that he enjoyed racing at the track and hoped to continue his recent momentum in the race.

Red Bull team principal Christian Horner felt the power advantage of both Mercedes cars would be greater because of the Bahrain International Circuit being a "power-dominated" track. He believed the country's hot climate would affect his team's chances, but said they would attempt to make progress during the race weekend. In January 2014, an alliance of Bahraini human rights organisations including the Bahrain Centre for Human Rights and the Bahrain Youth Society for Human Rights wrote to Jean Todt, the president of the sport's governing body, the Fédération Internationale de l'Automobile, requesting that the Bahrain Grand Prix be suspended until the FIA's Ethics Committee could investigate the impact the race has on human rights in Bahrain. According to the BCHR no response was received from the FIA. Reports from the race meeting indicated that thousands of people attended a rally held on the Friday before the race itself outside the Bahraini capital of Manama protesting against the Grand Prix and the government.

Clashes between protesters and police took place following the demonstration. In October 2013, it was revealed by former McLaren team principal Martin Whitmarsh that the race would occur between the early part of the evening and nightfall saying he had observed plans for the idea; this was confirmed by the race organisers one month as part of an effort to celebrate the tenth anniversary of the event's first running. Its floodlighting system was tested at the 2013 6 Hours of Bahrain. Following the success of the trial, it was confirmed on 5 April by the chairperson of the Bahrain International Circuit, Zayed Al Zayani, that the Bahrain Grand Prix would remain a night race for future seasons. Sunday is a work day in Bahrain so scheduling the race in the evening resulted in higher ticket sales. That, along with the investment in lighting, made it certain that all Grand Prix races in Bahrain would be evening events. Three drivers made their first appearances of the season in a Formula One car during the first practice session.

Felipe Nasr drove in place of Williams driver Valtteri Bottas, the Sauber of Esteban Gutiérrez was taken over by Giedo van der Garde, Robin Frijns utilised Kamui Kobayashi's Caterham. Three practice sessions—two on Frid

Jenaer Philharmonie

The Jenaer Philharmonie is a German symphony orchestra based in Jena, Germany. It was founded in 1934 with the intent to revive and continue the old traditions of the "Collegium musicum Jenense" and the academic concerts by the Friedrich Schiller University of Jena. In 1953 it became a symphonic orchestra and acquired its present-day status of philharmonic orchestra in 1969, it is the largest independent symphony orchestra in the central German state of Thuringia. In addition to the orchestra, the Philharmonic Choir, the Boys' Choir, the Jena Madrigal Choir are parts of the Jenaer Philharmonie; the current Intendant of the orchestra is Bruno Scharnberg. Ernst Schwaßmann was the orchestra's first Generalmusikdirektor, from 1934 to 1945. Andrey Boreyko, GMD from 1998 to 2003, now has the title of Ehrendirigent with the orchestra. Boreyko conducted the orchestra in commercial recordings for such labels as Teldec. In April 2012, the orchestra appointed the American conductor Marc Tardue as its next GMD, effective September 2012.

Tardue concluded his tenure with the orchestra in 2017. In May 2017, the orchestra announced the appointment of Simon Gaudenz as its next GMD, effective with the 2018-2019 season; the orchestra has made commercial recordings for such labels as Teldec and CPO, including music of Liszt and Wagner for the latter. Ernst Schwaßmann Carl Ferrand Albert Müller Gerhard Hergert Hans Heinrich Schmitz Günter Blumhagen Christian Ehwald Andreas Weiser Andrey Boreyko Nicholas Milton Marc Tardue Jenaer Philharmonie Homepage Homepage of the Jena Madrigal Choir Philharmonische Gesellschaft Jena e. V. Page on Jenaer Philharmonie Hanns Eisler Hochschule für Musik page on Christian Ehwald Victor Carr, Jr. Review of "From Russia with Love".